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Feature Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry-Part I

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 40270

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: pharmaceutical analytical chemistry; method development and validation; sample preparation (derivatization, microextraction, etc.); liquid and gas chromatography; capillary electrophoresis; mass spectrometry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The international journal Molecules (IF: 3.060) intends to initiate a series of review-only Special Issues dedicated to all aspects of Analytical Chemistry, under the general title “Featured Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry”.

As the editors of this series of Special Issues, we are welcoming proposals for Review articles covering all fundamental and applications aspects in the field of Analytical Chemistry (theory, techniques, applications, instrumentation, up-to-date achievements, future perspectives, etc.).

Distinguished researchers from all over the world will be invited to contribute to this issue. In order to avoid overlapping of topics, potential contributors/invited authors are kindly requested to submit the editors a tentative article title and 1–2 pages description/table of contents for pre-evaluation.

Dr. Constantinos K. Zacharis
Dr. Paraskevas D. Tzanavaras
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • features reviews
  • analytical chemistry
  • sample preparation
  • instrumentation
  • analytical applications
  • automation
  • separation techniques
  • electroanalysis
  • sensors/biosensors
  • paper fluidics
  • point-of-care devices
  • mass spectrometry
  • spectroscopy
  • metabolomics

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Review

32 pages, 811 KiB  
Review
Application of Microextraction-Based Techniques for Screening-Controlled Drugs in Forensic Context—A Review
by Samir M. Ahmad, Oriana C. Gonçalves, Mariana N. Oliveira, Nuno R. Neng and José M. F. Nogueira
Molecules 2021, 26(8), 2168; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082168 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3266
Abstract
The analysis of controlled drugs in forensic matrices, i.e., urine, blood, plasma, saliva, and hair, is one of the current hot topics in the clinical and toxicological context. The use of microextraction-based approaches has gained considerable notoriety, mainly due to the great simplicity, [...] Read more.
The analysis of controlled drugs in forensic matrices, i.e., urine, blood, plasma, saliva, and hair, is one of the current hot topics in the clinical and toxicological context. The use of microextraction-based approaches has gained considerable notoriety, mainly due to the great simplicity, cost-benefit, and environmental sustainability. For this reason, the application of these innovative techniques has become more relevant than ever in programs for monitoring priority substances such as the main illicit drugs, e.g., opioids, stimulants, cannabinoids, hallucinogens, dissociative drugs, and related compounds. The present contribution aims to make a comprehensive review on the state-of-the art advantages and future trends on the application of microextraction-based techniques for screening-controlled drugs in the forensic context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry-Part I)
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43 pages, 5053 KiB  
Review
Probing the Interactions of Porphyrins with Macromolecules Using NMR Spectroscopy Techniques
by Ilche Gjuroski, Julien Furrer and Martina Vermathen
Molecules 2021, 26(7), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071942 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4867
Abstract
Porphyrinic compounds are widespread in nature and play key roles in biological processes such as oxygen transport in blood, enzymatic redox reactions or photosynthesis. In addition, both naturally derived as well as synthetic porphyrinic compounds are extensively explored for biomedical and technical applications [...] Read more.
Porphyrinic compounds are widespread in nature and play key roles in biological processes such as oxygen transport in blood, enzymatic redox reactions or photosynthesis. In addition, both naturally derived as well as synthetic porphyrinic compounds are extensively explored for biomedical and technical applications such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photovoltaic systems, respectively. Their unique electronic structures and photophysical properties make this class of compounds so interesting for the multiple functions encountered. It is therefore not surprising that optical methods are typically the prevalent analytical tool applied in characterization and processes involving porphyrinic compounds. However, a wealth of complementary information can be obtained from NMR spectroscopic techniques. Based on the advantage of providing structural and dynamic information with atomic resolution simultaneously, NMR spectroscopy is a powerful method for studying molecular interactions between porphyrinic compounds and macromolecules. Such interactions are of special interest in medical applications of porphyrinic photosensitizers that are mostly combined with macromolecular carrier systems. The macromolecular surrounding typically stabilizes the encapsulated drug and may also modify its physical properties. Moreover, the interaction with macromolecular physiological components needs to be explored to understand and control mechanisms of action and therapeutic efficacy. This review focuses on such non-covalent interactions of porphyrinic drugs with synthetic polymers as well as with biomolecules such as phospholipids or proteins. A brief introduction into various NMR spectroscopic techniques is given including chemical shift perturbation methods, NOE enhancement spectroscopy, relaxation time measurements and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy. How these NMR tools are used to address porphyrin–macromolecule interactions with respect to their function in biomedical applications is the central point of the current review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry-Part I)
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20 pages, 350 KiB  
Review
An Update on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Design through a Computational Approach to Produce Molecular Recognition Material with Enhanced Analytical Performance
by Shendi Suryana, Mutakin, Yudi Rosandi and Aliya Nur Hasanah
Molecules 2021, 26(7), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071891 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 3314
Abstract
Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) computational design is expected to become a routine technique prior to synthesis to produce polymers with high affinity and selectivity towards target molecules. Furthermore, using these simulations reduces the cost of optimizing polymerization composition. There are several computational methods [...] Read more.
Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) computational design is expected to become a routine technique prior to synthesis to produce polymers with high affinity and selectivity towards target molecules. Furthermore, using these simulations reduces the cost of optimizing polymerization composition. There are several computational methods used in MIP fabrication and each requires a comprehensive study in order to select a process with results that are most similar to properties exhibited by polymers synthesized through laboratory experiments. Until now, no review has linked computational strategies with experimental results, which are needed to determine the method that is most appropriate for use in designing MIP with high molecular recognition. This review will present an update of the computational approaches started from 2016 until now on quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics that have been widely used. It will also discuss the linear correlation between computational results and the polymer performance tests through laboratory experiments to examine to what extent these methods can be relied upon to obtain polymers with high molecular recognition. Based on the literature search, density functional theory (DFT) with various hybrid functions and basis sets is most often used as a theoretical method to provide a shorter MIP manufacturing process as well as good analytical performance as recognition material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry-Part I)
17 pages, 632 KiB  
Review
Organic Contaminants and Interactions with Micro- and Nano-Plastics in the Aqueous Environment: Review of Analytical Methods
by Julia Reichel, Johanna Graßmann, Oliver Knoop, Jörg E. Drewes and Thomas Letzel
Molecules 2021, 26(4), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041164 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3491
Abstract
Micro- and nanoplastic particles are increasingly seen not only as contaminants themselves, but also as potential vectors for trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) that might sorb onto these particles. An analysis of the sorbed TOrCs can either be performed directly from the particle or [...] Read more.
Micro- and nanoplastic particles are increasingly seen not only as contaminants themselves, but also as potential vectors for trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) that might sorb onto these particles. An analysis of the sorbed TOrCs can either be performed directly from the particle or TOrCs can be extracted from the particle with a solvent. Another possibility is to analyze the remaining concentration in the aqueous phase by a differential approach. In this review, the focus is on analytical methods that are suitable for identifying and quantifying sorbed TOrCs on micro- and nano-plastics. Specific gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) methods are considered. The respective advantages of each method are explained in detail. In addition, influencing factors for sorption in the first place are being discussed including particle size and shape (especially micro and nanoparticles) and the type of polymer, as well as methods for determining sorption kinetics. Since the particles are not present in the environment in a virgin state, the influence of aging on sorption is also considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry-Part I)
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23 pages, 463 KiB  
Review
Microextraction Techniques with Deep Eutectic Solvents
by Orfeas-Evangelos Plastiras, Eirini Andreasidou and Victoria Samanidou
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 6026; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25246026 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 5000
Abstract
In this review, the ever-increasing use of deep eutectic solvents (DES) in microextraction techniques will be discussed, focusing on the reasons needed to replace conventional extraction techniques with greener approaches that follow the principles of green analytical chemistry. The properties of DES will [...] Read more.
In this review, the ever-increasing use of deep eutectic solvents (DES) in microextraction techniques will be discussed, focusing on the reasons needed to replace conventional extraction techniques with greener approaches that follow the principles of green analytical chemistry. The properties of DES will be discussed, pinpointing their exceptional performance and analytical parameters, justifying their current extensive scientific interest. Finally, a variety of applications for commonly used microextraction techniques will be reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry-Part I)
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32 pages, 4099 KiB  
Review
The Identification of Cotton Fibers Dyed with Reactive Dyes for Forensic Purposes
by Daria Śmigiel-Kamińska, Jolanta Wąs-Gubała, Piotr Stepnowski and Jolanta Kumirska
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5435; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225435 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5069
Abstract
Some of the most common microtraces that are currently collected at crime scenes are fragments of single fibers. The perpetrator leaves them at a crime scene or takes them away, for example, on their clothing or body. In turn, the microscopic dimensions of [...] Read more.
Some of the most common microtraces that are currently collected at crime scenes are fragments of single fibers. The perpetrator leaves them at a crime scene or takes them away, for example, on their clothing or body. In turn, the microscopic dimensions of such traces mean that the perpetrator does not notice them and therefore usually does not take action to remove them. Cotton and polyester fibers dyed by reactive and dispersion dyes, respectively, are very popular within clothing products, and they are hidden among microtraces at the scene of a crime. In our recently published review paper, we summarized the possibilities for the identification of disperse dyes of polyester fibers for forensic purposes. In this review, we are concerned with cotton fibers dyed with reactive dyes. Cotton fibers are natural ones that cannot easily be distinguished on the basis of morphological features. Consequently, their color and consequently the dye composition are often their only characteristics. The presented methods for the identification of reactive dyes could be very interesting not only for forensic laboratories, but also for scientists working in food, cosmetics or pharmaceutical/medical sciences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry-Part I)
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39 pages, 837 KiB  
Review
Non-Chromatographic Speciation of As by HG Technique—Analysis of Samples with Different Matrices
by Maja Welna, Anna Szymczycha-Madeja and Pawel Pohl
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 4944; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25214944 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2580
Abstract
The applicability of the hydride generation (HG) sample introduction technique combined with different spectrochemical detection methods for non-chromatographic speciation of toxic As species, i.e., As(III), As(V), dimethylarsinate (DMA) and monomethylarsonate (MMA), in waters and other environmental, food and biological matrices is presented as [...] Read more.
The applicability of the hydride generation (HG) sample introduction technique combined with different spectrochemical detection methods for non-chromatographic speciation of toxic As species, i.e., As(III), As(V), dimethylarsinate (DMA) and monomethylarsonate (MMA), in waters and other environmental, food and biological matrices is presented as a promising tool to speciate As by obviating chromatographic separation. Different non-chromatographic procedures along with speciation protocols reported in the literature over the past 20 year are summarized. Basic rules ensuring species selective generation of the corresponding hydrides are presented in detail. Common strategies and alternative approaches are highlighted. Aspects of proper sample preparation before analysis and the selection of adequate strategies for speciation purposes are emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry-Part I)
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22 pages, 3399 KiB  
Review
Liquid-Chromatographic Methods for Carboxylic Acids in Biological Samples
by Takuya Fujiwara, Ryoto Inoue, Takuma Ohtawa and Makoto Tsunoda
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 4883; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25214883 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4175
Abstract
Carboxyl-bearing low-molecular-weight compounds such as keto acids, fatty acids, and other organic acids are involved in a myriad of metabolic pathways owing to their high polarity and solubility in biological fluids. Various disease areas such as cancer, myeloid leukemia, heart disease, liver disease, [...] Read more.
Carboxyl-bearing low-molecular-weight compounds such as keto acids, fatty acids, and other organic acids are involved in a myriad of metabolic pathways owing to their high polarity and solubility in biological fluids. Various disease areas such as cancer, myeloid leukemia, heart disease, liver disease, and lifestyle diseases (obesity and diabetes) were found to be related to certain metabolic pathways and changes in the concentrations of the compounds involved in those pathways. Therefore, the quantification of such compounds provides useful information pertaining to diagnosis, pathological conditions, and disease mechanisms, spurring the development of numerous analytical methods for this purpose. This review article addresses analytical methods for the quantification of carboxylic acids, which were classified into fatty acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis-related compounds, amino acid metabolites, perfluorinated carboxylic acids, α-keto acids and their metabolites, thiazole-containing carboxylic acids, and miscellaneous, in biological samples from 2000 to date. Methods involving liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet, fluorescence, mass spectrometry, and electrochemical detection were summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry-Part I)
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15 pages, 1012 KiB  
Review
Innovations in Extractive Phases for In-Tube Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled to Miniaturized Liquid Chromatography: A Critical Review
by Henry Daniel Ponce-Rodríguez, Jorge Verdú-Andrés, Rosa Herráez-Hernández and Pilar Campíns-Falcó
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2460; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102460 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2973
Abstract
Over the past years, a great effort has been devoted to the development of new sorbents that can be used to pack or to coat extractive capillaries for in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME). Many of those efforts have been focused on the preparation of [...] Read more.
Over the past years, a great effort has been devoted to the development of new sorbents that can be used to pack or to coat extractive capillaries for in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME). Many of those efforts have been focused on the preparation of capillaries for miniaturized liquid chromatography (LC) due to the reduced availability of capillary columns with appropriate dimensions for this kind of system. Moreover, many of the extractive capillaries that have been used for IT-SPME so far are segments of open columns from the gas chromatography (GC) field, but the phase nature and dimensions are very limited. In particular, polar compounds barely interact with stationary GC phases. Capillary GC columns may also be unsuitable when highly selective extractions are needed. In this work, we provide an overview of the extractive capillaries that have been specifically developed for capillary LC (capLC) and nano LC (nanoLC) to enhance the overall performance of the IT-SPME, the chromatographic separation, and the detection. Different monolithic polymers, such as silica C18 and C8 polymers, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), polymers functionalized with antibodies, and polymers reinforced with different types of carbon nanotubes, metal, and metal oxide nanoparticles (including magnetic nanoparticles), and restricted access materials (RAMs) will be presented and critically discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry-Part I)
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24 pages, 5772 KiB  
Review
Sample Preparation Using Graphene-Oxide-Derived Nanomaterials for the Extraction of Metals
by Natalia Manousi, Erwin Rosenberg, Eleni A. Deliyanni and George A. Zachariadis
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2411; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102411 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4493
Abstract
Graphene oxide is a compound with a form similar to graphene, composed of carbon atoms in a sp2 single-atom layer of a hybrid connection. Due to its significant surface area and its good mechanical and thermal stability, graphene oxide has a plethora [...] Read more.
Graphene oxide is a compound with a form similar to graphene, composed of carbon atoms in a sp2 single-atom layer of a hybrid connection. Due to its significant surface area and its good mechanical and thermal stability, graphene oxide has a plethora of applications in various scientific fields including heterogenous catalysis, gas storage, environmental remediation, etc. In analytical chemistry, graphene oxide has been successfully employed for the extraction and preconcentration of organic compounds, metal ions, and proteins. Since graphene oxide sheets are negatively charged in aqueous solutions, the material and its derivatives are ideal sorbents to bind with metal ions. To date, various graphene oxide nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized and evaluated for the extraction and preconcentration of metal ions from biological, environmental, agricultural, and food samples. In this review article, we aim to discuss the application of graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposites for the extraction of metal ions prior to their determination via an instrumental analytical technique. Applications of ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents for the modification of graphene oxide and its functionalized derivatives are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Articles in Analytical Chemistry-Part I)
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