Special Issue "Nanotechnology and Wood Science"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Antonios N. Papadopoulos
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Wood Science - Chemistry & Technology, Department of Forestry & Natural Environment, School of Geotechnical Sciences, International Hellenic University, Thermi, Greece
Interests: wood; wood composites; lignocellulosic materials; chemical and thermal modification technologies; nanotechnology and nanomaterilas; adhesives
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The fibrous nature of wood has made it one of the most appropriate and versatile raw materials for a variety of uses. However, two properties restrict its much wider use: dimensional changes when subjected to fluctuating humidity and susceptibility to biodegradation by microorganisms. Conventional wood impregnation methods (water or oil type preservatives) are based primarily on the use of toxic chemicals. Environmental concerns, particularly with regard to the disposal of treated wood at the end of product life, are now causing restrictions to be imposed upon the utilization of conventional chemical treatments. An alternative method of enhancing the durability of wood and other lignocellulosic materials without the use of conventional biocides and improving its dimensional stability is chemical or thermal modification. However, the cost of such a treatment still remains remarkably high. An option to improve the hygroscopicity and the biological durability of both solid wood and wood-based panels is to exploit the solutions that nanotechnology can offer. Employing nanotechnology on wood can result in a next generation of products having hyper-performance and superior service ability when used in severe environments, since it is well known that the cell wall of wood exhibits porosity of molecular scale dimensions due to the partial filling of space between the cellulose microfibrils by lignin, hemicelluloses and extractives. The small size nanoparticles of such nanotechnology compounds can deeply penetrate into the wood, effectively alter its surface chemistry, and result in a high protection against moisture and decay. This Special Issue, Nanotechnology and Wood Science, seeks high-quality works and topics focusing on the latest approaches on the development and applications of nanomaterials to both solid wood and wood products to enhance their properties.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Antonios Papadopoulos
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • wood
  • wood-based panels
  • nanotechnology
  • nanomaterials
  • decay
  • hygroscopicity

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Impact of Bio-Based (Tannins) and Nano-Scale (CNC) Additives on Bonding Properties of Synthetic Adhesives (PVAc and MUF) Using Chestnut Wood from Young Coppice Stands
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050956 - 18 May 2020
Abstract
Sustainability and ecotoxicity issues call for innovations regarding eco-friendly adhesives in the production of biocomposite wood materials, and solutions involving nano-scale and bio-based compounds represent a valid and promising target. One possible approach is to increase the performance of adhesives such as polyvinyl [...] Read more.
Sustainability and ecotoxicity issues call for innovations regarding eco-friendly adhesives in the production of biocomposite wood materials, and solutions involving nano-scale and bio-based compounds represent a valid and promising target. One possible approach is to increase the performance of adhesives such as polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) or melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) by means of nanoparticles in order to obtain a material with better mechanical and environmental resistance. When applying cellulose-based nanoparticles or tannin, the concept of a circular economy is successfully implemented into the forest/wood value chain, and chances are created to develop new value chains using byproducts of forestry operations. In this study, assortments coming from young sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) coppice stands were utilized for the preparation of single lap joint assemblies using different commercial adhesives (PVAc, MUF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and tannin as additives. The results showed that addition of CNC and tannin to PVAc glue increased tensile shear strength in lap joint tests presenting a promising base for future tests regarding the addition of CNC and tannin in MUF or PVAc adhesive formulations. Unfortunately, the tested bio-based additives did not reveal the same encouraging results when tested in the wet state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Wood Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Anti-Mold Property and Mechanism Description of Ag/TiO2 Wood-Based Nanocomposites Formation by Ultrasound- and Vacuum-Impregnation
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040682 - 04 Apr 2020
Abstract
Ag/TiO2 wood-based nanocomposites were prepared by the methods of ultrasound impregnation and vacuum impregnation. The as-prepared samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), and water contact angles [...] Read more.
Ag/TiO2 wood-based nanocomposites were prepared by the methods of ultrasound impregnation and vacuum impregnation. The as-prepared samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), and water contact angles (WCAs). The anti-mold properties of the Ag/TiO2 wood-based nanocomposites were improved by 14 times compared to those of the original wood. The nano-Ag/TiO2, which was impregnated in the tracheid and attached to the cell walls, was able to form a two-stage rough structure and reduce the number of hydroxyl functional groups on the wood surfaces. The resulting decline of wood hydrophobic and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) destroyed the moisture environment necessary for mold survival. Ag/TiO2 was deposited in the wood pores, which reduced the number and volume of pores and blocked the path of mold infection. Thus, the anti-mold properties of the Ag/TiO2 wood-based nanocomposite were improved by cutting off the water source and blocking the mold infection path. This study reveals the anti-mold mechanism of Ag/TiO2 wood-based nanocomposites and provides a feasible pathway for wood-based nanocomposites with anti-mold functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Wood Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Thermal Conductivity Coefficient in Oriented Strand Lumber (OSL) Using Sepiolite
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040599 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
An issue in engineered wood products, like oriented strand lumber (OSL), is the low thermal conductivity coefficient of raw material, preventing the fast transfer of heat into the core of composite mats. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of [...] Read more.
An issue in engineered wood products, like oriented strand lumber (OSL), is the low thermal conductivity coefficient of raw material, preventing the fast transfer of heat into the core of composite mats. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of sepiolite at nanoscale with aspect ratio of 1:15, in mixture with urea-formaldehyde resin (UF), and its effect on thermal conductivity coefficient of the final panel. Sepiolite was mixed with UF resin for 20 min prior to being sprayed onto wood strips in a rotary drum. Ten percent of sepiolite was mixed with the resin, based on the dry weight of UF resin. OSL panels with two resin contents, namely 8% and 10%, were manufactured. Temperature was measured at the core section of the mat at 5-second intervals, using a digital thermometer. The thermal conductivity coefficient of OSL specimens was calculated based on Fourier’s Law for heat conduction. With regard to the fact that an improved thermal conductivity would ultimately be translated into a more effective polymerization of the resin, hardness of the panel was measured, at different depths of penetration of the Janka ball, to find out how the improved conductivity affected the hardness of the produced composite panels. The measurement of core temperature in OSL panels revealed that sepiolite-treated panels with 10% resin content had a higher core temperature in comparison to the ones containing 8% resin. Furthermore, it was revealed that the addition of sepiolite increased thermal conductivity in OSL panels made with 8% and 10% resin contents, by 36% and 40%, respectively. The addition of sepiolite significantly increased hardness values in all penetration depths. Hardness increased as sepiolite content increased. Considering the fact that the amount of sepiolite content was very low, and therefore it could not physically impact hardness increase, the significant increase in hardness values was attributed to the improvement in the thermal conductivity of panels and subsequent, more complete, curing of resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Wood Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Penetration on the Quasi-Static and Dynamic Mechanics of Wood Cell Walls Using Nanoindentation
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101409 - 02 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
To evaluate the effects of phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin modification on wood cell walls, Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) wood was impregnated with PF resin at the concentrations of 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%, respectively. The penetration degree of PF resin into [...] Read more.
To evaluate the effects of phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin modification on wood cell walls, Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) wood was impregnated with PF resin at the concentrations of 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%, respectively. The penetration degree of PF resin into wood tracheids was quantitatively determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The micromechanical properties of the control and PF-modified wood cell walls were then analyzed by the method of quasi-static nanoindentation and dynamic modulus mapping techniques. Results indicated that PF resin with low molecular weight can penetrate deeply into the wood tissues and even into the cell walls. However, the penetration degree decreased accompanying with the increase of penetration depth in wood. Both the quasi-static and dynamic mechanics of wood cell walls increased significantly after modification by the PF resin at the concentration less than 20%. The cell-wall mechanics maintained stable and even decreased as the resin concentration was increased above 20%, resulting from the increasing bulking effects such as the decreased crystallinity degree of cellulose. Furthermore, the mechanics of cell walls in the inner layer was lower than that in the outer layer of PF-modified wood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Wood Science)
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