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Thermoplastic Cellulose-Based Compound for Additive Manufacturing

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Tietotie 4E, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrick M. Martin
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1701;
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 12 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharides Materials)
The increasing environmental awareness is driving towards novel sustainable high-performance materials applicable for future manufacturing technologies like additive manufacturing (AM). Cellulose is abundantly available renewable and sustainable raw material. This work focused on studying the properties of thermoplastic cellulose-based composites and their properties using injection molding and 3D printing of granules. The aim was to maximize the cellulose content in composites. Different compounds were prepared using cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and commercial cellulose acetate propionate with plasticizer (CP) as polymer matrices, microcellulose (mc) and novel cellulose-ester additives; cellulose octanoate (C8) and cellulose palmitate (C16). The performance of compounds was compared to a commercial poly(lactic acid)-based cellulose fiber containing composite. As a result, CP-based compounds had tensile and Charpy impact strength properties comparable to commercial reference, but lower modulus. CP-compounds showed glass transition temperature (Tg) over 58% and heat distortion temperature (HDT) 12% higher compared to reference. CAP with C16 had HDT 82.1 °C. All the compounds were 3D printable using granular printing, but CAP compounds had challenges with printed layer adhesion. This study shows the potential to tailor thermoplastic cellulose-based composite materials, although more research is needed before obtaining all-cellulose 3D printable composite material with high-performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermoplastic cellulose; cellulose derivative; microcellulose; additive manufacturing; 3D printing; granule printing thermoplastic cellulose; cellulose derivative; microcellulose; additive manufacturing; 3D printing; granule printing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Immonen, K.; Willberg-Keyriläinen, P.; Ropponen, J.; Nurmela, A.; Metsä-Kortelainen, S.; Kaukoniemi, O.-V.; Kangas, H. Thermoplastic Cellulose-Based Compound for Additive Manufacturing. Molecules 2021, 26, 1701.

AMA Style

Immonen K, Willberg-Keyriläinen P, Ropponen J, Nurmela A, Metsä-Kortelainen S, Kaukoniemi O-V, Kangas H. Thermoplastic Cellulose-Based Compound for Additive Manufacturing. Molecules. 2021; 26(6):1701.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Immonen, Kirsi, Pia Willberg-Keyriläinen, Jarmo Ropponen, Asta Nurmela, Sini Metsä-Kortelainen, Otto-Ville Kaukoniemi, and Heli Kangas. 2021. "Thermoplastic Cellulose-Based Compound for Additive Manufacturing" Molecules 26, no. 6: 1701.

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