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Special Issue "Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Quan-Bin Han

School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: natural product chemistry; quality analysis of herb medicines and natural polysaccharides

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural polysaccharides are attracting increasing interests from scientists in multidisciplinary research fields, because they are esculent and show a broad spectrum of bio-activities, including immunoregulatory activity, anti-fatigue activity, antioxidant activity, antitumor activity, anti-diabetic activity, and anti-inflammatory activity.

Polysaccharides, as the majority of the water decoction of Chinese medicines, might explain some of the bioactivities of Chinese medicines. Exploring the chemistry and bioactivities of polysaccharides will help uncover the secrets of Chinese Medicine decoctions.

Difficulties are still significant. Concerns about sample preparation, structure elucidation, and quality control of polysaccharides are often mentioned. In addition to the difficulties in chemical study, our knowledge to the mechanism of polysaccharides’ bioactivities is poor, because all these bioactivities are associated with the immunomodulatory activity to which we have not known much. All the above-mentioned difficulties further limited our knowledge to the structure-activity relationship.

Therefore, any efforts to investigate the extraction, separation, structure elucidation, quality analysis, bioactivities, mechanism of action, and the structure-activity relationship of natural polysaccharides should be encouraged. Review articles are also welcome.

Assoc. Prof. Quan-Bin Han
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • separation technology
  • structure elucidation
  • quality analysis
  • bioactivities
  • acute and long-term toxicity
  • mechanism of action
  • structure-activity relationship

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Correlations of Molecular Weights of β-Glucans from Qingke (Tibetan Hulless Barley) to Their Multiple Bioactivities
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071710
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
β-glucans have been considered the major bioactive components in Qingke (Tibetan hulless barley). However, the structure–function relationships of β-glucans from Qingke have seldom been investigated. Whether the bioactivities of Qingke β-glucans are closely correlated to their molecular weights remains unknown. Therefore, in order
[...] Read more.
β-glucans have been considered the major bioactive components in Qingke (Tibetan hulless barley). However, the structure–function relationships of β-glucans from Qingke have seldom been investigated. Whether the bioactivities of Qingke β-glucans are closely correlated to their molecular weights remains unknown. Therefore, in order to explore Qingke β-glucans as functional/healthy food ingredients for industrial applications, and to better understand their structure–function relationships, correlations of molecular weights of Qingke β-glucans to their in vitro binding properties, inhibitory activities on digestive enzymes (α-amylase and pancreatic lipase), anti-inflammatory activities, and anticancer activities were systematically investigated. Results showed that the in vitro binding properties and the inhibitory activities on α-amylase and pancreatic lipase of Qingke β-glucans were positively correlated to their molecular weights. However, the anti-inflammatory activities of Qingke β-glucans increased as their molecular weights decreased. Furthermore, Qingke β-glucans exhibited selectively anti-cancer activities in vitro. Positive and negative correlations of molecular weights to inhibitory effects against A549 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells were observed, respectively. However, the inhibitory effects of Qingke β-glucans against HCT116 cells were not associated with their molecular weights. Results suggested that the molecular weights of Qingke β-glucans significantly affected their bioactivities, which was beneficial for a better understanding of their structure–function relationships. Moreover, results showed that Qingke β-glucans could be further explored as functional/healthy food ingredients for industrial applications due to their multiple health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Interference of Quercetin on Astragalus Polysaccharide-Induced Macrophage Activation
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071563
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
PDF Full-text (1815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polysaccharides, which exert immunoregulatory effects, are becoming more and more popular as food supplements; however, certain components of ordinary foods could be reducing the polysaccharides beneficial effects. Quercetin, a flavonoid found in common fruits and vegetables, is one such component. This study investigated
[...] Read more.
Polysaccharides, which exert immunoregulatory effects, are becoming more and more popular as food supplements; however, certain components of ordinary foods could be reducing the polysaccharides beneficial effects. Quercetin, a flavonoid found in common fruits and vegetables, is one such component. This study investigated the effects of quercetin on Astragalus polysaccharide RAP induced-macrophage activation. The results show quercetin decreases the NO production and iNOS gene expression in RAW264.7 cells, and it inhibits the production of cytokines in RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. Western blot analysis results suggest that quercetin inhibits the phosphorylation of Akt/mTORC1, MAPKs, and TBK1, but has no effect on NF-κB in RAP-induced RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, the results show that quercetin partly inhibits macrophage activation by the Astragalus polysaccharide RAP. This study demonstrates that quercetin-containing foods may interfere with the immune-enhancing effects of Astragalus polysaccharide RAP to a certain extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Structural Characterization of the Polysaccharide from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051207
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4086 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of crude polysaccharides (PSP) from pumpkin seeds was optimized by response surface method (RSM). The polysaccharide yield (2.29 ± 0.14%), which agreed closely with the theoretical predicted value 2.40%, was obtained under the optimal extraction conditions:
[...] Read more.
In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of crude polysaccharides (PSP) from pumpkin seeds was optimized by response surface method (RSM). The polysaccharide yield (2.29 ± 0.14%), which agreed closely with the theoretical predicted value 2.40%, was obtained under the optimal extraction conditions: extraction time 24 min, extraction temperature 50 °C, ultrasonic power 347 W, and liquid to solid ratio 23 mL/g. After further purification by two-step column chromatography, a novel polysaccharide (PSP-1) was isolated from pumpkin seeds. PSP-1 was composed of mannose, glucose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:4.26:5.78 with molecular weight of 3728 g/mol. 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy analysis revealed that the backbone of PSP-1 was mainly formed by β→6)-β-d-Galp-(1→, →6)-α-d-Glcp-(1→, and →3,6)-β-d-Manp-(1→ with branching at O-3 and O-6 of →3,6)-β-d-Manp-(1→. Branch linkages were composed of α-d-Glcp-(1→ and →4)-α-d-Galp-(1→. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Cyclization Reaction of Acyl Thiourea Chitosan: Enhanced Antifungal Properties via Structural Optimization
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030594
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
In this study, 3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolyl chitosan (MTACS) and 3-chloromethyl-1,2,4-triazolyl chitosan (CMTACS) were prepared via cyclization of acyl thiourea chitosan (TUCS). Their structures were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis, DSC, XRD, and SEM. The conformations were predicted using the Gaussian 09 program. Additionally,
[...] Read more.
In this study, 3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolyl chitosan (MTACS) and 3-chloromethyl-1,2,4-triazolyl chitosan (CMTACS) were prepared via cyclization of acyl thiourea chitosan (TUCS). Their structures were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis, DSC, XRD, and SEM. The conformations were predicted using the Gaussian 09 program. Additionally, the antifungal properties of MTACS and CMTACS against Stemphylium solani weber (S. solani), Alternaria porri (A. porri), and Gloeosporium theae-sinensis (G. theae-sinensis) were assayed in vitro and ranged from 250 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL. The results showed that MTACS and CMTACS exhibited enhanced inhibitory effect on the selected fungi compared to the original chitosan and TUCS. In particular, they displayed better antifungal activities against A. porri and G. theae-sinensis than that of the positive control, Triadimefon. The findings described here may lead to them being used as antifungal agents for crop protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Physicochemical Characterization and Functional Analysis of the Polysaccharide from the Edible Microalga Nostoc sphaeroides
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020508
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 18 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nostoc colonies have been used as food and medicine for centuries, and their main supporting matrix is polysaccharides, which help Nostoc cells resist various environmental stresses including oxidative stress. Here we isolated a polysaccharide, nostoglycan, from cultured Nostoc sphaeroides colonies and determined its
[...] Read more.
Nostoc colonies have been used as food and medicine for centuries, and their main supporting matrix is polysaccharides, which help Nostoc cells resist various environmental stresses including oxidative stress. Here we isolated a polysaccharide, nostoglycan, from cultured Nostoc sphaeroides colonies and determined its physicochemical properties, which revealed a characteristic infrared absorption spectrum typical of polysaccharides and an amorphous morphology with rough surfaces. We also show that nostoglycan has strong moisture absorption and retention capacities and a high relative viscosity. Using Caenorhabditis elegans models, we then demonstrate that nostoglycan is capable of improving overall survival rate of the animals under increased oxidative stress caused by paraquat. Nostoglycan also reduces reactive oxygen species level, inhibits protein carbonyl formation and lipid peroxidation, and increases activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in paraquat-exposed nematodes. As oxidative stress may drive tumor progression, we further demonstrate that nostoglycan can suppress the proliferation of several types of tumor cells and induce apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells via caspase-3 activation. Together, our results yield important information on the physicochemical characteristics and demonstrate the antioxidant and anti-proliferative functions of nostoglycan, and thus provide an insight into its potential in food and health industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effects of Enzyme-Extracted Oudemansiella radiata Polysaccharides on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020481
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (13188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work was to examine the antioxidation in vitro and hepatoprotective effects of enzyme-extracted Oudemansiella radiata polysaccharides (En-OPS) on alcohol-induced liver damage in mice. The antioxidant activities were determined according to the scavenging effects of En-OPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals,
[...] Read more.
This work was to examine the antioxidation in vitro and hepatoprotective effects of enzyme-extracted Oudemansiella radiata polysaccharides (En-OPS) on alcohol-induced liver damage in mice. The antioxidant activities were determined according to the scavenging effects of En-OPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and the level of reducing power. En-OPS showed hepatoprotective activities on decreasing the serum levels of aspertate aminotransferase (AST), alamine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as hepatic lipid levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG). En-OPS treatment reversed the acute impairment induced by alcohol consumption, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde (MAD), and lipid peroxide (LPO) elevation; and superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH peroxide (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) impairment. The En-OPS effectively ameliorated alcohol metabolism by activating alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and reducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) levels. Furthermore, the histopathological observations also displayed that En-OPS could alleviate liver damage. These results indicated that En-OPS could be suitable to be an ingredient of preventing alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). In addition, the preliminary structure characteristics of En-OPS were also analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Chitin and Cellulose Processing in Low-Temperature Electron Beam Plasma
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111908
Received: 3 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polysaccharide processing by means of low-temperature Electron Beam Plasma (EBP) is a promising alternative to the time-consuming and environmentally hazardous chemical hydrolysis in oligosaccharide production. The present paper considers mechanisms of the EBP-stimulated destruction of crab shell chitin, cellulose sulfate, and microcrystalline cellulose,
[...] Read more.
Polysaccharide processing by means of low-temperature Electron Beam Plasma (EBP) is a promising alternative to the time-consuming and environmentally hazardous chemical hydrolysis in oligosaccharide production. The present paper considers mechanisms of the EBP-stimulated destruction of crab shell chitin, cellulose sulfate, and microcrystalline cellulose, as well as characterization of the produced oligosaccharides. The polysaccharide powders were treated in oxygen EBP for 1–20 min at 40 °C in a mixing reactor placed in the zone of the EBP generation. The chemical structure and molecular mass of the oligosaccharides were analyzed by size exclusion and the reversed phase chromatography, FTIR-spectroscopy, XRD-, and NMR-techniques. The EBP action on original polysaccharides reduces their crystallinity index and polymerization degree. Water-soluble products with lower molecular weight chitooligosaccharides (weight-average molecular mass, Mw = 1000–2000 Da and polydispersity index 2.2) and cellulose oligosaccharides with polymerization degrees 3–10 were obtained. The 1H-NMR analysis revealed 25–40% deacetylation of the EBP-treated chitin and FTIR-spectroscopy detected an increase of carbonyl- and carboxyl-groups in the oligosaccharides produced. Possible reactions of β-1,4-glycosidic bonds’ destruction due to active oxygen species and high-energy electrons are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Purification, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides Isolated from Cortex Periplocae
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111866
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, crude Cortex Periplocae polysaccharides (CCPPs) were extracted with water. CCPPs were decolored with AB-8 resin and deproteinated using papain-Sevage methods. Then, they were further purified and separated through DEAE-52 anion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography, respectively. Three
[...] Read more.
In this study, crude Cortex Periplocae polysaccharides (CCPPs) were extracted with water. CCPPs were decolored with AB-8 resin and deproteinated using papain-Sevage methods. Then, they were further purified and separated through DEAE-52 anion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography, respectively. Three main fractions—CPP1, CPP2, and CPP3, (CPPs)—were obtained. The average molecular weights, monosaccharide analysis, surface morphology, and chemical compositions of the CPPs were investigated by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, the antioxidant activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated. The results indicated that all of the CPPs were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, and galactose. These three polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities in four assays including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical, reducing power, and total antioxidant activity in vitro. The data indicated that these three polysaccharides could be utilized as potential natural sources of alternative additives in the functional food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Astragalus Polysaccharide Protect against Cadmium-Induced Cytotoxicity through the MDA5/NF-κB Pathway in Chicken Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101610
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14941 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a known environmental pollutant that is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is a major component of Astragalus membranaceus, a vital qi-reinforcing herb medicine with favorable immuneregulation properties. To study the effect of APS
[...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is a known environmental pollutant that is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is a major component of Astragalus membranaceus, a vital qi-reinforcing herb medicine with favorable immuneregulation properties. To study the effect of APS on the inhibition of the cadmium-induced injury of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in chickens through the MDA5/NF-κB signaling pathway, PLBs acquired from 15-day-old chickens were divided into control group, Cd group, APS + Cd group, anti-MDA5 mAb + Cd group, BAY 11-7082 (a nuclear factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-κB] inhibitor) +Cd group, APS group, anti-MDA5 mAb group, and BAY 11-7082 group. The transcription levels of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), interferon promoter-stimulating factor 1 (IPS-1), NF-κB, and inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. MDA5 protein expression was measured by western blotting. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured by corresponding antioxidant kit. The morphological change of PBLs was measured by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that Cd significantly increased the expression of MDA5, IPS-1, NF-κB, and their downstream cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, IL-6 in PLBs. In addition, a high level of MDA was observed in the Cd treatment group; the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly lower in the Cd treatment group than those in controls (p < 0.05). Ultrastructural changes of PBLs showed that Cd promoted autophagy, apoptosis, and necrosis in PBLs. However, APS can efficiently improve Cd-induced cell damage by decreasing the activation of the MDA5 signaling pathway. The effect is consistent with that of anti-MDA5 mAb or/and BAY. The results indicated that APS inhibited Cd-induced cytotoxicity through the regulation of MDA5/NF-κB signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Purification, Preliminary Characterization and Hepatoprotective Effects of Polysaccharides from Dandelion Root
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091409
Received: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, purification, preliminary characterization and hepatoprotective effects of water-soluble polysaccharides from dandelion root (DRP) were investigated. Two polysaccharides, DRP1 and DRP2, were isolated from DRP. The two polysaccharides were α-type polysaccharides and didn’t contain protein. DRP1, with a molecular weight of
[...] Read more.
In this study, purification, preliminary characterization and hepatoprotective effects of water-soluble polysaccharides from dandelion root (DRP) were investigated. Two polysaccharides, DRP1 and DRP2, were isolated from DRP. The two polysaccharides were α-type polysaccharides and didn’t contain protein. DRP1, with a molecular weight of 5695 Da, was composed of glucose, galactose and arabinose, whereas DRP2, with molecular weight of 8882 Da, was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose. The backbone of DRP1 was mainly composed of (1→6)-linked-α-d-Glc and (1→3,4)-linked-α-d-Glc. DRP2 was mainly composed of (1→)-linked-α-d-Ara and (1→)-linked-α-d-Glc. A proof-of-concept study was performed to assess the therapeutic potential of DRP1 and DRP2 in a mouse model that mimics acetaminophen (APAP) -induced liver injury (AILI) in humans. The present study shows DRP1 and DRP2 could protect the liver from APAP-induced hepatic injury by activating the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. These conclusions demonstrate that the DRP1 and DRP2 might be suitable as functional foods and natural drugs in preventing APAP-induced liver injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation, Characterization and Bioactivities of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced from Streptomyces sp. MOE6
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091396
Received: 8 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Streptomyces strain was isolated from soil and the sequence of 1471 nucleotides of its 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Streptomyces sp. HV10. This newly isolated Streptomyces strain produced an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) composed mainly of glucose and mannose in a ratio
[...] Read more.
A Streptomyces strain was isolated from soil and the sequence of 1471 nucleotides of its 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Streptomyces sp. HV10. This newly isolated Streptomyces strain produced an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) composed mainly of glucose and mannose in a ratio of 1:4.1, as was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), HPLC and 1H-NMR. The antioxidant activities of the partially purified MOE6-EPS were determined by measuring the hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity and the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. In addition, the partially purified MOE6-EPS showed high ferrous ion (Fe2+) chelation activity which is another antioxidant activity. Interestingly, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays that were colorimetric assays for NAD(P)H-dependent cellular oxidoreductases and a proxy of the number of viable cells, showed that the partially purified MOE6-EPS inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The scratch wound assay showed that MOE6-EPS reduced the migration of mouse breast cancer cells (4T1). This study reports the production of EPS from Streptomyces species with promising antioxidant, metal chelating and mammalian cell inhibitory activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle A Pectic Polysaccharide from Sijunzi Decoction Promotes the Antioxidant Defenses of SW480 Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081341
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
PDF Full-text (1432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD) is a formula used for the treatment of spleen deficiency and gastrointestinal diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Polysaccharides are reported to be the main components of SJZD responsible for its bio-functions. However, highly purified and clearly characterized polysaccharides from SJZD
[...] Read more.
Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD) is a formula used for the treatment of spleen deficiency and gastrointestinal diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Polysaccharides are reported to be the main components of SJZD responsible for its bio-functions. However, highly purified and clearly characterized polysaccharides from SJZD are not well described. Here we obtained a purified polysaccharide (SJZDP-II-I) from SJZD using ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Structure analysis by FT-IR and NMR identified SJZDP-II-I as a typical pectic polysaccharide with homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan type I regions and arabinogalactan type I and II as side chains. In vitro studies indicated that SJZDP-II-I treatment could significantly enhance the total antioxidant capacity of SW480 cells, resulting from the promoted expressions of antioxidant enzymes and their master regulator PGC-1α, which would be valuable for further research and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation, Purification and Structural Characterization of Two Novel Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Anredera cordifolia
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081276
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 23 July 2017 / Accepted: 29 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anredera cordifolia, a climber and member of the Basellaceae family, has long been a traditional medicine used for the treatment of hyperglycemia in China. Two water-soluble polysaccharides, ACP1-1 and ACP2-1, were isolated from A. cordifolia seeds by hot water extraction. The two
[...] Read more.
Anredera cordifolia, a climber and member of the Basellaceae family, has long been a traditional medicine used for the treatment of hyperglycemia in China. Two water-soluble polysaccharides, ACP1-1 and ACP2-1, were isolated from A. cordifolia seeds by hot water extraction. The two fractions, ACP1-1 and ACP2-1 with molecular weights of 46.78 kDa ± 0.03 and 586.8 kDa ± 0.05, respectively, were purified by chromatography. ACP1-1 contained mannose, glucose, galactose in a molar ratio of 1.08:4.65:1.75, whereas ACP2-1 contained arabinose, ribose, galactose, glucose, mannose in a molar ratio of 0.9:0.4:0.5:1.2:0.9. Based on methylation analysis, ultraviolet and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and periodate oxidation the main backbone chain of ACP1-1 contained (1→3,6)-galacturonopyranosyl residues interspersed with (1→4)-residues and (1→3)-mannopyranosyl residues. The main backbone chain of ACP2-1 contained (1→3)-galacturonopyranosyl residues interspersed with (1→4)-glucopyranosyl residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Review

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Open AccessReview β-Glucans: Multi-Functional Modulator of Wound Healing
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040806
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
β-glucans are derived from a variety of sources including yeast, grain and fungus and belong to the class of drugs known as biological response modifiers. They possess a broad spectrum of biological activities that enhance immunity in humans. One promising area for β-glucans’
[...] Read more.
β-glucans are derived from a variety of sources including yeast, grain and fungus and belong to the class of drugs known as biological response modifiers. They possess a broad spectrum of biological activities that enhance immunity in humans. One promising area for β-glucans’ application is dermatology, including wound care. Topical applications of β-glucans are increasing, especially due to their pluripotent properties. Macrophages, keratinocytes and fibroblasts are considered the main target cells of β-glucans during wound healing. β-glucans enhance wound repair by increasing the infiltration of macrophages, which stimulates tissue granulation, collagen deposition and reepithelialization. β-glucan wound dressings represent a suitable wound healing agent, with great stability and resistance to wound proteases. This review summarizes the current knowledge and progress made on characterizing β-glucans’ wound healing properties in vitro and in vivo and their safety and efficacy in managing non-healing wounds or other chronic dermatological conditions and diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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