Editorial Board Members’ Collection Series: Interventions Addressing Risk Factors Contributing to Cardiometabolic Diseases among the Elderly

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Geriatric Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 6778

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
2. Department of Sustainable Food Systems and Development, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
Interests: food & nutrition; food insecurity

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Guest Editor
Department of Geriatrics, Healthy Ageing Research Centre, Medical University of Lodz, 92-115 Lodz, Poland
Interests: older people; nutrition; nutritional status; functional decline; muscle function; quality of life
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Population ageing has considerable societal and economic implications and the balance between the challenges and opportunities associated with population ageing largely depends on whether people age in good or poor health. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of global mortality and are also responsible for the overwhelming burden of disease in the elderly.

Among NCDs, cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) are increasing in prevalence and generally affect older persons in developing countries more than those living in the developed world. CMDs are a group of often preventable conditions that include cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. They share the same modifiable lifestyle risk factors (unhealthy diet, tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, physical inactivity) which can lead to increased metabolic risk factors (obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidaemia).

Despite the importance of prevention and management of CMDs to improve elderly health, current approaches to their control seem to be less successful in developing countries. The aim of this Special Edition is to identify successful interventions/

strategies that have been implemented to address CMD risk factors among the elderly. Strategies, technologies or tools that can assist in positively impact on modifiable lifestyle behaviors are of special interest.   

We encourage all researchers working in relevant fields to submit original research papers, reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses to this Special Edition with the aim of broadening human knowledge on this challenge. 

Dr. Wilna Oldewage-Theron
Dr. Tomasz Kostka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cardiometabolic
  • hypertension
  • obesity
  • insulin resistance
  • hyperglycaemia
  • dyslipidaemia
  • diet
  • physical activity
  • intervention
  • developing country
  • smoking
  • alcohol
  • cardiovascular
  • diabetes

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 970 KiB  
Article
Cardiometabolic Disorders Are Important Correlates of Vulnerability in Hospitalized Older Adults
by Ganna Kravchenko, Renata Korycka-Bloch, Serena S. Stephenson, Tomasz Kostka and Bartłomiej K. Sołtysik
Nutrients 2023, 15(17), 3716; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15173716 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
With an increasingly aging population worldwide, the concept of multimorbidity has attracted growing interest over recent years, especially in terms of frailty, which leads to progressive multisystem decline and increased adverse clinical outcomes. The relative contribution of multiple disorders to overall frailty index [...] Read more.
With an increasingly aging population worldwide, the concept of multimorbidity has attracted growing interest over recent years, especially in terms of frailty, which leads to progressive multisystem decline and increased adverse clinical outcomes. The relative contribution of multiple disorders to overall frailty index in older populations has not been established so far. This study aimed to assess the association between the vulnerable elders survey-13 (VES-13) score, which is acknowledged to be one of the most widely used measures of frailty, and the most common accompanying diseases amongst hospitalized adults aged 60 years old and more. A total of 2860 participants with an average age of 83 years were included in this study. Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age and nutritional status was used to assess the independent impact of every particular disease on vulnerability. Diabetes mellitus type 2, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis, fractures, eyes disorders, depression, dementia, pressure ulcers, and urinary incontinence were associated with higher scores of VES-13. Hospital admission of older subjects with those conditions should primarily draw attention to the risk of functional decline, especially while qualifying older patients for further treatment in surgery and oncology. At the same time, lipid disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, higher body mass index, and albumins level were related to a lower risk of being vulnerable, which may be attributed to a younger age and better nutritional status of those patients. Full article
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15 pages, 4126 KiB  
Article
Genetic Association and Potential Mediators between Sarcopenia and Coronary Heart Disease: A Bidirectional Two-Sample, Two-Step Mendelian Randomization Study
by Junyi He, Mingkai Huang, Nana Li, Lingfeng Zha and Jing Yuan
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3013; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133013 - 1 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3466
Abstract
Objective: To elucidate the bidirectional correlation of sarcopenia with coronary heart disease (CHD), as well as to investigate the mediating role of cardiometabolic factors and inflammatory biomarkers, a bidirectional two-sample, two-step Mendelian randomization (MR) study was conducted. Methods: Summary statistics were obtained from [...] Read more.
Objective: To elucidate the bidirectional correlation of sarcopenia with coronary heart disease (CHD), as well as to investigate the mediating role of cardiometabolic factors and inflammatory biomarkers, a bidirectional two-sample, two-step Mendelian randomization (MR) study was conducted. Methods: Summary statistics were obtained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In our bidirectional two-sample MR, genetic variants associated with sarcopenia-related traits and CHD were instrumented for the estimation of bidirectional correlations. Besides, genetic variants associated with thirteen cardiometabolic factors and six inflammatory biomarkers were selected for further mediation analyses. To confirm the consistency of the results, several sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results: Genetically predicted higher appendicular lean mass (OR = 0.835, 95% CI: 0.790–0.882), left hand grip strength (OR = 0.703, 95% CI: 0.569–0.869), right hand grip strength (OR = 0.685, 95% CI: 0.555–0.844), and walking pace (OR = 0.321, 95% CI: 0.191–0.539) reduced CHD risk, while genetic predisposition to CHD did not affect any of the sarcopenia-related traits. Seven mediators were identified for the effects of appendicular lean mass on CHD, including waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin. The mediation proportion ranged from 10.23% for triglycerides to 35.08% for hip circumference. Hip circumference was found to mediate the relationships between both left (mediation proportion: 24.61%) and right-hand grip strength (24.14%) and CHD, and the link between walking pace and CHD was partially mediated by waist-to-hip ratio (31.15%) and body mass index (26.66%). Conclusion: Our results showed that higher appendicular lean mass, hand grip strength, and walking pace reduced CHD risk, but the causal relationship was not bidirectional. Several mediators were found to mediate the causal pathways between sarcopenia-related traits and CHD, and intervention of these factors may be helpful in terms of CHD prevention in sarcopenia patients. Full article
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11 pages, 873 KiB  
Article
Development of a Structural Equation Model to Examine the Relationships between Genetic Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors
by Joseph Musonda Chalwe, Christa Grobler and Wilna Oldewage-Theron
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112470 - 25 May 2023
Viewed by 1618
Abstract
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to discover genetic polymorphisms that affect cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Structural equation modelling (SEM) has been identified as a robust multivariate analysis tool. However, there is a paucity of research that has conducted SEM in African populations. [...] Read more.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to discover genetic polymorphisms that affect cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Structural equation modelling (SEM) has been identified as a robust multivariate analysis tool. However, there is a paucity of research that has conducted SEM in African populations. The purpose of this study was to create a model that may be used to examine the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and their respective cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors. The procedure involved three steps. Firstly, the creation of latent variables and the hypothesis model. Next, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the relationships between the latent variables, SNPs, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome, with their respective indicators. Then finally, model fitting using JASP statistical software v.0.16.4.0. The indicators for the SNPs and dyslipidemia all indicated significant factor loadings, −0.96 to 0.91 (p = <0.001) and 0.92 to 0.96 (p ≤ 0.001), respectively. The indicators for metabolic syndrome also had significant coefficients of 0.20 (p = 0.673), 0.36 (p = 0.645) and 0.15 (p = 0.576), but they were not statistically significant. There were no significant relationships observed between the SNPs, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. The SEM produced an acceptable model according to the fit indices. Full article
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