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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Penetration on the Quasi-Static and Dynamic Mechanics of Wood Cell Walls Using Nanoindentation

1
College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
2
Dehua Tubao New Decoration Material Co., Ltd., Huzhou 313200, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101409
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 28 September 2019 / Accepted: 28 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Wood Science)
To evaluate the effects of phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin modification on wood cell walls, Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) wood was impregnated with PF resin at the concentrations of 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%, respectively. The penetration degree of PF resin into wood tracheids was quantitatively determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The micromechanical properties of the control and PF-modified wood cell walls were then analyzed by the method of quasi-static nanoindentation and dynamic modulus mapping techniques. Results indicated that PF resin with low molecular weight can penetrate deeply into the wood tissues and even into the cell walls. However, the penetration degree decreased accompanying with the increase of penetration depth in wood. Both the quasi-static and dynamic mechanics of wood cell walls increased significantly after modification by the PF resin at the concentration less than 20%. The cell-wall mechanics maintained stable and even decreased as the resin concentration was increased above 20%, resulting from the increasing bulking effects such as the decreased crystallinity degree of cellulose. Furthermore, the mechanics of cell walls in the inner layer was lower than that in the outer layer of PF-modified wood. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenol formaldehyde resin; wood modification; cell-wall mechanics; nanoindentation; modulus mapping phenol formaldehyde resin; wood modification; cell-wall mechanics; nanoindentation; modulus mapping
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.; Chen, X.; Xie, X.; Yuan, Z.; Cai, S.; Li, Y. Effect of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Penetration on the Quasi-Static and Dynamic Mechanics of Wood Cell Walls Using Nanoindentation. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1409.

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