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Natural Antioxidant Anthocyanins—A Hidden Therapeutic Candidate in Metabolic Disorders with Major Focus in Neurodegeneration

1
Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21), College of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
2
Department of Chemistry, Sarhad University of Science Information Technology (SUIT), Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 25000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061195
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Cognition and Brain Integrity)
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Abstract

All over the world, metabolic syndrome constitutes severe health problems. Multiple factors have been reported in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic disorders result in reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative stress, playing a vital role in the development and pathogenesis of major health issues, including neurological disorders Alzheimer’s disease (AD) Parkinson’s disease (PD). Considerable increasing evidence indicates the substantial contribution of ROS-induced oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. An imbalanced metabolism results in a defective antioxidant defense system, free radicals causing inflammation, cellular apoptosis, and tissue damage. Due to the annual increase in financial and social burdens, in addition to the adverse effects associated with available synthetic agents, treatment diversion from synthetic to natural approaches has occurred. Antioxidants are now being considered as convincing therapeutic agents against various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, medicinal herbs and fruits currently receive substantially more attention as commercial sources of antioxidants. In this review, we argue that ROS-targeted therapeutic interventions with naturally occurring antioxidant flavonoid, anthocyanin, and anthocyanin-loaded nanoparticles might be the ultimate treatment against devastating illnesses. Furthermore, we elucidate the hidden potential of the neuroprotective role of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-loaded nanoparticles in AD and PD neuropathies, which lack sufficient attention compared with other polyphenols, despite their strong antioxidant potential. Moreover, we address the need for future research studies of native anthocyanins and nano-based-anthocyanins, which will be helpful in developing anthocyanin treatments as therapeutic mitochondrial antioxidant drug-like regimens to delay or prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD and PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; metabolic syndrome; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; anthocyanins; neuroprotection oxidative stress; metabolic syndrome; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; anthocyanins; neuroprotection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ullah, R.; Khan, M.; Shah, S.A.; Saeed, K.; Kim, M.O. Natural Antioxidant Anthocyanins—A Hidden Therapeutic Candidate in Metabolic Disorders with Major Focus in Neurodegeneration. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1195.

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