Special Issue "Strategies and Weapons to Fight Antimicrobial Resistance"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Miguel Viñas

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology & Antimicrobials Medical School, Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: antimicrobials; antimicrobial resistance; cancer and infection; antimicrobial peptides
Guest Editor
Dr. Josep M. Sierra

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology & Antimicrobials Medical School, Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: antimicrobials; antimicrobial resistance; cancer and infection; antimicrobial peptides

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The MDPI executive editors have invited us to edit a Special Issue of Microorganisms devoted to summarizing data and perspectives on the newest strategies and weapons to be used in fighting the worldwide problem posed by antimicrobial resistance. Pharmaceutical techniques, combinations of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial peptides both natural or synthetic, the inhibition of efflux pumps, new combinations of old antibiotics, the use of nanotechniques, or the use of light and photosensitizers appear to be theoretically useful tools for the near future. Moreover, a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of both antibiotic action and resistance should constitute the basis for further developments. Theoretical chemistry and modeling may greatly contribute to this objective. The main purpose of this Special Issue is to present the state-of-the-art on this topic.

Prof. Miguel Viñas
Dr. Josep M. Sierra
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial peptides
  • Efflux pump inhibitors
  • Bacteriophages
  • Bacteriocins
  • Photodynamic effect
  • Nanoparticles
  • Synergism

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Efficiency of Single Phage Suspensions and Phage Cocktail in the Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium: An In Vitro Preliminary Study
Microorganisms 2019, 7(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7040094
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
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Abstract
Enterobacteriaceae Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are among the main pathogens responsible for moderate and serious infections at hospital and community environments, in part because they frequently present resistance to antibiotics. As the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae infections is empiric, using [...] Read more.
Enterobacteriaceae Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are among the main pathogens responsible for moderate and serious infections at hospital and community environments, in part because they frequently present resistance to antibiotics. As the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae infections is empiric, using the same antibiotics to treat E. coli and Salmonella infections, the same concept can be applied with phages. The use of different phages combined in cocktails, frequently used to circumvent the development of phage-resistant mutants, also allows for the treatment of multiple pathogens, broadening the phages’ action spectrum. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a cocktail of two phages (ELY-1, produced on E. coli and phSE-5, produced on S. Typhimurium) to control E. coli and S. Typhimurium. Phages ELY-1 and phSE-5 were effective against E. coli (maximum reductions of 4.5 and 3.8 log CFU/mL, respectively), S. Typhimurium (maximum reductions of 2.2 and 2.6 log CFU/mL, respectively), and the mixture of both bacteria (maximum reductions of 2.2 and 2.0 log CFU/mL, respectively). The cocktail ELY-1/phSE-5 was more effective against S. Typhimurium and the mixture of both bacteria (maximum reduction of 3.2 log CFU/mL for both) than the single phage suspensions and as effective against E. coli as its specific phage ELY-1 (maximum reductions of 4.5 log CFU/mL). The use of both the phage cocktails, as well as the single-phage suspensions, however, did not prevent the occurrence of phage-resistant mutants. Overall, the results indicate that the application of the phages in the form of a cocktail show their potential to be used presumptively, that is, prior to the identification of the pathogens, paving its use to control E. coli or S. Typhimurium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies and Weapons to Fight Antimicrobial Resistance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle What an Escherichia coli Mutant Can Teach Us About the Antibacterial Effect of Chlorophyllin
Microorganisms 2019, 7(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7020059
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Due to the increasing development of antibiotic resistances in recent years, scientists search intensely for new methods to control bacteria. Photodynamic treatment with porphyrins such as chlorophyll derivatives is one of the most promising methods to handle bacterial infestation, but their use is [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing development of antibiotic resistances in recent years, scientists search intensely for new methods to control bacteria. Photodynamic treatment with porphyrins such as chlorophyll derivatives is one of the most promising methods to handle bacterial infestation, but their use is dependent on illumination and they seem to be more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negatives. In this study, we tested chlorophyllin against three bacterial model strains, the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis 168, the Gram-negative Escherichia coli DH5α and E. coli strain NR698 which has a deficient outer membrane, simulating a Gram-negative “without” its outer membrane. Illuminated with a standardized light intensity of 12 mW/cm2, B. subtilis showed high sensitivity already at low chlorophyllin concentrations (≤105 cfu/mL: ≤0.1 mg/L, 106–108 cfu/mL: 0.5 mg/L), whereas E. coli DH5α was less sensitive (≤105 cfu/mL: 2.5 mg/L, 106 cfu/mL: 5 mg/L, 107–108 cfu/mL: ineffective at ≤25 mg/L chlorophyllin). E. coli NR698 was almost as sensitive as B. subtilis against chlorophyllin, pointing out that the outer membrane plays a significant role in protection against photodynamic chlorophyllin impacts. Interestingly, E. coli NR698 and B. subtilis can also be inactivated by chlorophyllin in darkness, indicating a second, light-independent mode of action. Thus, chlorophyllin seems to be more than a photosensitizer, and a promising substance for the control of bacteria, which deserves further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies and Weapons to Fight Antimicrobial Resistance)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Combination of Posaconazole and Amphotericin B in the Treatment of Candida glabrata Biofilms
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040123
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
Candidemia cases have been increasing, especially among immunosuppressed patients. Candida glabrata is one of the most resistant Candida species, especially to the azole drugs, resulting in a high demand for therapeutic alternatives. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimum [...] Read more.
Candidemia cases have been increasing, especially among immunosuppressed patients. Candida glabrata is one of the most resistant Candida species, especially to the azole drugs, resulting in a high demand for therapeutic alternatives. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) were determined for posaconazole (Pcz) and amphotericin B (AmB). The drug combinations of both drugs were evaluated on pre-formed biofilms of C. glabrata ATCC 2001, through XTT (2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) assay, colony forming units (CFU), crystal violet, and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). C. glabrata revealed higher susceptibility and biofilm reduction in the presence of AmB alone, but both drugs revealed a good capacity in the biomass elimination. In the majority of the tested combinations, the interactions were defined as indifferent (FICI ≤ 4). The combination of the two drugs does not seem to bring a clear advantage in the treatment of biofilms of C. glabrata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies and Weapons to Fight Antimicrobial Resistance)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Association of posaconazole and amphotericin B in the treatment of biofilms of Candida glabrata

Authors: Célia Fortuna Rodrigues, et al

Abstract: Candidaemia is increasing, especially among immunosuppressed individuals. Of all species, Candida glabrata is one of the most drug resistant, especially to the azole class, being, thus, important to search for therapeutic alternatives. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and minimum biofilm eradicatory concentration (MBEC) were determined for posaconazole (Pcz) and amphotericin B (AmB). The drug combinations of both drugs were evaluated on pre-formed biofilms of C. glabrata ATCC2001, through XTT assay, colony forming units (CFU), crystal violet and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was also determined. C. glabrata showed a higher susceptibility and biofilm reduction when using AmB alone, but both drugs revealed a good capacity in the biomass elimination. In the majority of the tested combinations, the interactions were defined as indifferent (FICI≤4). The association of the drugs, does not seem to bring a clear advantage in the treatment of biofilms of C. glabrata.

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