Special Issue "An Evolutionary and Environmental Perspective of the Interaction of Nanomaterials with the Immune System-The Outcomes of the EU Project PANDORA"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 21 February 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Diana Boraschi
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology of the National Research Council, Naples, Italy
Interests: nano-immunosafety; inflammation; innate immunity; inflammation-related diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to take the occasion of the conclusion of the EU project PANDORA for making a summary of what we have learned regarding the interaction of engineered nanomaterials with the defensive systems of living organisms. PANDORA had the ambition of looking for common mechanisms of recognition and reaction, based on the high evolutionary conservation of innate immune mechanisms from plants to human beings. Whether nanomaterials could pose threats to the organisms’ integrity or whether immune defensive mechanisms can successfully deal with them is the question to which we have tried to respond. The PANDORA partners will provide their conclusions and opinions, based on the data they have generated, on the consequences of the interaction between nanomaterials and the innate immune system in their specific models’ organisms, spanning A. thaliana, terrestrial isopods, earthworms, mussels, sea urchins, and humans. Other colleagues, outside PANDORA, are warmly invited to contribute their view and help in completing the picture.

Prof. Dr. Diana Boraschi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Engineered nanomaterials
  • Innate immunity
  • Environmental immuno-nanosafety
  • Human immuno-nanosafety
  • Evolution

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Safety Evaluation of TiO2 Nanoparticle-Based Sunscreen UV Filters on the Development and the Immunological State of the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112102 - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
Sunscreens are emulsions of water and oil that contain filters capable of protecting against the detrimental effects of ultraviolet radiation (UV). The widespread use of cosmetic products based on nanoparticulate UV filters has increased concerns regarding their safety and compatibility with both the [...] Read more.
Sunscreens are emulsions of water and oil that contain filters capable of protecting against the detrimental effects of ultraviolet radiation (UV). The widespread use of cosmetic products based on nanoparticulate UV filters has increased concerns regarding their safety and compatibility with both the environment and human health. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP)-based UV filters with three different surface coatings on the development and immunity of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. A wide range of NP concentrations was analyzed, corresponding to different levels of dilution starting from the original cosmetic dispersion. Variations in surface coating, concentration, particle shape, and pre-dispersant medium (i.e., water or oil) influenced the embryonic development without producing a relevant developmental impairment. The most common embryonic abnormalities were related to the skeletal growth and the presence of a few cells, which were presumably involved in the particle uptake. Adult P. lividus immune cells exposed to silica-coated TiO2 NP-based filters showed a broad metabolic plasticity based on the biosynthesis of metabolites that mediate inflammation, phagocytosis, and antioxidant response. The results presented here highlight the biosafety of the TiO2 NP-based UV filters toward sea urchin, and the importance of developing safer-by-design sunscreens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of In Vivo Exposure to Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on the Gut Microbiome, Host Immunity, and Susceptibility to a Bacterial Infection in Earthworms
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071337 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Nanomaterials (NMs) can interact with the innate immunity of organisms. It remains, however, unclear whether these interactions can compromise the immune functioning of the host when faced with a disease threat. Co-exposure with pathogens is thus a powerful approach to assess the immuno-safety [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials (NMs) can interact with the innate immunity of organisms. It remains, however, unclear whether these interactions can compromise the immune functioning of the host when faced with a disease threat. Co-exposure with pathogens is thus a powerful approach to assess the immuno-safety of NMs. In this paper, we studied the impacts of in vivo exposure to a biocidal NM on the gut microbiome, host immune responses, and susceptibility of the host to a bacterial challenge in an earthworm. Eisenia fetida were exposed to CuO-nanoparticles in soil for 28 days, after which the earthworms were challenged with the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Immune responses were monitored by measuring mRNA levels of known earthworm immune genes. Effects of treatments on the gut microbiome were also assessed to link microbiome changes to immune responses. Treatments caused a shift in the earthworm gut microbiome. Despite these effects, no impacts of treatment on the expression of earthworm immune markers were recorded. The methodological approach applied in this paper provides a useful framework for improved assessment of immuno-safety of NMs. In addition, we highlight the need to investigate time as a factor in earthworm immune responses to NM exposure. Full article
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