Special Issue "Paper-Based Transducers and Electronics"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Xinyu Liu

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-514-398-1526
Interests: Wearable Devices, Biosensors, Flexible Electronics, Micro/Nanorobotics, Micro/Nanomachines, Nanomotors, Nanomedicine, BioMEMS, Electrochemistry
Guest Editor
Dr. Aaron Mazzeo

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-848-228-2498
Interests: advanced manufacturing, design, sensors, fluid-soft material interactions, disposable/flexible electronics, fluid-based centrifugal processing, mechatronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Paper, as a ubiquitous material in everyday life, has been reinvented into low-cost, flexible sensors and electronics for a variety of applications such as ‘smart’ packaging, consumer electronics, energy harvesting and storage, low-cost medical diagnostics, just to name a few. Paper possesses many features particularly suitable for developing sensors and electronics. For instance, paper is flexible, lightweight, compatible with various printing techniques, and foldable for forming three-dimensional structures that cannot be readily made from other substrates such as silicon and plastics; porous paper wicks fluids and can be patterned into fluidic channels and reservoirs for constructing fluid-containing devices, such as biosensors and flow batteries. To enable sensing and electronic functionalities on paper substrates, functional materials, such as conductive inks, organic molecules, and semiconductive nanostructures, have been integrated onto paper substrates through different strategies. Specific structural designs of the paper substrates also bring new properties and functionalities to the paper-based devices. In the past decade, significant efforts have been spent on the research and development of paper-based sensors and electronics, leading to enormous technological advances and many commercial successes. This Special Issue seeks to report the recent advances in paper-based sensors and electronics by publishing research articles, communications, reviews and opinion articles from talented researchers working in this exciting area. Original articles are solicited on the following topics, without being limited to: paper-based actuators and physical sensors, paper-based biosensors, paper-based electronics, new paper device fabrication techniques, architectural and structural designs of paper-based sensors, design and synthesis of new functional materials for use on paper-based devices, and novel applications of paper-based sensors and electronics.

Dr. Xinyu Liu
Dr. Aaron Mazzeo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Paper-based sensors and actuators
  • Paper-based MEMS
  • Paper-based biosensors
  • Paper-based machines
  • Paper-based electronics
  • Paper origami
  • Functional materials
  • Conductive inks
  • Nanomaterials
  • Inkjet printing
  • Screen printing

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Paper-Based Sensor Chip for Heavy Metal Ion Detection by SWSV
Micromachines 2018, 9(4), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9040150
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (13104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heavy metal ion pollution problems have had a terrible influence on human health and the environment. Therefore, the monitoring of heavy metal ions is of great practical significance. In this paper, an electrochemical three-electrode system was fabricated and integrated on nitrocellulose membrane (NC) [...] Read more.
Heavy metal ion pollution problems have had a terrible influence on human health and the environment. Therefore, the monitoring of heavy metal ions is of great practical significance. In this paper, an electrochemical three-electrode system was fabricated and integrated on nitrocellulose membrane (NC) by the use of magnetron sputtering technology, which exhibited a uniform arrangement of porous structure without further film modification. This paper-based sensor chip was used for Cu2+ detection by square-wave stripping voltammetry (SWSV). Within the ranges of 5~200 μg·L−1 and 200~1000 μg·L−1, it showed good linearity of 99.58% and 98.87%, respectively. The limit of detection was 2 μg·L−1. On the basis of satisfying the detection requirements (10 μg·L−1), the integrated sensor was small in size and inexpensive in cost. Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ and Bi3+ were also detected by this paper-based sensor chip with good linearity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Transducers and Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Paper-Based Piezoelectric Accelerometer
Micromachines 2018, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9010019
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the design and testing of a one-axis piezoelectric accelerometer made from cellulose paper and piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) hydrothermally grown on paper. The accelerometer adopts a cantilever-based configuration with two parallel cantilever beams attached with a paper proof [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design and testing of a one-axis piezoelectric accelerometer made from cellulose paper and piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) hydrothermally grown on paper. The accelerometer adopts a cantilever-based configuration with two parallel cantilever beams attached with a paper proof mass. A piece of U-shaped, ZnO-NW-coated paper is attached on top of the parallel beams, serving as the strain sensing element for acceleration measurement. The electric charges produced from the ZnO-NW-coated paper are converted into a voltage output using a custom-made charge amplifier circuit. The device fabrication only involves cutting of paper and hydrothermal growth of ZnO NWs, and does not require the access to expensive and sophisticated equipment. The performance of the devices with different weight growth percentages of the ZnO NWs was characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Transducers and Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
Arrayed Force Sensors Made of Paper, Elastomer, and Hydrogel Particles
Micromachines 2017, 8(12), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8120356
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 2 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This article presents a sensor for detecting the distribution of forces on a surface. The device with nine buttons consisted of an elastomer-based layer as a touch interface resting on a substrate of patterned metallized paper. The elastomer-based layer included a three-by-three array [...] Read more.
This article presents a sensor for detecting the distribution of forces on a surface. The device with nine buttons consisted of an elastomer-based layer as a touch interface resting on a substrate of patterned metallized paper. The elastomer-based layer included a three-by-three array of deformable, hemispherical elements/reliefs, facing down toward an array of interdigitated capacitive sensing units on patterned metallized paper. Each hemispherical element is 20 mm in diameter and 8 mm in height. When a user applied pressure to the elastomer-based layer, the contact area between the hemispherical elements and the interdigitated capacitive sensing units increased with the deformation of the hemispherical elements. To enhance the sensitivity of the sensors, embedded particles of hydrogel in the elastomer-based layer increased the measured electrical responses. The measured capacitance increased because the effective dielectric permittivity of the hydrogel was greater than that of air. Electromechanical characterization verified that the hydrogel-filled elastomer was more sensitive to force at a low range of loads (23.4 pF/N) than elastomer alone without embedded hydrogel (3.4 pF/N), as the hydrogel reduced the effective elastic modulus of the composite material by a factor of seven. A simple demonstration suggests that the force-sensing array has the potential to contribute to wearable and soft robotic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Transducers and Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
Rethinking the Design of Low-Cost Point-of-Care Diagnostic Devices
Micromachines 2017, 8(11), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8110317
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 21 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Reducing the global diseases burden requires effective diagnosis and treatment. In the developing world, accurate diagnosis can be the most expensive and time-consuming aspect of health care. Healthcare cost can, however, be reduced by use of affordable rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). In the [...] Read more.
Reducing the global diseases burden requires effective diagnosis and treatment. In the developing world, accurate diagnosis can be the most expensive and time-consuming aspect of health care. Healthcare cost can, however, be reduced by use of affordable rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). In the developed world, low-cost RDTs are being developed in many research laboratories; however, they are not being equally adopted in the developing countries. This disconnect points to a gap in the design philosophy, where parameterization of design variables ignores the most critical component of the system, the point-of-use stakeholders (e.g., doctors, nurses and patients). Herein, we demonstrated that a general focus on reducing cost (i.e., “low-cost”), rather than efficiency and reliability is misguided by the assumption that poverty reduces the value individuals place on their well-being. A case study of clinicians in Kenya showed that “zero-cost” is a low-weight parameter for point-of-use stakeholders, while reliability and standardization are crucial. We therefore argue that a user-driven, value-addition systems-engineering approach is needed for the design of RDTs to enhance adoption and translation into the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Transducers and Electronics)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Single-Use, Self-Powered, Paper-Based Sensor Patch for Detection of Exercise-Induced Hypoglycemia
Micromachines 2017, 8(9), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8090265
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 27 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report a paper-based self-powered sensor patch for prevention and management of exercise-induced hypoglycemia. The article describes the fabrication, in vitro, and in vivo characterization of the sensor for glucose monitoring in human sweat. This wearable, non-invasive, single-use biosensor integrates a vertically stacked, [...] Read more.
We report a paper-based self-powered sensor patch for prevention and management of exercise-induced hypoglycemia. The article describes the fabrication, in vitro, and in vivo characterization of the sensor for glucose monitoring in human sweat. This wearable, non-invasive, single-use biosensor integrates a vertically stacked, paper-based glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell into a standard Band-Aid adhesive patch. The paper-based device attaches directly to skin, wicks sweat by using capillary forces to a reservoir where chemical energy is converted to electrical energy, and monitors glucose without external power and sophisticated readout instruments. The device utilizes (1) a 3-D paper-based fuel cell configuration, (2) an electrically conducting microfluidic reservoir for a high anode surface area and efficient mass transfer, and (3) a direct electron transfer between glucose oxidase and anodes for enhanced electron discharge properties. The developed sensor shows a high linearity of current at 0.02–1.0 mg/mL glucose centration (R2 = 0.989) with a high sensitivity of 1.35 µA/mM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Transducers and Electronics)
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Graphical abstract

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