Planar Optical Components Based on the Prepatterned Surfaces, Metasurfaces, and Hybrid Nanomaterials II

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanophotonics Materials and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2024) | Viewed by 10452

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Guest Editor
ICMol- The Institute of Molecular Science, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Interests: magneto-plasmonic hybrid materials; metasurfaces for quantum light enhancement; optically driven spin control in magnetic materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, metasurface research has received extensive attention because of the ability of metadevices to manage light. Despite their success in the lab, the further integration of metasurfaces into the industrial sector depends on our capability to circumvent technical issues, such as the scalability of nanofabrication processes or control of metasurface responses (also called reconfigurability).

At the midway point between metasurface technology and regular microelectronics, a new generation of planar devices has recently appeared. Multifunctional heterostructures based on nanocomposites, self-assembled monolayers or ultra-thin metals are extensively reported in the literature. These approaches can pale the scalability problem found in metasurfaces, as they do not need nanolithography. As a drawback, most approaches do not exhibit a clear collective response, and the synergic operation of their constituents is achieved in very limited and specific applications.

This Special Issue will focus the field of micro- and nano-devices, operating on a broad spectrum, ranging from ultraviolet to Terahertz, covering all aspects from the design of complex metasurfaces to scalable surface chemistry methods or the simple assembly of multilayers by means of regular physical vapour deposition. We will pay special attention to the reconfigurability and external control of the device properties. This way we expect to guide the capabilities of current experimental approaches and unlock their potential to face further technological challenges.

Dr. Josep Canet-Ferrer
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • metasurface
  • metamaterial
  • plasmonics
  • nanofabrication
  • nanoparticles
  • hybrid materials
  • 2D crystals
  • heterostructures
  • ultra-thin films
  • dewetted surfaces

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2838 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Plasmonic and Thermal Properties of Metallic Nanoparticles
by Inès Abid, Javier González-Colsa, Christophe Naveaux, Andreea Campu, Célia Arib, Monica Focsan, Pablo Albella, Mathieu Edely and Marc Lamy de La Chapelle
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(10), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14100820 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Here, we investigate the correlation between the heat generated by gold nanoparticles, in particular nanospheres and nanobipyramids, and their plasmonic response manifested by the presence of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs). Using a tunable laser and a thermal camera, we measure the temperature [...] Read more.
Here, we investigate the correlation between the heat generated by gold nanoparticles, in particular nanospheres and nanobipyramids, and their plasmonic response manifested by the presence of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs). Using a tunable laser and a thermal camera, we measure the temperature increase induced by colloidal nanoparticles in an aqueous solution as a function of the excitation wavelength in the optical regime. We demonstrate that the photothermal performances of the nanoparticles are strongly related not only to their plasmonic properties but also to the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The contribution of the longitudinal and transversal modes in gold nanobipyramids is also analyzed in terms of heat generation. These results will guide us to design appropriate nanoparticles to act as efficient heat nanosources. Full article
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16 pages, 3821 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning-Based Metasurface Design for Smart Cooling of Spacecraft
by Ayman Negm, Mohamed H. Bakr, Matiar M. R. Howlader and Shirook M. Ali
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(23), 3073; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13233073 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
A reconfigurable metasurface constitutes an important block of future adaptive and smart nanophotonic applications, such as adaptive cooling in spacecraft. In this paper, we introduce a new modeling approach for the fast design of tunable and reconfigurable metasurface structures using a convolutional deep [...] Read more.
A reconfigurable metasurface constitutes an important block of future adaptive and smart nanophotonic applications, such as adaptive cooling in spacecraft. In this paper, we introduce a new modeling approach for the fast design of tunable and reconfigurable metasurface structures using a convolutional deep learning network. The metasurface structure is modeled as a multilayer image tensor to model material properties as image maps. We avoid the dimensionality mismatch problem using the operating wavelength as an input to the network. As a case study, we model the response of a reconfigurable absorber that employs the phase transition of vanadium dioxide in the mid-infrared spectrum. The feed-forward model is used as a surrogate model and is subsequently employed within a pattern search optimization process to design a passive adaptive cooling surface leveraging the phase transition of vanadium dioxide. The results indicate that our model delivers an accurate prediction of the metasurface response using a relatively small training dataset. The proposed patterned vanadium dioxide metasurface achieved a 28% saving in coating thickness compared to the literature while maintaining reasonable emissivity contrast at 0.43. Moreover, our design approach was able to overcome the non-uniqueness problem by generating multiple patterns that satisfy the design objectives. The proposed adaptive metasurface can potentially serve as a core block for passive spacecraft cooling applications. We also believe that our design approach can be extended to cover a wider range of applications. Full article
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10 pages, 3077 KiB  
Article
Dual-Band and Multi-State Polarization Conversion Using aTerahertz Symmetry-Breaking Metadevice
by Yuwang Deng, Qingli Zhou, Xuteng Zhang, Pujing Zhang, Wanlin Liang, Tingyin Ning, Yulei Shi and Cunlin Zhang
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(21), 2844; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13212844 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 865
Abstract
We numerically and experimentally demonstrate a terahertz metadevice consisting of split-ring resonators (SRRs) present within square metallic rings. This device can function as a dual-band polarization converter by breaking the symmetry of SRRs. Under x-polarized incidence, the metastructure is able to convert [...] Read more.
We numerically and experimentally demonstrate a terahertz metadevice consisting of split-ring resonators (SRRs) present within square metallic rings. This device can function as a dual-band polarization converter by breaking the symmetry of SRRs. Under x-polarized incidence, the metastructure is able to convert linearly polarized (LP) light into a left-hand circular-polarized (LCP) wave. Intriguingly, under y-polarized incidence, frequency-dependent conversion from LP to LCP and right-hand circular-polarized (RCP) states can be achieved at different frequencies. Furthermore, reconfigurable LCP-to-LP and RCP-to-LP switching can be simulated by integrating the device with patterned graphene and changing its Fermi energy. This dual-band and multi-state polarization control provides an alternative solution to developing compact and multifunctional components in the terahertz regime. Full article
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12 pages, 5489 KiB  
Article
UV-Nanoimprint and Deep Reactive Ion Etching of High Efficiency Silicon Metalenses: High Throughput at Low Cost with Excellent Resolution and Repeatability
by Christopher A. Dirdal, Karolina Milenko, Anand Summanwar, Firehun T. Dullo, Paul C. V. Thrane, Oana Rasoga, Andrei M. Avram, Adrian Dinescu and Angela M. Baracu
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(3), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13030436 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2400
Abstract
As metasurfaces begin to find industrial applications there is a need to develop scalable and cost-effective fabrication techniques which offer sub-100 nm resolution while providing high throughput and large area patterning. Here we demonstrate the use of UV-Nanoimprint Lithography and Deep Reactive Ion [...] Read more.
As metasurfaces begin to find industrial applications there is a need to develop scalable and cost-effective fabrication techniques which offer sub-100 nm resolution while providing high throughput and large area patterning. Here we demonstrate the use of UV-Nanoimprint Lithography and Deep Reactive Ion Etching (Bosch and Cryogenic) towards this goal. Robust processes are described for the fabrication of silicon rectangular pillars of high pattern fidelity. To demonstrate the quality of the structures, metasurface lenses, which demonstrate diffraction limited focusing and close to theoretical efficiency for NIR wavelengths λ ∈ (1.3 μm, 1.6 μm), are fabricated. We demonstrate a process which removes the characteristic sidewall surface roughness of the Bosch process, allowing for smooth 90-degree vertical sidewalls. We also demonstrate that the optical performance of the metasurface lenses is not affected adversely in the case of Bosch sidewall surface roughness with 45 nm indentations (or scallops). Next steps of development are defined for achieving full wafer coverage. Full article
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14 pages, 5934 KiB  
Article
Ultracompact Polarization Splitter–Rotator Based on Shallowly Etched Subwavelength Gratings and Anisotropic Metasurfaces
by Chengkun Dong, Sijie Dai, Jun Xia, Guodong Tong, Zhihai Wu, Hao Zhang and Bintao Du
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(19), 3506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12193506 - 7 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Polarization splitter–rotators (PSRs) are an essential component in on-chip polarization-sensitive and polarization–division multiplexing systems. In this work, we propose an ultracompact and high-performance silicon-based polarization splitter–rotator utilizing anisotropic metasurfaces, which is the first to combine the two, to our knowledge. The tilted periodic [...] Read more.
Polarization splitter–rotators (PSRs) are an essential component in on-chip polarization-sensitive and polarization–division multiplexing systems. In this work, we propose an ultracompact and high-performance silicon-based polarization splitter–rotator utilizing anisotropic metasurfaces, which is the first to combine the two, to our knowledge. The tilted periodic metasurface structure has different modulation effects on different polarized light fields, such as the transverse–electric (TE) mode and the transverse–magnetic (TM) mode, which are beneficial for designing polarization management devices. According to the results, the entire length of the silicon PSR was ~13.5 μm. The TE-to-TM conversion loss and polarization conversion ratio ere −0.154 dB and 96.5% at 1.55 μm, respectively. In the meanwhile, the cross talk and reflection loss were −27.0 dB and −37.3 dB, when the fundamental TE mode was input. The insertion loss and cross talk were −0.19 dB and −25.01 dB at the central wavelength when the fundamental TM mode was input. In addition, the bandwidth reached up to ~112 nm with polarization conversion loss and insertion loss higher than −0.46 dB and −0.36 dB. The simulations also show that the designed devices had good fabrication tolerance. Full article
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9 pages, 3259 KiB  
Article
Bandpass Filter Integrated Metalens Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency
by Dongzhi Shan, Jinsong Gao, Nianxi Xu, Hai Liu, Naitao Song, Qiao Sun, Yi Zhao, Yang Tang, Yansong Wang, Xiaoguo Feng and Xin Chen
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(13), 2282; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12132282 - 2 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2116
Abstract
A bandpass filter integrated metalens based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging is designed in this paper. The bandwidth of the metalens, which is a diffractive optical element, decreases significantly with the increase of the aperture size to a [...] Read more.
A bandpass filter integrated metalens based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging is designed in this paper. The bandwidth of the metalens, which is a diffractive optical element, decreases significantly with the increase of the aperture size to a fixed f-number, which leads to the decline of imaging performance. The same material composition and preparation process of the metalens and the EIT metasurface in the long-wavelength infrared make it feasible that the abilities of focusing imaging and filtering are integrated into a metasurface device. With the purpose of validating the feasibility of this design method, we have designed a 300-μm-diameter integrated metalens whose f-number is 0.8 and the simulation was carried out. The introduction of EIT metasurface does not affect the focusing near the diffraction limit at the target wavelength, and greatly reduces the influence of stray light caused by non-target wavelength incident light. This bandpass filter integrated metalens design method may have a great potential in the field of LWIR compact optical systems. Full article
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