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Smartfeeding: A Dynamic Strategy to Increase Nutritional Efficiency in Critically Ill Patients—Positioning Document of the Metabolism and Nutrition Working Group and the Early Mobilization Working Group of the Catalan Society of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine (SOCMiC)

Nutrients 2024, 16(8), 1157;

Adequate medical nutrition therapy for critically ill patients has an impact on their prognoses. However, it requires an individualized approach that takes into account the activity (phases of metabolic stress) and particularity of these patients. We propose a comprehensive strategy considering the patients’ nutritional status and the set of modifiable circumstances in these patients, in order to optimize/support nutritional efficiency: (1) A detailed anamnesis and an adequate initial nutritional assessment must be performed in order to implement medical nutrition therapy that is in line with the needs and characteristics of each patient. Furthermore, risks associated with refeeding syndrome, nutritrauma or gastrointestinal dysfunction must be considered and prevented. (2) A safe transition between nutrition therapy routes and between health care units will greatly contribute to recovery. The main objective is to preserve lean mass in critically ill patients, considering metabolic factors, adequate protein intake and muscle stimulation. (3) Continuous monitoring is required for the successful implementation of any health strategy. We lack precise tools for calculating nutritional efficiency in critically ill patients, therefore thorough monitoring of the process is essential. (4) The medical nutrition approach in critically ill patients is multidisciplinary and requires the participation of the entire team involved. A comprehensive strategy such as this can make a significant difference in the functional recovery of critically ill patients, but leaders must be identified to promote training, evaluation, analysis and feedback as essential components of its implementation, and to coordinate this process with the recognition of hospital management.
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Rickets Types and Treatment with Vitamin D and Analogues

Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 416;

The definition of “Vitamin D” encompasses a group of fat-soluble steroid compounds of different origins with similar chemical structures and the same biological effects. Vitamin D deficiency and/or a defect in the process of its synthesis or transport predispose individuals to several types of rickets. In addition to cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, and vitamins D3 and D2, there are also active metabolites for the treatment of this condition which are commercially available. Calcitriol and aphacalcidiol are active metabolites that do not require the renal activation step, which is required with calcifediol, or hepatic activation. The purpose of this review is to summarize current approaches to the treatment of rickets for generalist physicians, focusing on the best vitamin D form to be used in each type, or, in the case of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), on both conventional and innovative monoclonal antibody treatments.
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Methods in Nutrition & Gut Microbiome Research: An American Society for Nutrition Satellite Session [13 October 2022]

Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2451;

The microbial cells colonizing the human body form an ecosystem that is integral to the regulation and maintenance of human health. Elucidation of specific associations between the human microbiome and health outcomes is facilitating the development of microbiome-targeted recommendations and treatments (e.g., fecal microbiota transplant; pre-, pro-, and post-biotics) to help prevent and treat disease. However, the potential of such recommendations and treatments to improve human health has yet to be fully realized. Technological advances have led to the development and proliferation of a wide range of tools and methods to collect, store, sequence, and analyze microbiome samples. However, differences in methodology at each step in these analytic processes can lead to variability in results due to the unique biases and limitations of each component. This technical variability hampers the detection and validation of associations with small to medium effect sizes. Therefore, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) Nutritional Microbiology Group Engaging Members (GEM), sponsored by the Institute for the Advancement of Food and Nutrition Sciences (IAFNS), hosted a satellite session on methods in nutrition and gut microbiome research to review currently available methods for microbiome research, best practices, as well as tools and standards to aid in comparability of methods and results. This manuscript summarizes the topics and research discussed at the session. Consideration of the guidelines and principles reviewed in this session will increase the accuracy, precision, and comparability of microbiome research and ultimately the understanding of the associations between the human microbiome and health.
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Report on Second International Conference on Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy Held in Kayseri, Turkey, 8–11 November 2017

Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 8;

Scientific experts from eight countries gathered[...]
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Iron for Africa—Report of an Expert Workshop

Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 576;

Scientific experts from nine countries gathered to share their views and experience around iron interventions in Africa. Inappropriate eating habits, infections and parasitism are responsible for significant prevalence of iron deficiency, but reliable and country-comparable prevalence estimates are lacking: improvements in biomarkers and cut-offs values adapted to context of use are needed. Benefits of iron interventions on growth and development are indisputable and outweigh risks, which exist in populations with a high infectious burden. Indeed, pathogen growth may increase with enhanced available iron, calling for caution and preventive measures where malaria or other infections are prevalent. Most African countries programmatically fortify flour and supplement pregnant women, while iron deficiency in young children is rather addressed at individual level. Coverage and efficacy could improve through increased access for target populations, raised awareness and lower cost. More bioavailable iron forms, helping to decrease iron dose, or prebiotics, which both may lower risk of infections are attractive opportunities for Africa. Fortifying specific food products could be a relevant route, adapted to local context and needs of population groups while providing education and training. More globally, partnerships involving various stakeholders are encouraged, that could tackle all aspects of the issue.
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Nutrition Society of New Zealand Annual Conference Held in Christchurch, New Zealand, 8–9 December 2016

Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 348;

The annual conference and scientific meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand took place in Christchurch, New Zealand from 8–9 December 2016.[...]
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Nutrition Society of New Zealand Annual Conference Held in Wellington, New Zealand, 1–4 December 2015

Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 239;

The annual conference and scientific meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand took place in Wellington, New Zealand from 1–4 December 2015. Every two years, a joint scientific meeting with the Nutrition Society of Australia is held, alternating between Australia and New Zealand.[...]
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“Cocoa and Chocolate: Science and Gastronomy”—The Second Annual Workshop of the Research Institute on Nutrition and Food Security (INSA): 9 November 2016

Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 156;

The Research Institute on Nutrition and Food Security at the University of Barcelona (INSA‐UB) was founded in 2005 by twenty‐two research groups from the Faculties of Pharmacy and Food Science; Biology; Chemistry; and Geography and History, as well as other UB‐affiliated centers and hospitals [...]
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Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop

Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10491-10500;

A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations.
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Proceedings of the 2015 Meeting of the Australasian Section of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (AAOCS)

Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9999-10019;

The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (AAOCS) held their 9th biennial meeting in Geelong, Australia from 9 to 11 September 2015.[...]
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Second International Congress on Chocolate and Cocoa in Medicine Held in Barcelona, Spain, 25–26th September 2015

Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9785-9803;

Cocoa powder is a product derived from the beans of the Theobroma cacao tree, which is considered a good source of fiber (26%–40%), proteins (15%–20%), carbohydrates (about 15%) and lipids (10%–24%; generally, 10%–12%).[...]
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Selected Nutrients and Their Implications for Health and Disease across the Lifespan: A Roadmap

Nutrients 2014, 6(12), 6076-6094;

Worldwide approximately two billion people have a diet insufficient in micronutrients. Even in the developed world, an increasing number of people consume nutrient-poor food on a regular basis. Recent surveys in Western countries consistently indicate inadequate intake of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, compared to recommendations. The International Osteoporosis Foundation’s (IOF) latest figures show that globally about 88% of the population does not have an optimal vitamin D status. The Lancet’s “Global Burden of Disease Study 2010” demonstrates a continued growth in life expectancy for populations around the world; however, the last decade of life is often disabled by the burden of partly preventable health issues. Compelling evidence suggests that improving nutrition protects health, prevents disability, boosts economic productivity and saves lives. Investments to improve nutrition make a positive contribution to long-term national and global health, economic productivity and stability, and societal resilience.
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Nutrition Society of New Zealand Annual Conference Held in Queenstown, New Zealand, 28–29th August 2014

Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4731-4749;

The annual conference and scientific meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand took place in Queenstown, New Zealand from 28th–29th August, 2014. The meeting was part of Queenstown Research Week, established in 1991, which includes the Queenstown Molecular Biology Meeting, the New Zealand Medical Sciences Congress, and the Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists New Zealand Scientific Meeting. Various societies take part in the different meetings; this was the first year that the Nutrition Society of New Zealand was included. The theme of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand in 2014 was "Balancing Views". The plenary session "Weighing up the Evidence: Nutrition Controversies" was provided to address ongoing debate in New Zealand about the role of saturated fat in chronic disease, particularly cardiovascular disease. [...]
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Report on the Fifth International Conference on Natural Products for Health and Beauty (NATPRO 5) Held in Thailand, 6–8th May, 2014

Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4115-4164;

The 5th International Conference on Natural Products for Health and Beauty (NATPRO 5) was held at the Moevenpick Resort and Spa Karon Beach, Phuket, Thailand on 6–8 May 2014. NATPRO was established in 2005 by Professor Maitree Suttajit, Mahasarakham University with the aim of building research networking on natural products. NATPRO 2, 3 and 4 were subsequently organized by Naresuan University, Rangsit University and Chiang Mai University in 2008, 2011 and 2012, respectively. [...]
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Meeting Report from “Frontiers in Nutritional Science: Nutritional Metabolomics”

Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3451-3459;

The potential for transforming nutritional and health research through the discovery and application of non-invasive markers of dietary intake and metabolic status is profound. The science of metabolomics for the fingerprinting of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from expired human breath holds great promise in this regard. Coupled with tools utilising sensor technology, breath volatile signatures allow a new horizon of research in which indicators of metabolic risk and indicators of dietary intake could be collected at a population level with unprecedented simplicity and low cost. Metabolomics (measuring metabolites from physiological process) provides a “window into the body”, which could transform how we measure health, how we identify and monitor people most at risk of disease and the way we monitor food intake. [...]
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“Vitamin D and Human Health: from the Gamete to the Grave”: Report on a meeting held at Queen Mary University of London, 23rd–25th April 2014

Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2759-2919;

The inaugural Vitamin D and Human Health conference was held on the London Whitechapel campus of Queen Mary University’s Barts and The London Medical School, from the 23rd to 25th of April, 2014. This three-day meeting set out to achieve two main aims: to create a forum for researchers to meet and forge new collaborations, and to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the latest findings from clinical research in the field of vitamin D. Over 300 clinical researchers, students and commercial representatives attended. Thirty international experts in the field of clinical vitamin D research presented talks organised into a programme spanning the human life course. Commencing with a session of talks providing overviews of randomised trials of supplementation and global vitamin D status, the meeting proceeded with a session on pre-birth related vitamin D research—evolution, genetics & fertility—which led into several talks in the area of child health. Sessions on respiratory health, immune function, cancer biology, and neurodegenerative diseases preceded an overview of research in the area of ageing-related health outcomes, including musculoskeletal health and metabolic diseases. Finally sessions on the economy of vitamin D and public health, along with future directions for research were held. Several themes emerged during the course of the meeting. The anticipation of results from very large (n > 5000) randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation (“mega-trials”) and Individual Patient Data (IPD) meta-analyses were hot topics of discussion. Mega-trials have the potential to detect small effect sizes of vitamin D supplementation on end-points such as incidence and mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer. IPD meta-analyses have the potential to investigate the causes of heterogeneity often seen in the results of individual primary trials by allowing clinically important subgroup effects of vitamin D supplementation to be elucidated. The existence of a U-shaped relationship between vitamin D status and risk of certain health outcomes was another area of discussion. A third emerging theme, also relating to vitamin D dose–response relationships, was the potential differential effect of daily vs. intermittent bolus dosing on biological outcomes. Finally, the meeting also addressed strategies to tackle vitamin D deficiency at the population level, by alteration of sun-seeking behaviour, use of nutritional supplements and food fortification. The following 156 abstracts featured in the meeting as either a poster or an oral presentation. [...]
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Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit

Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2540-2551;

Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.
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Proceedings of the 2013 Meeting of the Australasian Section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS)

Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5065-5096;

The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) held their biennial meeting in Newcastle, Australia from 6 to 8 November, 2013. Over 150 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on a variety of lipid related topics. The AAOCS awarded its inaugural AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research to Dr Allan Green from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Dr Green is deputy chief of the CSIRO Division of Plant Industry and has been active in lipid research for several decades. His main research focus is on plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques to develop improved oilseeds with enhanced human nutritional value and novel industrial uses. Refer to “AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research” for more detail of his contributions [1].
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Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 411-423;

The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.
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Report from the Biennial Scientific Meeting of the Australasian Section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) Held in Adelaide, November 2011

Nutrients 2012, 4(5), 372-398;

The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) held their biennial meeting in Adelaide, Australia on 8–11 November 2011. Over 70 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on lipid related topics. A highlight was the hot topic symposium on the new olive oil standard being introduced in Australia. Paul Miller, Australian Olives Association, gave a compelling address on why the standard was needed. He demonstrated that the increase in price and demand for high quality olive oils has led to products falsely or misleadingly labelled. Furthermore, the genetic and seasonal variation in minor components of olive oil has led to misclassifications. An extensive scientific and political process in Australia and overseas led to development of this new standard. Dr. Leandro Ravetti, Mordern Olives, demonstrated the development of two new methods, for analysis of pyropheophytins and diacylglycerols, are good indicators of modification by deodorisation of oils and show excellent correlation with organoleptic assessment with aging/degradation of extra virgin olive oils. Professor Rod Mailer finished this session with studies of actual adulteration cases in Australia and overseas, further highlighting the need for this new standard. [...]
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