Special Issue "Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Evangelia Sarantopoulou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Av., 11635 Athens Greece
Interests: Photonic synthesis of novel nanostructures, photonic surface processing with short light wavelengths, physics of interphases, electronic properties of nanocomposites, space sciences including materials, bio-photonics and nano-toxicology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnologies are tracking different stages of novel technological applications by integrating molecular functionalities with the macro-world. Not to mention the scientific research on metamaterials and nanorobotic systems, photons, besides their use in almost all aspects of modern life, carry an immense amount of quantum information, which, when combined with nanoscience and nanotechnological tools, allows one to visualise novel technological applications such as quantum computing. Photonics for nano-applications refers to the research and development of novel nanodevices, functionalities, and applications based on photonic nanostructured and photon-shaped materials or photon–nanomaterial interactions having specific and tailored functionalities. Therefore, not only the submission of research articles with proof-of-concept demonstrations is encouraged for this Special Issue, but also the submission of articles including upcoming and future ideas with a strong interdisciplinary fundamental, theoretical, and applied character, over a wide range of thematic areas in physics, chemistry engineering, and biology, is welcome. Among other classical subjects of photonic nanotechnology, we invite articles on photon surface processing and interphases, nano- and non-equilibrium thermodynamic, chaos and non-linear behavior at the nanoscale, quantum and nano-effects in biological systems and nanorotors.   

Dr. Evangelia Sarantopoulou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Photonic nanoscience and nanotechnologies and surface processing
  • Photonic quantum and size effects at the nanoscale
  • Photonic generation of nanoparticles and nano-objects
  • Laser and light processing of material and applications at the nanoscale
  • Photonic surface functionalization
  • Biophotonics
  • Non-equilibrium systems, chaos, and non-linear dynamics
  • Photonic self-assembly

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Porous Si-SiO2 UV Microcavities to Modulate the Responsivity of a Broadband Photodetector
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020222 - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Porous Si-SiO2 UV microcavities are used to modulate a broad responsivity photodetector (GVGR-T10GD) with a detection range from 300 to 510 nm. The UV microcavity filters modified the responsivity at short wavelengths, while in the visible range the filters only attenuated the [...] Read more.
Porous Si-SiO2 UV microcavities are used to modulate a broad responsivity photodetector (GVGR-T10GD) with a detection range from 300 to 510 nm. The UV microcavity filters modified the responsivity at short wavelengths, while in the visible range the filters only attenuated the responsivity. All microcavities had a localized mode close to 360 nm in the UV-A range, and this meant that porous Si-SiO2 filters cut off the photodetection range of the photodetector from 300 to 350 nm, where microcavities showed low transmission. In the short-wavelength range, the photons were absorbed and did not contribute to the photocurrent. Therefore, the density of recombination centers was very high, and the photodetector sensitivity with a filter was lower than the photodetector without a filter. The maximum transmission measured at the localized mode (between 356 and 364 nm) was dominant in the UV-A range and enabled the flow of high energy photons. Moreover, the filters favored light transmission with a wavelength from 390 nm to 510 nm, where photons contributed to the photocurrent. Our filters made the photodetector more selective inside the specific UV range of wavelengths. This was a novel result to the best of our knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Picosecond Laser-Induced Hierarchical Periodic Near- and Deep-Subwavelength Ripples on Stainless-Steel Surfaces
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010062 - 26 Dec 2019
Abstract
Ultrafast laser-induced periodic surface subwavelength ripples, categorized based on the ripple period into near-subwavelength ripples (NSRs) and deep-subwavelength ripples (DSRs), are increasingly found in the variety of materials such as metals, semiconductors and dielectrics. The fabrication of hierarchical periodic NSRs and DSRs on [...] Read more.
Ultrafast laser-induced periodic surface subwavelength ripples, categorized based on the ripple period into near-subwavelength ripples (NSRs) and deep-subwavelength ripples (DSRs), are increasingly found in the variety of materials such as metals, semiconductors and dielectrics. The fabrication of hierarchical periodic NSRs and DSRs on the same laser-irradiated area is still a challenge since the connection between the two remains a puzzle. Here we present an experimental study of linearly polarized picosecond laser-induced hierarchical periodic NSRs and DSRs on stainless-steel surfaces. While experiencing peak power density higher than a threshold value of 91.9 GW/cm2, in the laser-scanned area appear the hierarchical periodic NSRs and DSRs (in particular, the DSRs are vertically located in the valley of parallel NSRs). A large area of the uniformly hierarchical periodic NSRs and DSRs, with the spatial periods 356 ± 17 nm and 58 ± 15 nm, respectively, is fabricated by a set of optimized laser-scanning parameters. A qualitative explanation based on the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modulated periodic coulomb explosion is proposed for unified interpretation of the formation mechanism of hierarchical periodic NSRs and DSRs, which includes lattice orientation of grains as a factor at low peak power density, so that the initial DSRs formed have a clear conformance with the metallic grains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanopillar Diffraction Gratings by Two-Photon Lithography
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101495 - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
Two-dimensional photonic structures such as nanostructured pillar gratings are useful for various applications including wave coupling, diffractive optics, and security features. Two-photon lithography facilitates the generation of such nanostructured surfaces with high precision and reproducibility. In this work, we report on nanopillar diffraction [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional photonic structures such as nanostructured pillar gratings are useful for various applications including wave coupling, diffractive optics, and security features. Two-photon lithography facilitates the generation of such nanostructured surfaces with high precision and reproducibility. In this work, we report on nanopillar diffraction gratings fabricated by two-photon lithography with various laser powers close to the polymerization threshold of the photoresist. As a result, defect-free arrays of pillars with diameters down to 184 nm were fabricated. The structure sizes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and compared to theoretical predictions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. The optical reflectivities of the nanopillar gratings were analyzed by optical microscopy and verified by rigorous coupled-wave simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Spectral Modulation of Optofluidic Coupled-Microdisk Lasers in Aqueous Media
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101439 - 11 Oct 2019
Abstract
We present the spectral modulation of an optofluidic microdisk device and investigate the mechanism and characteristics of the microdisk laser in aqueous media. The optofluidic microdisk device combines a solid-state dye-doped polymer microdisk with a microfluidic channel device, whose optical field can interact [...] Read more.
We present the spectral modulation of an optofluidic microdisk device and investigate the mechanism and characteristics of the microdisk laser in aqueous media. The optofluidic microdisk device combines a solid-state dye-doped polymer microdisk with a microfluidic channel device, whose optical field can interact with the aqueous media. Interesting phenomena, such as mode splitting and single-mode lasing in the laser spectrum, can be observed in two coupled microdisks under the pump laser. We modulated the spectra by changing the gap of the two coupled microdisks, the refractive indices of the aqueous media, and the position of a pump light, namely, selective pumping schemes. This optofluidic microlaser provides a method to modulate the laser spectra precisely and flexibly, which will help to further understand spectral properties of coupled microcavity laser systems and develop potential applications in photobiology and photomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Lightning-Rod Effect of Plasmonic Field Enhancement on Hydrogen-Absorbing Transition Metals
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091235 - 30 Aug 2019
Abstract
The plasmonic enhancement of electromagnetic field energy density at the sharp tips of nanoparticles or nanoscale surface roughnesses of hydrogen-absorbing transition metals, Pd, Ti, and Ni, is quantitatively investigated. A large degree of energy focusing is observed for these transition metals in the [...] Read more.
The plasmonic enhancement of electromagnetic field energy density at the sharp tips of nanoparticles or nanoscale surface roughnesses of hydrogen-absorbing transition metals, Pd, Ti, and Ni, is quantitatively investigated. A large degree of energy focusing is observed for these transition metals in the microwave region, even surpassing the enhancement for noble metals according to the conditions. Pd, for instance, exhibits peak field enhancement factors of 6000 and 2 × 108 in air for morphological aspect ratios of 10 and 100, respectively. Metal surfaces possibly contain such degrees of nano- or micro-scale native random roughnesses, and, therefore, the field enhancement effect may have been unknowingly produced in existing electrical and optical systems. In addition, for future devices under development, particularly in hydrogen-related applications, it is desirable to design and optimize the systems, including the choice of materials, structures, and operating conditions, by accounting for the plasmonic local energy enhancement effect around the metal surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Guided Mode Resonance Sensors with Optimized Figure of Merit
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060837 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The guided mode resonance (GMR) effect is widely used in biosensing due to its advantages of narrow linewidth and high efficiency. However, the optimization of a figure of merit (FOM) has not been considered for most GMR sensors. Aimed at obtaining a higher [...] Read more.
The guided mode resonance (GMR) effect is widely used in biosensing due to its advantages of narrow linewidth and high efficiency. However, the optimization of a figure of merit (FOM) has not been considered for most GMR sensors. Aimed at obtaining a higher FOM of GMR sensors, we proposed an effective design method for the optimization of FOM. Combining the analytical model and numerical simulations, the FOM of “grating–waveguide” GMR sensors for the wavelength and angular shift detection schemes were investigated systematically. In contrast with previously reported values, higher FOM values were obtained using this method. For the “waveguide–grating” GMR sensors, a linear relationship between the grating period and groove depth was obtained, which leads to excellent FOM values for both the angular and wavelength resonance. Such higher performance GMR sensors will pave the way to lower detection limits in biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
On-Chip Real-Time Chemical Sensors Based on Water-Immersion-Objective Pumped Whispering-Gallery-Mode Microdisk Laser
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030479 - 24 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Optical whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonator-based sensors with high sensitivity and low detection limit down to single unlabeled biomolecules show high potential for disease diagnosis and clinical application. However, most WGM microresonator-based sensors, which are packed in a microfluidic cell, are a “closed” sensing configuration [...] Read more.
Optical whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonator-based sensors with high sensitivity and low detection limit down to single unlabeled biomolecules show high potential for disease diagnosis and clinical application. However, most WGM microresonator-based sensors, which are packed in a microfluidic cell, are a “closed” sensing configuration that prevents changing and sensing the surrounding liquid refractive index (RI) of the microresonator immediately. Here, we present an “open” sensing configuration in which the WGM microdisk laser is directly covered by a water droplet and pumped by a water-immersion-objective (WIO). This allows monitoring the chemical reaction progress in the water droplet by tracking the laser wavelength. A proof-of-concept demonstration of chemical sensor is performed by observing the process of salt dissolution in water and diffusion of two droplets with different RI. This WIO pumped sensing configuration provides a path towards an on-chip chemical sensor for studying chemical reaction kinetics in real time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
High-Performance Ultraviolet Light Detection Using Nano-Scale-Fin Isolation AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures with ZnO Nanorods
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030440 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Owing to their intrinsic wide bandgap properties ZnO and GaN materials are widely used for fabricating passive-type visible-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs). However, most of these PDs have a very low spectral responsivity R, which is not sufficient for detecting very low-level [...] Read more.
Owing to their intrinsic wide bandgap properties ZnO and GaN materials are widely used for fabricating passive-type visible-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs). However, most of these PDs have a very low spectral responsivity R, which is not sufficient for detecting very low-level UV signals. We demonstrate an active type UV PD with a ZnO nanorod (NR) structure for the floating gate of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), where the AlGaN/GaN epitaxial layers are isolated by the nano-scale fins (NFIs) of two different fin widths (70 and 80 nm). In the dark condition, oxygen adsorbed at the surface of the ZnO NRs generates negative gate potential. Upon UV light illumination, the negative charge on the ZnO NRs is reduced due to desorption of oxygen, and this reversible process controls the source-drain carrier transport property of HEMT based PDs. The NFI PDs of a 70 nm fin width show the highest R of a ~3.2 × 107 A/W at 340 nm wavelength among the solid-state UV PDs reported to date. We also compare the performances of NFI PDs with those of conventional mesa isolation (MI, 40 × 100 µm2). NFI devices show ~100 times enhanced R and on-off current ratio than those of MI devices. Due to the volume effect of the small active region, a much faster response speed (rise-up and fall-off times of 0.21 and 1.05 s) is also obtained from the NFI PDs with a 70 nm fin width upon the UV on-off transient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Deep Subwavelength-Scale Light Focusing and Confinement in Nanohole-Structured Mesoscale Dielectric Spheres
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020186 - 01 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
One of the most captivating properties of dielectric mesoscale particles is their ability to form a sub-diffraction limited-field localization region, near their shadow surfaces. However, the transverse size of the field localization region of a dielectric mesoscale particle is usually larger than λ/3. [...] Read more.
One of the most captivating properties of dielectric mesoscale particles is their ability to form a sub-diffraction limited-field localization region, near their shadow surfaces. However, the transverse size of the field localization region of a dielectric mesoscale particle is usually larger than λ/3. In this present paper, for the first time, we present numerical simulations to demonstrate that the size of the electromagnetic field that forms in the localized region of the dielectric mesoscale sphere can be significantly reduced by introducing a nanohole structure at its shadow surface, which improves the spatial resolution up to λ/40 and beyond the solid immersion diffraction limit of λ/2n. The proposed nanohole-structured microparticles can be made from common natural optical materials, such as glass, and are important for advancing the particle-lens-based super-resolution technologies, including sub-diffraction imaging, interferometry, surface fabrication, enhanced Raman scattering, nanoparticles synthesis, optical tweezer, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantum Characteristics of a Nanomechanical Resonator Coupled to a Superconducting LC Resonator in Quantum Computing Systems
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010020 - 24 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The mechanical and quantum properties of a nanomechanical resonator can be improved by connecting it to a superconducting resonator in a way that the resonator exhibits new phenomena that are possibly available to novel quantum technologies. The quantum characteristics of a nanomechanical resonator [...] Read more.
The mechanical and quantum properties of a nanomechanical resonator can be improved by connecting it to a superconducting resonator in a way that the resonator exhibits new phenomena that are possibly available to novel quantum technologies. The quantum characteristics of a nanomechanical resonator coupled to a superconducting resonator have been investigated on the basis of rigorous quantum solutions of the combined system. The solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the coupled system have been derived using the unitary transformation approach. The analytic formula of the wave functions has been obtained by applying the adiabatic condition for time evolution of the coupling parameter. The behavior of the quantum wave functions has been analyzed for several different values of parameters. The probability densities depicted in the plane of the two resonator coordinates are distorted and rotated due to the coupling between the resonators. In addition, we have shown that there are squeezing effects in the wave packet along one of the two resonator coordinates or along both the two depending on the magnitude of several parameters, such as mass, inductance, and angular frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Surface/Interface Engineering for Constructing Advanced Nanostructured Photodetectors with Improved Performance: A Brief Review
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020362 - 19 Feb 2020
Abstract
Semiconductor-based photodetectors (PDs) convert light signals into electrical signals via a photon–matter interaction process, which involves surface/interface carrier generation, separation, and transportation of the photo-induced charge media in the active media, as well as the extraction of these charge carriers to external circuits [...] Read more.
Semiconductor-based photodetectors (PDs) convert light signals into electrical signals via a photon–matter interaction process, which involves surface/interface carrier generation, separation, and transportation of the photo-induced charge media in the active media, as well as the extraction of these charge carriers to external circuits of the constructed nanostructured photodetector devices. Because of the specific electronic and optoelectronic properties in the low-dimensional devices built with nanomaterial, surface/interface engineering is broadly studied with widespread research on constructing advanced devices with excellent performance. However, there still exist some challenges for the researchers to explore corresponding mechanisms in depth, and the detection sensitivity, response speed, spectral selectivity, signal-to-noise ratio, and stability are much more important factors to judge the performance of PDs. Hence, researchers have proposed several strategies, including modification of light absorption, design of novel PD heterostructures, construction of specific geometries, and adoption of specific electrode configurations to modulate the charge-carrier behaviors and improve the photoelectric performance of related PDs. Here, in this brief review, we would like to introduce and summarize the latest research on enhancing the photoelectric performance of PDs based on the designed structures by considering their surface/interface engineering and how to obtain advanced nanostructured photo-detectors with improved performance, which could be applied to design and fabricate novel low-dimensional PDs with ideal properties in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
Open AccessReview
Inorganic Boron-Based Nanostructures: Synthesis, Optoelectronic Properties, and Prospective Applications
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040538 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Inorganic boron-based nanostructures have great potential for field emission (FE), flexible displays, superconductors, and energy storage because of their high melting point, low density, extreme hardness, and good chemical stability. Until now, most researchers have been focused on one-dimensional (1D) boron-based nanostructures (rare-earth [...] Read more.
Inorganic boron-based nanostructures have great potential for field emission (FE), flexible displays, superconductors, and energy storage because of their high melting point, low density, extreme hardness, and good chemical stability. Until now, most researchers have been focused on one-dimensional (1D) boron-based nanostructures (rare-earth boride (REB6) nanowires, boron nanowires, and nanotubes). Currently, two-dimensional (2D) borophene attracts most of the attention, due to its unique physical and chemical properties, which make it quite different from its corresponding bulk counterpart. Here, we offer a comprehensive review on the synthesis methods and optoelectronics properties of inorganic boron-based nanostructures, which are mainly concentrated on 1D rare-earth boride nanowires, boron monoelement nanowires, and nanotubes, as well as 2D borophene and borophane. This review paper is organized as follows. In Section I, the synthesis methods of inorganic boron-based nanostructures are systematically introduced. In Section II, we classify their optical and electrical transport properties (field emission, optical absorption, and photoconductive properties). In the last section, we evaluate the optoelectronic behaviors of the known inorganic boron-based nanostructures and propose their future applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: [email protected]
Authors: Meng Ding, Zhen Guo(corresponding author), Lianqun Zhou, Lili Zhang, Leyong Zeng, Dalong Song
Affiliation: Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract: As an important wide bandgap semiconductor, ZnO and its nanostructures have received a great deal of attention because of the potential advantages in optoelectronic and other fields applications. However, the performances of above mentioned applications are strongly dependent on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures, with the decrease of scale of nanostructures, the surface and interface properties can affect generation and transport process of photo-generated carriers, and determine the photoelectric properties. Thus, enhancement of nanostructures crystal quality, construct core shell nanostructures and improvement of the surface or interface properties have therefore become the focus of research efforts in ZnO nanoscience field. Here, we review the recent progress in the surface and interface engineering of ZnO nanostructures, including the modification methods, sensitization materials, the optical and electrical properties and their relationships to surface and interface properties of these ZnO nanostructures. In addition, by putting at the basis of the discussions some specific examples, the performances of emission and photodetection nano-devices and other applications of ZnO nanostructures are also discussed. Finally, the further direction in ZnO nanomaterials and related optoelectronic applications would also be forecasted.

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