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Review

Cross-Species Comparisons of Nanoparticle Interactions with Innate Immune Systems: A Methodological Review

1
Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, National Research Council, 80131 Napoli, Italy
2
Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Liubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Institute for Biomedical Research and Innovation, National Research Council, 90146 Palermo, Italy
4
Institut Català de Nanosciència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
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Center for Plant Molecular Biology–ZMBP Eberhard-Karls University Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
6
School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK
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Department of Biosciences, Paris-Lodron University Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
8
Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic
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AvantiCell Science, Ltd., Ayr KA6 5HW, UK
10
UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford OX10 8BB, UK
11
Department of Earth Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, 16126 Genova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Diana Boraschi and David M Brown
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061528
Received: 18 February 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 9 June 2021
Many components of the innate immune system are evolutionarily conserved and shared across many living organisms, from plants and invertebrates to humans. Therefore, these shared features can allow the comparative study of potentially dangerous substances, such as engineered nanoparticles (NPs). However, differences of methodology and procedure between diverse species and models make comparison of innate immune responses to NPs between organisms difficult in many cases. To this aim, this review provides an overview of suitable methods and assays that can be used to measure NP immune interactions across species in a multidisciplinary approach. The first part of this review describes the main innate immune defense characteristics of the selected models that can be associated to NPs exposure. In the second part, the different modes of exposure to NPs across models (considering isolated cells or whole organisms) and the main endpoints measured are discussed. In this synergistic perspective, we provide an overview of the current state of important cross-disciplinary immunological models to study NP-immune interactions and identify future research needs. As such, this paper could be used as a methodological reference point for future nano-immunosafety studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental models; human cells; innate immunity; markers; NPs testing environmental models; human cells; innate immunity; markers; NPs testing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Swartzwelter, B.J.; Mayall, C.; Alijagic, A.; Barbero, F.; Ferrari, E.; Hernadi, S.; Michelini, S.; Navarro Pacheco, N.I.; Prinelli, A.; Swart, E.; Auguste, M. Cross-Species Comparisons of Nanoparticle Interactions with Innate Immune Systems: A Methodological Review. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1528. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061528

AMA Style

Swartzwelter BJ, Mayall C, Alijagic A, Barbero F, Ferrari E, Hernadi S, Michelini S, Navarro Pacheco NI, Prinelli A, Swart E, Auguste M. Cross-Species Comparisons of Nanoparticle Interactions with Innate Immune Systems: A Methodological Review. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(6):1528. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061528

Chicago/Turabian Style

Swartzwelter, Benjamin J., Craig Mayall, Andi Alijagic, Francesco Barbero, Eleonora Ferrari, Szabolcs Hernadi, Sara Michelini, Natividad Isabel Navarro Pacheco, Alessandra Prinelli, Elmer Swart, and Manon Auguste. 2021. "Cross-Species Comparisons of Nanoparticle Interactions with Innate Immune Systems: A Methodological Review" Nanomaterials 11, no. 6: 1528. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061528

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