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Protein Supplements and Their Relation with Nutrition, Microbiota Composition and Health: Is More Protein Always Better for Sportspeople?

1
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
2
Valio Ltd, R&D, P.O. Box 30, 00039 Valio, Finland
3
Business School, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
4
School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040829
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
Sports nutrition products are developed and targeted mainly for athletes to improve their nutrient intake, performance, and muscle growth. The fastest growing consumer groups for these products are recreational sportspeople and lifestyle users. Although athletes may have elevated physiological protein requirements and they may benefit from dietary supplements, the evidence regarding the role of dietary protein and supplements in the nutrition of recreational sportspeople and sedentary populations is somewhat complex and contradictory. In high-protein diets, more undigested protein-derived constituents end up in the large intestine compared to moderate or low-protein diets, and hence, more bacterial amino acid metabolism takes place in the colon, having both positive and negative systemic and metabolic effects on the host. The aim of the present review is to summarize the impact of the high-protein products and diets on nutrition and health, in sportspeople and in sedentary consumers. We are opening the debate about the current protein intake recommendations, with an emphasis on evidence-based effects on intestinal microbiota and personalized guidelines regarding protein and amino acid supplementation in sportspeople and lifestyle consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-protein diets; amino acid; sports nutrition; gut microbiota; protein metabolism; protein fermentation; dietary supplements market high-protein diets; amino acid; sports nutrition; gut microbiota; protein metabolism; protein fermentation; dietary supplements market
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kårlund, A.; Gómez-Gallego, C.; Turpeinen, A.M.; Palo-oja, O.-M.; El-Nezami, H.; Kolehmainen, M. Protein Supplements and Their Relation with Nutrition, Microbiota Composition and Health: Is More Protein Always Better for Sportspeople? Nutrients 2019, 11, 829. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040829

AMA Style

Kårlund A, Gómez-Gallego C, Turpeinen AM, Palo-oja O-M, El-Nezami H, Kolehmainen M. Protein Supplements and Their Relation with Nutrition, Microbiota Composition and Health: Is More Protein Always Better for Sportspeople? Nutrients. 2019; 11(4):829. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040829

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kårlund, Anna, Carlos Gómez-Gallego, Anu M. Turpeinen, Outi-Maaria Palo-oja, Hani El-Nezami, and Marjukka Kolehmainen. 2019. "Protein Supplements and Their Relation with Nutrition, Microbiota Composition and Health: Is More Protein Always Better for Sportspeople?" Nutrients 11, no. 4: 829. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040829

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