Special Issue "Nutrition, Cognition and Brain Integrity"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 October 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Panteleimon Giannakopoulos
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1205 Genève, Switzerland
Interests: Alzheimer’s disease; biomarkers; brain activation; magnetic resonance imaging; neurosciences; psychiatry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lifetime multidomain interventions including nutritional programs appear to be cost-effective and safe strategies to mitigate cognitive decline in older adults. Antioxidant-rich foods (nuts, grapes, cherries) as well as unsaturated fatty acid, polyphenol and vitamin supplementation are thought to improve both biomarker status and cognitive-related outcomes in MCI and AD. Along the same line, the roles of adiposity and physical inactivity in the pathophysiology of the brain in middle life as well as the molecular mechanisms of senescence have attracted a growing interest in the scientific community. New data indicate the complexity and necessity of endogenous/dietary antioxidants for the control of neuron-glia signalling. Recent studies proposed that omega-3 and -6 fatty acids act as mediators for energy metabolism, neural plasticity and memory during aging. These lines of evidence open a highly promising field for future research linking nutrition and clinical neurosciences.

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Nutrition, Cognition and Brain Integrity”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing the relevant scientific literature, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Prof. Dr. Panteleimon Giannakopoulos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • brain activation
  • cell protection
  • antioxidant
  • neuronal plasticity
  • memory
  • antioxidants
  • faty acids
  • obesity

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Centella asiatica L. Phytosome Improves Cognitive Performance by Promoting Bdnf Expression in Rat Prefrontal Cortex
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020355 - 29 Jan 2020
Abstract
A wide range of people in the world use natural remedies as primary approaches against illnesses. Accordingly, understanding the mechanisms of action of phytochemicals has become of great interest. In this context, Centella asiatica L. is extensively used, not only as anti-inflammatory or [...] Read more.
A wide range of people in the world use natural remedies as primary approaches against illnesses. Accordingly, understanding the mechanisms of action of phytochemicals has become of great interest. In this context, Centella asiatica L. is extensively used, not only as anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agent but also as brain tonic. On this basis, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the chronic administration of C. asiatica L. to adult male rats was able to improve the expression of Bdnf, one of the main mediators of brain plasticity. Moreover, we assessed whether the treatment could affect the cognitive performance in the novel object recognition (NOR) test. We confirmed the presence of the main compounds in the plasma. Furthermore, C. asiatica L. administration induced an increase of Bdnf in the prefrontal cortex, and the administration of the higher dose of the extract was able to improve cognitive performance. Finally, the increase in the preference index in the NOR test was paralleled by a further increase in Bdnf expression. Overall, we highlight the ability of C. asiatica L. to affect brain functions by increasing Bdnf expression and by enhancing the cognitive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Cognition and Brain Integrity)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Impact of Dietary Pattern and Walking on Postprandial Attention, Mood, and Satiety in Older Adults: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2294; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102294 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
Research suggests that attention, mood, and satiety can be influenced by meal composition and postprandial activity. The present study examined whether this hypothesis applies to persons with a risk phenotype for the development of cardiovascular/neurodegenerative diseases. A randomized crossover trial was conducted in [...] Read more.
Research suggests that attention, mood, and satiety can be influenced by meal composition and postprandial activity. The present study examined whether this hypothesis applies to persons with a risk phenotype for the development of cardiovascular/neurodegenerative diseases. A randomized crossover trial was conducted in subjects with metabolic syndrome traits (n = 26, 8 female, age 70 ± 5, BMI 30.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2). Each subject participated in four interventions: iso-energetic (4300 kJ) meals (Western diet high-fat, WD, and Mediterranean-type diet, MD) followed by either 30 min of moderate walking (4.6 ± 0.1 km/h) or rest. Attention, mood, satiety and plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at fasting and 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 h postprandially. Data were analyzed by linear mixed models. In all interventions, attention increased continuously in the postprandial period (time effect, P < 0.001). After WD, attention was lower after walking compared to resting (meal × activity effect, P < 0.05). Postprandial mood was generally “good” with no intervention effects. Postprandial satiety increased reaching maximum at 1.5 h after meal (time effect, P < 0.001) and was higher after MD compared to WD (meal effect, P < 0.001). In all interventions, plasma cortisol decreased similar to its diurnal variation (time effect, P < 0.001). In our subjects, meal composition had no relevant impact on attention and mood. After typical WD, resting instead of walking seems to have a more beneficial effect on postprandial attention. MD leads to a strong and long-lasting feeling of satiety, possibly resulting in reduced energy intake in the further course of the day and, thus, long-term effect on weight control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Cognition and Brain Integrity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus Extract on Neurodegeneration Improvement: Ameliorating Role in Cognitive Disorder Caused by High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061319 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study was performed to estimate the possibility of using an ethyl acetate fraction from Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus (EFAD) on metabolic syndrome that is induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). It was demonstrated that EFAD suppresses lipid accumulation and improves insulin resistance [...] Read more.
This study was performed to estimate the possibility of using an ethyl acetate fraction from Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus (EFAD) on metabolic syndrome that is induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). It was demonstrated that EFAD suppresses lipid accumulation and improves insulin resistance (IR) caused by Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in in-vitro experiments using the 3T3-L1 cell. In in-vivo tests, C57BL/6 mice were fed EFAD at 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight (BW) for four weeks after the mice were fed HFD for 15 weeks to induce obesity. EFAD significantly suppressed the elevation of BW and improved impaired glucose tolerance in obese mice. Additionally, this study showed that EFAD has an ameliorating effect on obesity-induced cognitive disorder with behavioral tests. The effect of EFAD on peripheral-IR improvement was confirmed by serum analysis and western blotting in peripheral tissues. Additionally, EFAD showed an ameliorating effect on HFD-induced oxidative stress, impaired cholinergic system and mitochondrial dysfunction, which are interrelated symptoms of neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer’s disease and central nervous system (CNS)-IR in brain tissue. Furthermore, we confirmed that EFAD improves CNS-IR by confirming the IR-related factors in brain tissue. Consequently, this study suggests the possibility of using EFAD for the prevention of neurodegeneration by improving metabolic syndrome that is caused by HFD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Cognition and Brain Integrity)
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Open AccessArticle
Hesperidin Alleviates Methotrexate-Induced Memory Deficits via Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040936 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is widely used in cancer treatment. However, treatment with MTX reduces hippocampal neurogenesis, leading to memory deficits. Hesperidin (Hsd) is a flavonoid glycoside that promotes anti-inflammation, acts as an antioxidant, and has neuroprotective properties. Consumption of Hsd [...] Read more.
Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is widely used in cancer treatment. However, treatment with MTX reduces hippocampal neurogenesis, leading to memory deficits. Hesperidin (Hsd) is a flavonoid glycoside that promotes anti-inflammation, acts as an antioxidant, and has neuroprotective properties. Consumption of Hsd enhances learning and memory. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Hsd against MTX-induced impairments of memory and neurogenesis; male Sprague Dawley rats were administered with a single dose of MTX (75 mg/kg) by intravenous (i.v.) injection on days 8 and 15 or Hsd (100 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 21 days. Memory was tested using novel object location (NOL) and novel object recognition (NOR) tasks. Immunofluorescence staining of Ki-67, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and doublecortin (DCX) was performed to assess cell proliferation, survival, and immature neurons. The data showed that Hsd and MTX did not disable locomotor ability. The MTX animals exhibited memory deficits in both memory tests. There were significant decreases in the numbers of cell proliferation, survival, and immature neurons in the MTX animals. However, co-administration with MTX and Hsd alleviated memory loss and neurogenesis decline. These results revealed that Hsd could protect against MTX side effects in the animals in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Cognition and Brain Integrity)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Effect of High-Fat Diets on Oxidative Stress, Cellular Inflammatory Response and Cognitive Function
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112579 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Cognitive dysfunction is linked to chronic low-grade inflammatory stress that contributes to cell-mediated immunity in creating an oxidative environment. Food is a vitally important energy source; it affects brain function and provides direct energy. Several studies have indicated that high-fat consumption causes overproduction [...] Read more.
Cognitive dysfunction is linked to chronic low-grade inflammatory stress that contributes to cell-mediated immunity in creating an oxidative environment. Food is a vitally important energy source; it affects brain function and provides direct energy. Several studies have indicated that high-fat consumption causes overproduction of circulating free fatty acids and systemic inflammation. Immune cells, free fatty acids, and circulating cytokines reach the hypothalamus and initiate local inflammation through processes such as microglial proliferation. Therefore, the role of high-fat diet (HFD) in promoting oxidative stress and neurodegeneration is worthy of further discussion. Of particular interest in this article, we highlight the associations and molecular mechanisms of HFD in the modulation of inflammation and cognitive deficits. Taken together, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in cognitive impairment following HFD consumption would provide a useful approach for the prevention of cognitive dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Cognition and Brain Integrity)
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Open AccessReview
Natural Antioxidant Anthocyanins—A Hidden Therapeutic Candidate in Metabolic Disorders with Major Focus in Neurodegeneration
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061195 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
All over the world, metabolic syndrome constitutes severe health problems. Multiple factors have been reported in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic disorders result in reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative stress, playing a vital role in the development and pathogenesis of major [...] Read more.
All over the world, metabolic syndrome constitutes severe health problems. Multiple factors have been reported in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic disorders result in reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative stress, playing a vital role in the development and pathogenesis of major health issues, including neurological disorders Alzheimer’s disease (AD) Parkinson’s disease (PD). Considerable increasing evidence indicates the substantial contribution of ROS-induced oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. An imbalanced metabolism results in a defective antioxidant defense system, free radicals causing inflammation, cellular apoptosis, and tissue damage. Due to the annual increase in financial and social burdens, in addition to the adverse effects associated with available synthetic agents, treatment diversion from synthetic to natural approaches has occurred. Antioxidants are now being considered as convincing therapeutic agents against various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, medicinal herbs and fruits currently receive substantially more attention as commercial sources of antioxidants. In this review, we argue that ROS-targeted therapeutic interventions with naturally occurring antioxidant flavonoid, anthocyanin, and anthocyanin-loaded nanoparticles might be the ultimate treatment against devastating illnesses. Furthermore, we elucidate the hidden potential of the neuroprotective role of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-loaded nanoparticles in AD and PD neuropathies, which lack sufficient attention compared with other polyphenols, despite their strong antioxidant potential. Moreover, we address the need for future research studies of native anthocyanins and nano-based-anthocyanins, which will be helpful in developing anthocyanin treatments as therapeutic mitochondrial antioxidant drug-like regimens to delay or prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD and PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Cognition and Brain Integrity)
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