Special Issue "New Insights in Nanomaterials for Dental Diseases Management"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 April 2023 | Viewed by 6762

Special Issue Editors

Dr. May Lei Mei
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Sir John Walsh Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Interests: use of nanomaterials in dental caries management; silver diamine fluoride; dental bioactive materials
Dr. Kai Chun Li
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Sir John Walsh Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Interests: dental biomaterials; biomechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnology is defined as the design, characterization and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling the shape and size at a nanometer scale (1 nm to 100 nm). It is an emerging field of research, with various applications in science and technology, particularly for developing new materials. Nanoparticles are developed with unique properties that make them desirable in material science and biology. In this Special Issue, we aim for research on all kinds of nanomaterials used for dental disease management. This can include diagnostic, preventive, or therapeutic ways to manage dental caries, periodontal diseases, dental cancer, mucosa disease, and so on. We welcome reviews, regular research papers, communications, and short notes that are relevant to this field.

Dr. May Lei Mei
Dr. Kai Chun Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanomaterials
  • Nanoparticles
  • Dentistry
  • Caries
  • Periodontal diseases
  • Dental cancer

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Translucency and Color Stability of a Simplified Shade Nanohybrid Composite after Ultrasonic Scaling and Air-Powder Polishing
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(24), 4465; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12244465 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 457
Abstract
We aimed to assess the influence of professional dental prophylaxis on the translucency and color stability of a novel simplified shade nanohybrid composite material. Sixty composite disks (5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) of light (n = 30) and dark [...] Read more.
We aimed to assess the influence of professional dental prophylaxis on the translucency and color stability of a novel simplified shade nanohybrid composite material. Sixty composite disks (5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) of light (n = 30) and dark (n = 30) shades were prepared. The specimens were randomly divided into the following three groups (n = 10) according to the prophylaxis procedure used: ultrasonic scaling, air-powder polishing with sodium bicarbonate, and controls. The specimens were submitted to translucency and color analysis based on the CIELab system. Two measurements were performed before and after 48-h storage in coffee. Translucency values of untreated light and dark specimens were 9.15 ± 0.38 and 5.28 ± 1.10, respectively. Air-powder polishing decreased the translucency of the light composite specimens. Storage in coffee resulted in color changes (∆E) ranging between 2.69 and 12.05 and a mean translucency decrease ranging between −0.88 and −6.91. The samples in the light group tended to exhibit greater staining; the treatment method had no effect on ∆E. It can be concluded that light-shade composite restorations are more prone to translucency and color changes resulting from air-powder polishing and contact with staining media. However, further research using other composites and powders is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Nanomaterials for Dental Diseases Management)
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Article
Effect of the Modified Methacrylate-Based Root Canal Sealer in Single-Cone Technique
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(21), 3722; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12213722 - 23 Oct 2022
Viewed by 872
Abstract
This study aimed to modify EndoREZ with 2.5% dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) and 1% magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to study its sealing property, penetration and long-term antibacterial and therapeutic effect in the single-cone technique (SCT) compared with EndoREZ and iRoot SP. Thirty single-root human maxillary [...] Read more.
This study aimed to modify EndoREZ with 2.5% dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) and 1% magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to study its sealing property, penetration and long-term antibacterial and therapeutic effect in the single-cone technique (SCT) compared with EndoREZ and iRoot SP. Thirty single-root human maxillary premolars were assigned into three groups and obturated with three different root canal sealers by SCT. Every specimen was then scanned using micro-CT to analyze void fraction, and void volumes and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was used to study the dentin penetration. The long-term antimicrobial effects were tested in vitro before and after aging 1 and 4 weeks by the single-strain Enterococcus faecalis biofilm model. In addition, the beagle canine model of apical periodontitis (AP) was utilized to judge and compare the therapeutic effect of three sealers in SCT. The void fraction and void volumes of the modified root canal sealer were not significantly different from iRoot SP (p > 0.05) but were lower than EndoREZ (p < 0.05). The modified root canal sealant displayed a greater penetration, long-term antibacterial property, and treatment effect than the other groups (p < 0.05). This indicated that after being modified with DMADDM and MNP, it showed better performance in SCT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Nanomaterials for Dental Diseases Management)
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Article
A Biodegradable Flexible Micro/Nano-Structured Porous Hemostatic Dental Sponge
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(19), 3436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12193436 - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 686
Abstract
A biodegradable micro/nano-structured porous hemostatic gelatin-based sponge as a dentistry surgery foam was prepared using a freeze-drying method. In vitro function evaluation tests were performed to ensure its hemostatic effect. Biocompatibility tests were also performed to show the compatibility of the sponge on [...] Read more.
A biodegradable micro/nano-structured porous hemostatic gelatin-based sponge as a dentistry surgery foam was prepared using a freeze-drying method. In vitro function evaluation tests were performed to ensure its hemostatic effect. Biocompatibility tests were also performed to show the compatibility of the sponge on human fetal foreskin fibroblasts (HFFF2) cells and red blood cells (RBCs). Then, 10 patients who required the extraction of two teeth were selected, and after teeth extraction, for dressing, the produced sponge was placed in one of the extracavities while a commercial sponge was placed in the cavity in the other tooth as a control. The total weight of the absorbed blood in each group was compared. The results showed a porous structure with micrometric and nanometric pores, flexibility, a two-week range for degradation, and an ability to absorb blood 35 times its weight in vitro. The prepared sponge showed lower blood clotting times (BCTs) (243.33 ± 2.35 s) and a lower blood clotting index (BCI) (10.67 ± 0.004%) compared to two commercial sponges that displayed its ability for faster coagulation and good hemostatic function. It also had no toxic effects on the HFFF2 cells and RBCs. The clinical assessment showed a better ability of blood absorption for the produced sponge (p-value = 0.0015). The sponge is recommended for use in dental surgeries because of its outstanding abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Nanomaterials for Dental Diseases Management)
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Article
Effect of the Addition of Varying Concentrations of Silver Nanoparticles on the Fluoride Uptake and Recharge of Glass Ionomer Cement
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12121971 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the amount of fluoride uptake and the recharge and release characteristics of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) without any additives in comparison to conventional glass ionomer cement supplemented with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at two concentrations: 0.1% and 0.2% [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the amount of fluoride uptake and the recharge and release characteristics of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) without any additives in comparison to conventional glass ionomer cement supplemented with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at two concentrations: 0.1% and 0.2% (w/w). A total of 60 specimens were used in this in vitro study. The sample was divided into six groups—including three groups without fluoride charge: Group 1 (conventional GIC), Group 2 (GIC with 0.1% silver nanoparticles), and Group 3 (GIC with 0.2% silver nanoparticles; and three groups with fluoride charge: Group 4 (conventional GIC with fluoride); Group 5 (GIC with 0.1% silver nanoparticles with fluoride); Group 6 (GIC with 0.2% silver nanoparticles with fluoride), where Group 1 is considered the control group and the other five groups are used as the test groups. The amount of fluoride released was measured on days 1, 2, 7, 15, and 30. The comparisons were made between the groups with and without fluoride and among all the groups. A significant difference in the amount of fluoride released was observed between the groups, with the highest amount occurring in Group 1, followed by Group 2; the lowest amount of fluoride released was observed in Group 3 (p < 0.05). The groups with fluoride recharge (Groups 4, 5, and 6) exhibited a higher amount of fluoride release than the groups with no recharge (Groups 1, 2, and 3); however, Group 1 has more fluoride release compared to all other groups on days 1, 2, 7, 15, and 30 (p < 0.05). The amount of released fluoride decreased from day 1 to day 30 in all of the groups in the study. Despite the antimicrobial and anticariogenic benefits of adding silver nanoparticles to GIC, it seems that fluoride release characteristics are significantly affected by the addition of this material. This may force the clinician to a compromise between the antimicrobial benefit of silver nanoparticles and the remineralizing advantage of fluoride. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Nanomaterials for Dental Diseases Management)
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Article
Antibacterial and Fluorescence Staining Properties of an Innovative GTR Membrane Containing 45S5BGs and AIE Molecules In Vitro
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040641 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
This study aimed to add two functional components—antibacterial 45S5BGs particles and AIE nanoparticles (TPE-NIM+) with bioprobe characteristics—to the guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane, to optimize the performance. The PLGA/BG/TPE-NIM+ membrane was synthesized. The static water contact angle, morphologies, and surface [...] Read more.
This study aimed to add two functional components—antibacterial 45S5BGs particles and AIE nanoparticles (TPE-NIM+) with bioprobe characteristics—to the guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane, to optimize the performance. The PLGA/BG/TPE-NIM+ membrane was synthesized. The static water contact angle, morphologies, and surface element analysis of the membrane were then characterized. In vitro biocompatibility was tested with MC3T3-E1 cells using CCK-8 assay, and antibacterial property was evaluated with Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis by the LIVE/DEAD bacterial staining and dilution plating procedure. The fluorescence staining of bacteria was observed by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope. The results showed that the average water contact angle was 46°. In the cytotoxicity test, except for the positive control group, there was no significant difference among the groups (p > 0.05). The antibacterial effect in the PLGA/BG/TPE-NIM+ group was significantly (p < 0.01), while the sterilization rate was 99.99%, better than that in the PLGA/BG group (98.62%) (p < 0.01). Confocal images showed that the membrane efficiently distinguished G+ bacteria from G bacteria. This study demonstrated that the PLGA/BG/TPE-NIM+ membrane showed good biocompatibility, efficient sterilization performance, and surface mineralization ability and could be used to detect pathogens in a simple, fast, and wash-free protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Nanomaterials for Dental Diseases Management)
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Article
The Effect of Ultrasonic Scaling and Air-Powder Polishing on the Roughness of the Enamel, Three Different Nanocomposites, and Composite/Enamel and Composite/Cementum Interfaces
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3072; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113072 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
We aimed to assess the effects of ultrasonic scaling and air-powder polishing on the roughness of enamel, three nanocomposites (Premise, Herculite Ultra, Harmonize), and composite/enamel and composite/cementum interfaces. Class V cavities were restored in 99 extracted third molars with one of the three [...] Read more.
We aimed to assess the effects of ultrasonic scaling and air-powder polishing on the roughness of enamel, three nanocomposites (Premise, Herculite Ultra, Harmonize), and composite/enamel and composite/cementum interfaces. Class V cavities were restored in 99 extracted third molars with one of the three nanocomposites and treated with ultrasonic scaler or air-powder polishing device (calcium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate powders). The roughness (Ra) of the investigated surfaces was measured with contact profilometer before and after treatment. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Specimens’ Ra values before instrumentation were near the clinically acceptable 0.2 μm threshold. All techniques increased the roughness of the tested surfaces; however, the enamel was slightly affected. The mean Ra values after prophylaxis for composite, composite/cementum and composite/enamel surfaces were 0.32–0.55, 1.33–1.73, and 1.25–1.36, respectively. The extent of composite surface damage was material dependent. Premise surface was not altered by ultrasonic scaling significantly. Air-powder polishing with both powders produced a greater increase in surface roughness of composite resin and restorations margins than ultrasonic scaling. The Ra values after both types of air polishing for Herculite Ultra and Harmonize were approximately 1.5 and 2 times higher, respectively, than those after ultrasonic scaling (p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Nanomaterials for Dental Diseases Management)
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Review

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Review
Ceramic Nanomaterials in Caries Prevention: A Narrative Review
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(24), 4416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12244416 - 11 Dec 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Ceramic nanomaterials are nanoscale inorganic metalloid solids that can be synthesised by heating at high temperatures followed by rapid cooling. Since the first nanoceramics were developed in the 1980s, ceramic nanomaterials have rapidly become one of the core nanomaterials for research because of [...] Read more.
Ceramic nanomaterials are nanoscale inorganic metalloid solids that can be synthesised by heating at high temperatures followed by rapid cooling. Since the first nanoceramics were developed in the 1980s, ceramic nanomaterials have rapidly become one of the core nanomaterials for research because of their versatility in application and use in technology. Researchers are developing ceramic nanomaterials for dental use because ceramic nanoparticles are more stable and cheaper in production than metallic nanoparticles. Ceramic nanomaterials can be used to prevent dental caries because some of them have mineralising properties to promote the remineralisation of tooth tissue. Ceramic minerals facilitate the remineralisation process and maintain an equilibrium in pH levels to maintain tooth integrity. In addition, ceramic nanomaterials have antibacterial properties to inhibit the growth of cariogenic biofilm. Researchers have developed antimicrobial nanoparticles, conjugated ceramic minerals with antibacterial and mineralising properties, to prevent the formation and progression of caries. Common ceramic nanomaterials developed for caries prevention include calcium-based (including hydroxyapatite-based), bioactive glass-based, and silica-based nanoparticles. Calcium-based ceramic nanomaterials can substitute for the lost hydroxyapatite by depositing calcium ions. Bioactive glass-based nanoparticles contain surface-reactive glass that can form apatite crystals resembling bone and tooth tissue and exhibit chemical bonding to the bone and tooth tissue. Silica-based nanoparticles contain silica for collagen infiltration and enhancing heterogeneous mineralisation of the dentin collagen matrix. In summary, ceramic nanomaterials can be used for caries prevention because of their antibacterial and mineralising properties. This study gives an overview of ceramic nanomaterials for the prevention of dental caries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Nanomaterials for Dental Diseases Management)
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