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Special Issue "Nutrition and Age-Related Disorders"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Krasimira Aleksandrova

German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam Rehbrücke, Senior Scientist Group Nutrition, immunity and metabolism, Department of Epidemiology, Nuthetal, Germany
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Interests: nutrition; age-related diseases; epidemiology; disease prevention
Guest Editor
Dr. Romina Di Giuseppe

Institute of Epidemiology, University Kiel, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The projected rise in the global population, of people aged 60 years or older, in the upcoming decades, poses a major burden to public health, societies, and economies at a global scale, due to an expected rise in age-related chronic diseases. To face this upcoming challenge, adequate preventive actions are urgently required. Nutrition may hold the key of promoting healthy aging, as well as of preventing and managing a wide array of age-related diseases, including cardio-vascular disease, cancer, cognitive decline, and sarcopenia. However, a better understanding of how nutrition influences the underlying molecular processes associated with age-related health decline, such as compromised immunity, chronic inflammatory conditions, and oxidative-stress, is required. Novel approaches for nutritional assessment including omics-based nutritional biomarkers of ageing may provide the missing link towards more targeted nutritional approaches for healthy ageing. Indeed, personalised nutrition targeted at major hallmarks of ageing could prove more effective compared to broadly-stated nutritional recommendations. This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Nutrition and Age-Related Diseases”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts describing original research or reviewing the scientific literature on this topic.

Dr. Krasimira Aleksandrova
Dr. Romina di Giuseppe
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • age-related diseases
  • hallmarks of ageing
  • nutritional biomarkers of ageing
  • personalized nutrition
  • disease prevention

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Inflammatory Index and Disability-Free Survival in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121896
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: Previous studies have reported that a higher dietary inflammatory index (DII®) score is related to a higher risk of mortality and conditions that result in functional disability, such as cardiovascular disease, dementia, and fractures. Although these findings suggest that higher [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies have reported that a higher dietary inflammatory index (DII®) score is related to a higher risk of mortality and conditions that result in functional disability, such as cardiovascular disease, dementia, and fractures. Although these findings suggest that higher DII scores would affect disability-free survival, this has never been investigated directly. The present study investigated the association between the DII score and disability-free survival. Methods: We analyzed follow-up data covering a 12-year period for 793 older adults (≥70 years) participating in a Japanese community-based cohort study. DII scores were computed on the basis of dietary intake and assessed using the Brief Self-Administered Diet History Questionnaire. Data on incident functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-Term Care Insurance database. We applied the Cox model for estimating the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of the composite outcome (incident functional disability or death) according to DII score tertiles (T1–T3). Results: The proportion of men was 47.3%; mean (SD) age was 75.2 (4.5) years. The 12-year incidence of the composite outcome was 65.5%. A higher DII score was related to a higher risk for the composite outcome: HRs (95% confidence interval) were 1.05 (0.84, 1.32) for T2 and 1.26 (1.01, 1.57) for T3 (p-trend = 0.040) compared to the most anti-inflammatory T1 reference (HR = 1.00). Conclusions: These results suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet might be a modifiable factor affecting disability-free survival in the older population. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm this relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Age-Related Disorders)
Open AccessArticle
Selenium Status Is Not Associated with Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study in 154 Older Australian Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1847; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121847
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
Selenium was suggested to play a role in modulating cognitive performance and dementia risk. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between selenium status and cognitive performance, as well as inflammatory and neurotrophic markers in healthy older adults. This cross-sectional study included [...] Read more.
Selenium was suggested to play a role in modulating cognitive performance and dementia risk. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between selenium status and cognitive performance, as well as inflammatory and neurotrophic markers in healthy older adults. This cross-sectional study included 154 older adults (≥60 years) from Victoria, Australia. Participants were assessed for cognitive performance (Cogstate battery), dietary selenium intake (two 24-h food recalls), plasma selenium concentration, inflammatory markers (interleukin (IL)-6, -8, -10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and adiponectin) and neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor 1). Dietary selenium intake was adequate for 85% of all participants. The prevalence of selenium deficiency was low; only 8.4% did not have the minimum concentration in plasma required for optimization of iodothyronine 5′ deiodinases activity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that plasma selenium was not associated with cognitive performance, inflammatory markers nor neurotrophic factors, independent of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), habitual physical activity, APOE status, education, and history of cardiovascular disease. The lack of association might be due to the optimization of selenoproteins synthesis as a result of adequate selenium intake. Future prospective studies are recommended to explore potential associations of selenium status with age-associated cognitive decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Chlorogenic Acids on Cognitive Function: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101337
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) have been attracting interest of late, owing to their health benefits. Here, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate whether CGAs improved cognitive function in humans. (2) Methods: Thirty-eight healthy participants were assigned to either the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) have been attracting interest of late, owing to their health benefits. Here, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate whether CGAs improved cognitive function in humans. (2) Methods: Thirty-eight healthy participants were assigned to either the CGA group, which was given CGA-added beverage daily for 16 weeks, or the placebo group. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Japanese version of the CNS Vital Signs (Cognitrax). (3) Results: The CGA group showed significant increase in the Cognitrax domain scores for motor speed, psychomotor speed, and executive function compared with the placebo group, as well as an improvement in the shifting attention test scores. In blood analysis, the CGA group showed increased levels of apolipoprotein A1 and transthyretin, both of which are putative biomarkers for early-stage cognitive decline. (4) Conclusions: These results suggest that CGAs may improve some cognitive functions, which would help in the efficient performance of complex tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Cognitive Functioning of Geriatric Patients: Is Hypovitaminosis D the Next Marker of Cognitive Dysfunction and Dementia?
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081104
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
The study objective is to investigate whether vitamin D is associated with the cognitive function of geriatric patients. This cross-sectional study involved 357 patients hospitalized in the geriatric ward who complained of memory problems (mean age: 82.3 years). The level of cognitive function [...] Read more.
The study objective is to investigate whether vitamin D is associated with the cognitive function of geriatric patients. This cross-sectional study involved 357 patients hospitalized in the geriatric ward who complained of memory problems (mean age: 82.3 years). The level of cognitive function was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the clinical diagnosis of dementia was established according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. The serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The iterative Bayesian model averaging (BMA) procedure was applied to linear and logistic regression models in order to identify the best set of factors describing cognitive dysfunction and dementia, respectively. According to BMA, there is strong evidence that higher vitamin D levels, higher body mass index (BMI), and higher mobility function measured with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test are independently associated with better cognitive performance and lower risk of dementia. Additionally, there is strong evidence that fewer years of education and lower vitamin B12 plasma levels independently describe worse cognitive performance. However, vitamin B12 levels higher than 800 pg/mL is negatively associated with the MMSE performance. Hypovitaminosis D in geriatric patients is an underrated marker of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Age-Related Disorders)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Dietary Factors Associated with Frailty in Old Adults: A Review of Nutritional Interventions to Prevent Frailty Development
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010102
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 30 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Frailty syndrome is a medical condition that is characterised by a functional decline, usually from 65 years old on, and creates the need for assistance to perform daily living activities. As the population ages, the need for specialised geriatric care will increase immensely, [...] Read more.
Frailty syndrome is a medical condition that is characterised by a functional decline, usually from 65 years old on, and creates the need for assistance to perform daily living activities. As the population ages, the need for specialised geriatric care will increase immensely, and consequently, the need for specialised services for the care of these people will increase accordingly. From a nutritional point of view, to control or balance the nutritional status of residents will be essential in order to prevent sarcopenia and, consequently, frailty development. In this line, previous studies have highlighted the association among low energy intake, inadequate intake of protein and vitamin D, and an increased risk of frailty development. However, there is a lack of intervention studies on frail patients, especially in the realm of quality clinical trials. The few studies performed to date seem to indicate that there is a protective role of protein supplementation against frailty syndrome. In this regard, it is tempting to suggest daily 30 g protein supplements to prevent frailty. However, it is well established that excess protein can also be harmful; therefore, specific individual characteristics should be considered before prescribing these supplements. On the other hand, the relevance of other nutritional interventions, such as vitamin D, omega-3, and medium-chain triglycerides, is much more scarce in the literature. Therefore, we encourage the development of new clinical trials to carry out effective therapies to prevent frailty development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Age-Related Disorders)
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