Special Issue "Nano Devices and Nano Sensors"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanoelectronics, Nanosensors and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. J. Daniel Prades
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic and Biomedical Engineering, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
Interests: nano devices engineering; chemical sensors; low power devices
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Gerhard Müller
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Sciences and Mechatronics,Munich University of Applied Sciences, D-80335 Munich, Germany.
Interests: nano materials; nano devices; MEMS; sensors; sensor applications
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Semiconductor nanostructures with 1D and 2D morphologies have attracted a great deal of interest in many fields of application. Whereas, early on, 2D heterostructure transistors have been investigated as efficient transducers for detecting physical, chemical, and biological signals, interest more recently has moved toward nanowires and nanorods with essentially 1D morphology. Such structures feature excellent crystallinity, good transport properties, and photoluminescence, which has allowed for interesting applications in opto-electronics and in photonic crystal technologies. Due to reactive surfaces and extremely high surface to volume ratios, 1D nanostructures have also been increasingly employed in the fields of gas and chemical sensors. While earlier work in this area has greatly contributed to the development of gas sensors with ultra-low-power consumption, capable of autonomous operation using micro-power scavenging techniques, 1D nanostructures, more recently, have been employed in the studies of surface adsorption processes, surface catalysis, and photo-electrochemical power conversion.

In view of this situation, you are invited to submit contributions that are devoted to the synthesis and study of innovative kinds of nanomaterials, particularly with a focus on enabling novel device concepts and demonstrating novel kinds of applications. Contributions are encouraged but not limited to existing and emerging fields of applications like chemical, gas, and biological sensing, optoelectronics, power-efficient devices, and energy applications.

Accepted papers are published in the joint Special Issue in Nanomaterials or Inventions (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/inventions/special_issues/Devices_sensor)

Prof. Dr. J. Daniel Prades
Dr. Gerhard Müller
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Metal oxide semiconductors
  • III-nitride materials
  • Carbon-based materials
  • 1D- and 2D-semiconductor structures
  • Active surface centers
  • Solid-gas interaction
  • Solid-liquid interaction
  • In situ and operando investigations
  • Novel device concepts
  • Novel applications

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Optimized Planar Microwave Antenna for Nitrogen Vacancy Center Based Sensing Applications
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2108; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082108 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Individual nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond are versatile, spin-based quantum sensors. Coherently controlling the spin of NV centers using microwaves in a typical frequency range between 2.5 and 3.5 GHz is necessary for sensing applications. In this work, we present a [...] Read more.
Individual nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond are versatile, spin-based quantum sensors. Coherently controlling the spin of NV centers using microwaves in a typical frequency range between 2.5 and 3.5 GHz is necessary for sensing applications. In this work, we present a stripline-based, planar, Ω-shaped microwave antenna that enables one to reliably manipulate NV spins. We found an optimal antenna design using finite integral simulations. We fabricated our antennas on low-cost, transparent glass substrate. We created highly uniform microwave fields in areas of roughly 400 × 400 μm2 while realizing high Rabi frequencies of up to 10 MHz in an ensemble of NV centers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Devices and Nano Sensors)
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Article
Size-Dependent Electroluminescence and Current-Voltage Measurements of Blue InGaN/GaN µLEDs down to the Submicron Scale
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040836 - 25 Mar 2021
Viewed by 711
Abstract
Besides high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with dimensions in the range of mm, micro-LEDs (μLEDs) are increasingly gaining interest today, motivated by the future applications of μLEDs in augmented reality displays or for nanometrology and sensor technology. A key aspect of this miniaturization is [...] Read more.
Besides high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with dimensions in the range of mm, micro-LEDs (μLEDs) are increasingly gaining interest today, motivated by the future applications of μLEDs in augmented reality displays or for nanometrology and sensor technology. A key aspect of this miniaturization is the influence of the structure size on the electrical and optical properties of μLEDs. Thus, in this article, investigations of the size dependence of the electro-optical properties of μLEDs, with diameters in the range of 20 to 0.65 μm, by current–voltage and electroluminescence measurements are described. The measurements indicated that with decreasing size leakage currents in the forward direction decrease. To take advantage of these benefits, the surface has to be treated properly, as otherwise sidewall damages induced by dry etching will impair the optical properties. A possible countermeasure is surface treatment with a potassium hydroxide based solution that can reduce such defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Devices and Nano Sensors)
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Article
Field Emission Air-Channel Devices as a Voltage Adder
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2378; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122378 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 470
Abstract
Field emission air-channel (FEAC) devices can work under atmospheric pressure with a low operation voltage when the electron channel is far less than the mean free path (MFP) in the air, thereby making them a practical component in circuits. Forward and reverse electron [...] Read more.
Field emission air-channel (FEAC) devices can work under atmospheric pressure with a low operation voltage when the electron channel is far less than the mean free path (MFP) in the air, thereby making them a practical component in circuits. Forward and reverse electron emissions of the current FEAC devices demonstrated symmetric Fowler–Nordheim (F–N) plots owing to the symmetric cathode and anode electrodes. This research aimed to demonstrate the arithmetic application of the FEAC devices, their substrate effect, and reliability. A voltage adder was composed of two FEAC devices whose two inputs were connected to two separate function generators, and one output was wire-connected to an oscilloscope. The devices were on a thin dielectric film and low-resistivity silicon substrate to evaluate the parasitic components and substrate effect, resulting in frequency-dependent impedance. The results show that the FEAC devices possessed arithmetic function, but the output voltage decreased. The FEAC devices were still capable of serving as a voltage adder after the reliability test, but electric current leakage increased. Finite element analysis indicated that the highest electrical fields and electron trajectories occur at the apices where the electrons travel with the shortest route less than the MFP in the air, thereby meeting the FEAC devices’ design. The modeling also showed that a sharp apex would generate a high electric field at the tip-gap-tip, enhancing the tunneling current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Devices and Nano Sensors)
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Article
Nanostructure ITO and Get More of It. Better Performance at Lower Cost
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101974 - 05 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
In this paper, we investigated how different growth conditions (i.e., temperature, growth time, and composition) allows for trading off cost (i.e., In content) and performance of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) for biosensing applications. Next, we compared the behavior of these functionalized nanostructured [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigated how different growth conditions (i.e., temperature, growth time, and composition) allows for trading off cost (i.e., In content) and performance of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) for biosensing applications. Next, we compared the behavior of these functionalized nanostructured surfaces obtained in different growth conditions between each other and with a standard thin film as a reference, observing improvements in effective detection area up to two orders of magnitude. This enhanced the biosensor’s sensitivity, with higher detection level, better accuracy and higher reproducibility. Results show that below 150 °C, the growth of ITO over the substrate forms a homogenous layer without any kind of nanostructuration. In contrast, at temperatures higher than 150 °C, a two-phase temperature-dependent growth was observed. We concluded that (i) nanowire length grows exponentially with temperature (activation energy 356 meV) and leads to optimal conditions in terms of both electroactive surface area and sensitivity at around 300 °C, (ii) longer times of growth than 30 min lead to larger active areas and (iii) the In content in a nanostructured film can be reduced by 10%, obtaining performances equivalent to those found in commercial flat-film ITO electrodes. In summary, this work shows how to produce appropriate materials with optimized cost and performances for different applications in biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Devices and Nano Sensors)
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Article
Silicon Waveguide Integrated with Germanium Photodetector for a Photonic-Integrated FBG Interrogator
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091683 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
We report a vertically coupled germanium (Ge) waveguide detector integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides and an optimized device structure through the analysis of the optical field distribution and absorption efficiency of the device. The photodetector we designed is manufactured by IMEC, and the tests [...] Read more.
We report a vertically coupled germanium (Ge) waveguide detector integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides and an optimized device structure through the analysis of the optical field distribution and absorption efficiency of the device. The photodetector we designed is manufactured by IMEC, and the tests show that the device has good performance. This study theoretically and experimentally explains the structure of Ge PIN and the effect of the photodetector (PD) waveguide parameters on the performance of the device. Simulation and optimization of waveguide detectors with different structures are carried out. The device’s structure, quantum efficiency, spectral response, response current, changes with incident light strength, and dark current of PIN-type Ge waveguide detector are calculated. The test results show that approximately 90% of the light is absorbed by a Ge waveguide with 20 μm Ge length and 500 nm Ge thickness. The quantum efficiency of the PD can reach 90.63%. Under the reverse bias of 1 V, 2 V and 3 V, the detector’s average responsiveness in C-band reached 1.02 A/W, 1.09 A/W and 1.16 A/W and the response time is 200 ns. The dark current is only 3.7 nA at the reverse bias voltage of −1 V. The proposed silicon-based Ge PIN PD is beneficial to the integration of the detector array for photonic integrated arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)-based fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Devices and Nano Sensors)
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Article
The Structural, Electronic, and Optical Properties of Ge/Si Quantum Wells: Lasing at a Wavelength of 1550 nm
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10051006 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 989
Abstract
The realization of a fully integrated group IV electrically driven laser at room temperature is an essential issue to be solved. We introduced a novel group IV side-emitting laser at a wavelength of 1550 nm based on a 3-layer Ge/Si quantum well (QW). [...] Read more.
The realization of a fully integrated group IV electrically driven laser at room temperature is an essential issue to be solved. We introduced a novel group IV side-emitting laser at a wavelength of 1550 nm based on a 3-layer Ge/Si quantum well (QW). By designing this scheme, we showed that the structural, electronic, and optical properties are excited for lasing at 1550 nm. The preliminary results show that the device can produce a good light spot shape convenient for direct coupling with the waveguide and single-mode light emission. The laser luminous power can reach up to 2.32 mW at a wavelength of 1550 nm with a 300-mA current. Moreover, at room temperature (300 K), the laser can maintain maximum light power and an ideal wavelength (1550 nm). Thus, this study provides a novel approach to reliable, efficient electrically pumped silicon-based lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Devices and Nano Sensors)
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