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Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Bio-Based Benzoxazine/Epoxy Composites with NIR-Laser Stimulated Shape Memory Effects

1
Polymer Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2
National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 111 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Phatum Thani 12120, Thailand
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Liberal Arts & Science, Kasetsart University, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand
4
Research Network NANOTEC-CU on Advanced Structural and Functional Nanomaterials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060881
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019)
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Abstract

Smart materials with light-actuated shape memory effects are developed from renewable resources in this work. Bio-based benzoxazine resin is prepared from vanillin, furfurylamine, and paraformaldehyde by utilizing the Mannich-like condensation. Vanillin-furfurylamine-containing benzoxazine resin (V-fa) is subsequently copolymerized with epoxidized castor oil (ECO). When the copolymer is reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), the resulting composite exhibits shape memory effects. Molecular characteristics of V-fa resin, ECO, and V-fa/ECO copolymers are obtained from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Curing behavior of V-fa/ECO copolymers is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Dynamic mechanical properties of MWCNT reinforced V-fa/ECO composites are determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Morphological details and distribution of MWCNTs within the copolymer matrix are characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Shape memory performances of MWCNT reinforced V-fa/ECO composites are studied by shape memory tests performed with a universal testing machine. After a significant deformation to a temporary shape, the composites can be recovered to the original shape by near-infrared (NIR) laser actuation. The shape recovery process can be stimulated at a specific site of the composite simply by focusing NIR laser to that site. The shape recovery time of the composites under NIR actuation is four times faster than the shape recovery process under conventional thermal activation. Furthermore, the composites possess good shape fixity and good shape recovery under NIR actuation. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-based benzoxazine; multiwalled carbon nanotubes; shape memory polymers; NIR actuation; composites; renewable materials bio-based benzoxazine; multiwalled carbon nanotubes; shape memory polymers; NIR actuation; composites; renewable materials
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Prasomsin, W.; Parnklang, T.; Sapcharoenkun, C.; Tiptipakorn, S.; Rimdusit, S. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Bio-Based Benzoxazine/Epoxy Composites with NIR-Laser Stimulated Shape Memory Effects. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 881.

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