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Open AccessArticle

Picosecond Laser-Induced Hierarchical Periodic Near- and Deep-Subwavelength Ripples on Stainless-Steel Surfaces

by Shijie Ding 1,†, Dehua Zhu 2,†, Wei Xue 1, Wenwen Liu 1 and Yu Cao 2,*
1
College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, China
2
Institute of Laser and Optoelectronic Intelligent Manufacturing, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010062
Received: 5 December 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 23 December 2019 / Published: 26 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
Ultrafast laser-induced periodic surface subwavelength ripples, categorized based on the ripple period into near-subwavelength ripples (NSRs) and deep-subwavelength ripples (DSRs), are increasingly found in the variety of materials such as metals, semiconductors and dielectrics. The fabrication of hierarchical periodic NSRs and DSRs on the same laser-irradiated area is still a challenge since the connection between the two remains a puzzle. Here we present an experimental study of linearly polarized picosecond laser-induced hierarchical periodic NSRs and DSRs on stainless-steel surfaces. While experiencing peak power density higher than a threshold value of 91.9 GW/cm2, in the laser-scanned area appear the hierarchical periodic NSRs and DSRs (in particular, the DSRs are vertically located in the valley of parallel NSRs). A large area of the uniformly hierarchical periodic NSRs and DSRs, with the spatial periods 356 ± 17 nm and 58 ± 15 nm, respectively, is fabricated by a set of optimized laser-scanning parameters. A qualitative explanation based on the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modulated periodic coulomb explosion is proposed for unified interpretation of the formation mechanism of hierarchical periodic NSRs and DSRs, which includes lattice orientation of grains as a factor at low peak power density, so that the initial DSRs formed have a clear conformance with the metallic grains. View Full-Text
Keywords: laser induced subwavelength ripples; surface plasmon polaritons; coulomb explosion; stainless steel laser induced subwavelength ripples; surface plasmon polaritons; coulomb explosion; stainless steel
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, S.; Zhu, D.; Xue, W.; Liu, W.; Cao, Y. Picosecond Laser-Induced Hierarchical Periodic Near- and Deep-Subwavelength Ripples on Stainless-Steel Surfaces. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 62.

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