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Advances in Polysaccharides Materials

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 41926

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Guest Editor
Unit of Transformations & Agroressources, ULR7519, Universite d'Artois, 62408 Bethune, France
Interests: bio-based chemistry; carbohydrates; lipids; secondary metabolites; amphiphilic; drug targeting, bio-control; materials
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Guest Editor
Unit of Transformations & Agroressources, ULR7519, Universite d'Artois, 62408 Bethune, France
Interests: polysaccharide extraction and characterization; polysaccharide modification; polysaccharide-based materials and biomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Centro de Investigaciones en Química Biológica- CONICET and Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina
Interests: membranes biophysics; ganglioside; drug-membrane interaction; surfactants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polysaccharides are very diverse in their structure and function; they are widely distributed in nature and are produced by all organisms, plants, animals and microorganisms. Natural polysaccharides (cellulose, starch, hemicelluloses, pectin, chitin, chitosan, alginic acid, carrageenan, etc.) have excellent characteristics, including biodegradability and biocompatibility, which make them extremely attractive for many applications. The presence of different functional groups in the polysaccharides thus allows various chemical or enzymatic modifications, which offer practically limitless options for developing new compounds that are better suited to the targeted applications.

The Special Issue "Advances in Polysaccharides Materials" aims to provide a forum for the dissemination of the latest studies, with a broad coverage of research progress and up-to-date journals dealing with various fundamental and applied aspects of polysaccharide materials. In this Special Issue, we are seeking contributions from researchers which discuss all aspects of polysaccharide materials; extraction, characterization, formulation, chemical/enzymatic modification for applications in different fields. We anticipate that this Special Issue will provide a unique platform for the dissemination of new concepts and all applications of polysaccharides, in order to continue to motivate research in this field.

Prof. Dr. Patrick Martin
Prof. Dr. Nicolas Joly
Dr. Maria Laura Fanani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Extraction, characterization
  • Biorefinery
  • Chemo/enzymatic modification
  • Surfactant
  • Biocontrol
  • Microbial polysaccharides
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Materials; plastics, composites, porous materials
  • Food applications
  • Membranes
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Biomedical applications; biomaterials, drug delivery systems, nanocarriers
  • Environmental assessment; recycling, biodegradation

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2651 KiB  
Article
Cell Wall Composition of Hemp Shiv Determined by Physical and Chemical Approaches
by Maya-Sétan Diakité, Hélène Lenormand, Vincent Lequart, Santiago Arufe, Patrick Martin and Nathalie Leblanc
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6334; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216334 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
The use of agricultural by-products in the building engineering realm has led to an increase in insulation characteristics of biobased materials and a decrease in environmental impact. The understanding of cell wall structure is possible by the study of interactions of chemical compounds, [...] Read more.
The use of agricultural by-products in the building engineering realm has led to an increase in insulation characteristics of biobased materials and a decrease in environmental impact. The understanding of cell wall structure is possible by the study of interactions of chemical compounds, themselves determined by common techniques like Van Soest (VS). In this study, a global method is investigated to characterise the cell wall of hemp shiv. The cell wall molecules were, at first, isolated by fractionation of biomass and then analysed by physical and chemical analysis (Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Elementary Analysis, Dynamic Sorption Vapor and Infra-Red). This global method is an experimental way to characterise plant cell wall molecules of fractions by Thermal Gravimetric Analysis following by a mathematical method to have a detailed estimation of the cell wall composition and the interactions between plant macromolecules. The analyzed hemp shiv presents proportions of 2.5 ± 0.6% of water, 4.4 ± 0.2% of pectins, 42.6 ± 1.0% (Hemicellulose–Cellulose), 18.4 ± 1.6% (Cellulose–Hemicellulose), 29.0 ± 0.8% (Lignin–Cellulose) and 2.0 ± 0.4% of linked lignin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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19 pages, 5358 KiB  
Article
Polysaccharide Matrices for the Encapsulation of Tetrahydrocurcumin—Potential Application as Biopesticide against Fusarium graminearum
by Anne Loron, Vesta Navikaitė-Šnipaitienė, Deimantė Rosliuk, Ramunė Rutkaitė, Christian Gardrat and Véronique Coma
Molecules 2021, 26(13), 3873; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133873 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
Cereals are subject to contamination by pathogenic fungi, which damage grains and threaten public health with their mycotoxins. Fusarium graminearum and its mycotoxins, trichothecenes B (TCTBs), are especially targeted in this study. Recently, the increased public and political awareness concerning environmental issues tends [...] Read more.
Cereals are subject to contamination by pathogenic fungi, which damage grains and threaten public health with their mycotoxins. Fusarium graminearum and its mycotoxins, trichothecenes B (TCTBs), are especially targeted in this study. Recently, the increased public and political awareness concerning environmental issues tends to limit the use of traditional fungicides against these pathogens in favor of eco-friendlier alternatives. This study focuses on the development of biofungicides based on the encapsulation of a curcumin derivative, tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), in polysaccharide matrices. Starch octenylsuccinate (OSA-starch) and chitosan have been chosen since they are generally recognized as safe. THC has been successfully trapped into particles obtained through a spray-drying or freeze-drying processes. The particles present different properties, as revealed by visual observations and scanning electron microscopy. They are also different in terms of the amount and the release of encapsulated THC. Although freeze-dried OSA-starch has better trapped THC, it seems less able to protect the phenolic compound than spray-dried particles. Chitosan particles, both spray-dried and lyophilized, have shown promising antifungal properties. The IC50 of THC-loaded spray-dried chitosan particles is as low as 0.6 ± 0.3 g/L. These particles have also significantly decreased the accumulation of TCTBs by 39%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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22 pages, 3610 KiB  
Article
Transformation of Pectins into Non-Ionic or Anionic Surfactants Using a One-Pot and Cascade Mode Process
by Damien Milliasseau, Jelena Jeftić, Freddy Pessel, Daniel Plusquellec and Thierry Benvegnu
Molecules 2021, 26(7), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071956 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2521
Abstract
The present article describes the one-pot synthesis of double- and single-tailed surfactants by a cascade process that involves the hydrolysis/butanolysis of pectins into butyl galacturonate monosaccharides followed by transesterification/transacetalisation processes with fatty alcohols, and subsequent aqueous basic and acid treatments. The cascade mode [...] Read more.
The present article describes the one-pot synthesis of double- and single-tailed surfactants by a cascade process that involves the hydrolysis/butanolysis of pectins into butyl galacturonate monosaccharides followed by transesterification/transacetalisation processes with fatty alcohols, and subsequent aqueous basic and acid treatments. The cascade mode allows the depolymerisation to proceed more efficiently, and the purification conditions are optimised to make the production of single-tailed surfactants more manufacturable. These products in a pure form or as mixtures with alkyl glycosides resulting from butanolysis and transglycosylation of pectin-derived hexoses, exhibit attractive surface-tension properties, especially for the n-oleyl ᴅ-galactosiduronic acid products. In addition, a readily biodegradability and an absence of aquatic ecotoxicity are shown for the galacturonic acid derivatives possessing an oleyl alkyl chain at the anomeric position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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21 pages, 8783 KiB  
Article
Thermoplastic Cellulose-Based Compound for Additive Manufacturing
by Kirsi Immonen, Pia Willberg-Keyriläinen, Jarmo Ropponen, Asta Nurmela, Sini Metsä-Kortelainen, Otto-Ville Kaukoniemi and Heli Kangas
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061701 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4073
Abstract
The increasing environmental awareness is driving towards novel sustainable high-performance materials applicable for future manufacturing technologies like additive manufacturing (AM). Cellulose is abundantly available renewable and sustainable raw material. This work focused on studying the properties of thermoplastic cellulose-based composites and their properties [...] Read more.
The increasing environmental awareness is driving towards novel sustainable high-performance materials applicable for future manufacturing technologies like additive manufacturing (AM). Cellulose is abundantly available renewable and sustainable raw material. This work focused on studying the properties of thermoplastic cellulose-based composites and their properties using injection molding and 3D printing of granules. The aim was to maximize the cellulose content in composites. Different compounds were prepared using cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and commercial cellulose acetate propionate with plasticizer (CP) as polymer matrices, microcellulose (mc) and novel cellulose-ester additives; cellulose octanoate (C8) and cellulose palmitate (C16). The performance of compounds was compared to a commercial poly(lactic acid)-based cellulose fiber containing composite. As a result, CP-based compounds had tensile and Charpy impact strength properties comparable to commercial reference, but lower modulus. CP-compounds showed glass transition temperature (Tg) over 58% and heat distortion temperature (HDT) 12% higher compared to reference. CAP with C16 had HDT 82.1 °C. All the compounds were 3D printable using granular printing, but CAP compounds had challenges with printed layer adhesion. This study shows the potential to tailor thermoplastic cellulose-based composite materials, although more research is needed before obtaining all-cellulose 3D printable composite material with high-performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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11 pages, 32500 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Cellulose/Laponite Composite Particles and Their Enhanced Electrorheological Responses
by Zhao Liu, Zhenjie Zhao, Xiao Jin, Li-Min Wang and Ying Dan Liu
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051482 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2497
Abstract
Cellulose, as a natural polymer with an abundant source, has been widely used in many fields including the electric field responsive medium that we are interested in. In this work, cellulose micron particles were applied as an electrorheological (ER) material. Because of the [...] Read more.
Cellulose, as a natural polymer with an abundant source, has been widely used in many fields including the electric field responsive medium that we are interested in. In this work, cellulose micron particles were applied as an electrorheological (ER) material. Because of the low ER effect of the raw cellulose, a composite particle of cellulose and Laponite was prepared via a dissolution–regeneration process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to observe the morphologies and structures of the composite particles, which were different from pristine cellulose and Laponite, respectively. The ER performances of raw cellulose and the prepared composite were measured by an Anton Paar rotational rheometer. It was found that the ER properties of the composite were more superior to those of raw cellulose due to the flake-like shapes of the composite particles with rough surface. Moreover, the sedimentation stability of composite improves drastically, which means better suspension stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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9 pages, 2016 KiB  
Article
Study on TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation of N-Succinyl Chitosan and the Water Retention Property
by Aoqi Li, Qinglan Xue, Yingqing Ye, Peixin Gong, Mingyu Deng and Bo Jiang
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4698; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204698 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
C-6 oxidized chitosan is of great interest in obtaining a new moisture retention polymer like hyaluronic acid. The direct C-6 specific oxidation of chitosan mediated by the TEMPO/NaClO/NaBr system has proven to be difficult because of the high crystalline and high C-2 amino [...] Read more.
C-6 oxidized chitosan is of great interest in obtaining a new moisture retention polymer like hyaluronic acid. The direct C-6 specific oxidation of chitosan mediated by the TEMPO/NaClO/NaBr system has proven to be difficult because of the high crystalline and high C-2 amino group content. In this work, the pre-modification of chitosan by N-succinylation was investigated and followed by the TEMPO-mediated C-6 specific oxidation under homogeneous conditions. The desired 6-oxidized N-succinyl chitosan product was obtained within 15 min with a yield of about 92%. The structure of these chitosan derivatives was confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, it was observed that the selective oxidation led to a great improvement in water solubility and moisture retention ability. These results present a wide range of possibilities for expanding the utilization of chitosan resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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17 pages, 4883 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Activity of Bacterial Cellulose Loaded with Bacitracin and Amoxicillin: In Vitro Studies
by Georgiana-Mădălina Lemnaru (Popa), Roxana Doina Truşcă, Cornelia-Ioana Ilie, Roxana Elena Țiplea, Denisa Ficai, Ovidiu Oprea, Anicuța Stoica-Guzun, Anton Ficai and Lia-Mara Dițu
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4069; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184069 - 06 Sep 2020
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 5067
Abstract
The use of bacterial cellulose (BC) in skin wound treatment is very attractive due to its unique characteristics. These dressings’ wet environment is an important feature that ensures efficient healing. In order to enhance the antimicrobial performances, bacterial-cellulose dressings were loaded with amoxicillin [...] Read more.
The use of bacterial cellulose (BC) in skin wound treatment is very attractive due to its unique characteristics. These dressings’ wet environment is an important feature that ensures efficient healing. In order to enhance the antimicrobial performances, bacterial-cellulose dressings were loaded with amoxicillin and bacitracin as antibacterial agents. Infrared characterization and thermal analysis confirmed bacterial-cellulose binding to the drug. Hydration capacity showed good hydrophilicity, an efficient dressing’s property. The results confirmed the drugs’ presence in the bacterial-cellulose dressing’s structure as well as the antimicrobial efficiency against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial assessments were evaluated by contacting these dressings with the above-mentioned bacterial strains and evaluating the growth inhibition of these microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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13 pages, 1666 KiB  
Article
Surface Interactions between Bacterial Nanocellulose and B-Complex Vitamins
by Diego Mauricio Sánchez-Osorno, Diego Gomez-Maldonado, Cristina Castro and María Soledad Peresin
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4041; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184041 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
The interactions between films of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) and B complex vitamins were studied using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Thin films of BNC were generated in situ by QCM-D, followed by real-time measurements of the vitamin adsorption. The desorption [...] Read more.
The interactions between films of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) and B complex vitamins were studied using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Thin films of BNC were generated in situ by QCM-D, followed by real-time measurements of the vitamin adsorption. The desorption of vitamins was induced by rinsing the system using phosphate buffers at a pH of 2 and 6.5, emulating gastric conditions. Changes in frequency (which are proportional to changes in adsorbed mass, ∆m) detected by QCM-D were used to determine the amounts of vitamin adsorbed and released from the BNC film. Additionally, changes in dissipation (∆D) were proven to be useful in identifying the effects of the pH in both pristine cellulose films and films with vitamin pre-adsorbed, following its changes during release. The effects of pH on the morphology of the vitamin-BNC surfaces were also monitored by changes in rugosity from images obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Based on this data, we propose a model for the binding phenomena, with the contraction on the relaxation of the cellulose film depending on pH, resulting in an efficient vitamin delivery process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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10 pages, 2299 KiB  
Communication
Bio-Based Thermoplastic Starch Composites Reinforced by Dialdehyde Lignocellulose
by Peng Yin, Wen Zhou, Xin Zhang, Bin Guo and Panxin Li
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3236; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143236 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
In order to improve the mechanical properties and water resistance of thermoplastic starch (TPS), a novel reinforcement of dialdehyde lignocellulose (DLC) was prepared via the oxidation of lignocellulose (LC) using sodium periodate. Then, the DLC-reinforced TPS composites were prepared by an extrusion and [...] Read more.
In order to improve the mechanical properties and water resistance of thermoplastic starch (TPS), a novel reinforcement of dialdehyde lignocellulose (DLC) was prepared via the oxidation of lignocellulose (LC) using sodium periodate. Then, the DLC-reinforced TPS composites were prepared by an extrusion and injection process using glycerol as a plasticizer. The DLC and LC were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the effects of DLC content on the properties of the DLC/TPS composites were investigated via the evaluation of SEM images, mechanical properties, thermal stability, and contact angles. XRD showed that the crystallinity of the DLC decreased due to oxidation damage to the LC. SEM showed good dispersion of the DLC in the continuous TPS phase at low amounts of DLC, which related to good mechanical properties. The tensile strength of the DLC/TPS composite reached a maximum at a DLC content of 3 wt.%, while the elongation at break of the DLC/TPS composites increased with increasing DLC content. The DLC/TPS composites had better thermal stability than the neat TPS. As the DLC content increased, the water resistance first increased, then decreased. The highest tensile strength and elongation at break reached 5.26 MPa and 111.25%, respectively, and the highest contact angle was about 90.7°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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Review

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15 pages, 1778 KiB  
Review
Recent Applications of Dual-Stimuli Responsive Chitosan Hydrogel Nanocomposites as Drug Delivery Tools
by Pumtiwitt C. McCarthy, Yongchao Zhang and Fasil Abebe
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4735; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164735 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3506
Abstract
Polysaccharides are a versatile class of macromolecules that are involved in many biological interactions critical to life. They can be further modified for added functionality. Once derivatized, these polymers can exhibit new chemical properties that can be further optimized for applications in drug [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides are a versatile class of macromolecules that are involved in many biological interactions critical to life. They can be further modified for added functionality. Once derivatized, these polymers can exhibit new chemical properties that can be further optimized for applications in drug delivery, wound healing, sensor development and others. Chitosan, derived from the N-deacetylation of chitin, is one example of a polysaccharide that has been functionalized and used as a major component of polysaccharide biomaterials. In this brief review, we focus on one aspect of chitosan’s utility, namely we discuss recent advances in dual-responsive chitosan hydrogel nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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19 pages, 2489 KiB  
Review
Updating Insights into the Catalytic Domain Properties of Plant Cellulose synthase (CesA) and Cellulose synthase-like (Csl) Proteins
by Gerasimos Daras, Dimitris Templalexis, Fengoula Avgeri, Dikran Tsitsekian, Konstantina Karamanou and Stamatis Rigas
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4335; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144335 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4085
Abstract
The wall is the last frontier of a plant cell involved in modulating growth, development and defense against biotic stresses. Cellulose and additional polysaccharides of plant cell walls are the most abundant biopolymers on earth, having increased in economic value and thereby attracted [...] Read more.
The wall is the last frontier of a plant cell involved in modulating growth, development and defense against biotic stresses. Cellulose and additional polysaccharides of plant cell walls are the most abundant biopolymers on earth, having increased in economic value and thereby attracted significant interest in biotechnology. Cellulose biosynthesis constitutes a highly complicated process relying on the formation of cellulose synthase complexes. Cellulose synthase (CesA) and Cellulose synthase-like (Csl) genes encode enzymes that synthesize cellulose and most hemicellulosic polysaccharides. Arabidopsis and rice are invaluable genetic models and reliable representatives of land plants to comprehend cell wall synthesis. During the past two decades, enormous research progress has been made to understand the mechanisms of cellulose synthesis and construction of the plant cell wall. A plethora of cesa and csl mutants have been characterized, providing functional insights into individual protein isoforms. Recent structural studies have uncovered the mode of CesA assembly and the dynamics of cellulose production. Genetics and structural biology have generated new knowledge and have accelerated the pace of discovery in this field, ultimately opening perspectives towards cellulose synthesis manipulation. This review provides an overview of the major breakthroughs gathering previous and recent genetic and structural advancements, focusing on the function of CesA and Csl catalytic domain in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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28 pages, 4427 KiB  
Review
Ionotropic Gelation of Chitosan Flat Structures and Potential Applications
by Pasquale Sacco, Seidy Pedroso-Santana, Yogesh Kumar, Nicolas Joly, Patrick Martin and Patrizia Bocchetta
Molecules 2021, 26(3), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030660 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 7842
Abstract
The capability of some polymers, such as chitosan, to form low cost gels under mild conditions is of great application interest. Ionotropic gelation of chitosan has been used predominantly for the preparation of gel beads for biomedical application. Only in the last few [...] Read more.
The capability of some polymers, such as chitosan, to form low cost gels under mild conditions is of great application interest. Ionotropic gelation of chitosan has been used predominantly for the preparation of gel beads for biomedical application. Only in the last few years has the use of this method been extended to the fabrication of chitosan-based flat structures. Herein, after an initial analysis of the major applications of chitosan flat membranes and films and their usual methods of synthesis, the process of ionotropic gelation of chitosan and some recently proposed novel procedures for the synthesis of flat structures are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
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