Special Issue "Additive Manufacturing for Medical Applications"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Lawrence Kulinsky
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Depmartment of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine, 4200 Engineering Gateway, Irvine, CA 92697-3975, USA
Interests: micromanufacturing; hybrid manufacturing technologies; personalized healthcare; lab-on-chip platforms; drug delivery; biosensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Additive manufacturing evolves rapidly from technology used mostly for prototypes to advanced fabrication technology increasingly used for making functional parts. Additive manufacturing is usually not the least expensive technique for mass production, but it offers a way to produce customized parts without the need to manufacture expensive masks or molds. Thus medical technology, with its need to have an individual fit for every patient—from dental implants to surgical models—is an ideal application for additive manufacturing. Therefore, development of new 3D printing technologies and other additive manufacturing methods find cutting edge application in medical care and biotechnology. This Special Issue seeks to present review articles and state of the art research papers that focus on the development of additive manufacturing techniques for a variety of medical applications ranging from tissue engineering to biofluidic platforms and personalized medical implants.

Dr. Lawrence Kulinsky
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Additive manufacturing

  • 3D printing

  • Stereolithography

  • Fused deposition modeling

  • Selective laser sintering

  • Selective laser melting

  • Direct laser melting

  • Tissue engineering

  • Medical implants

  • Lab-on-chip devices

  • Medical models

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Micro-Dosing of Fine Cohesive Powders Actuated by Pulse Inertia Force
Micromachines 2018, 9(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9020073 - 07 Feb 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Micro-dosing of fine cohesive powders is the key technology in additive manufacturing and especially in high-potency active pharmaceutical ingredients (HPAPI). However, high accuracy micro-dosing (<5 mg) of fine cohesive powder is less trivial and still remains a challenge because it is difficult to [...] Read more.
Micro-dosing of fine cohesive powders is the key technology in additive manufacturing and especially in high-potency active pharmaceutical ingredients (HPAPI). However, high accuracy micro-dosing (<5 mg) of fine cohesive powder is less trivial and still remains a challenge because it is difficult to eliminate the aggregation phenomena caused by the strong interparticle cohesive forces (in small capillaries). This paper presents a novel micro-dose method of fine cohesive powders via a pulse inertia force system. A piezoelectric actuator is used to provide a high enough pulse inertia force for a tapered glass nozzle and drive powder particles in the nozzle to be discharged from the nozzle orifice with the help of particle self-gravity. The nozzles with outlet diameters in the range of 100–2000 µm were fabricated via a glass heating process. The α-lactose monohydrate powder is used as the micro-dosing powder. The influences of the tapered nozzle outlet diameter, amplitude of the applied pulse voltage, and angle of the nozzle axis on micro-dosing mass are researched. The minimum mean dose mass is 0.6 mg for a single pulse inertia force. The coefficient of variation of dose mass, which represents the micro-dosing stability, can be controlled below 5% when the dose mass is relatively small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Reactive Inkjet Printing of Regenerated Silk Fibroin Films for Use as Dental Barrier Membranes
Micromachines 2018, 9(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9020046 - 27 Jan 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Current commercially available barrier membranes for oral surgery have yet to achieve a perfect design. Existing materials used are either non-resorbable and require a second surgery for their extraction, or alternatively are resorbable but suffer from poor structural integrity or degrade into acidic [...] Read more.
Current commercially available barrier membranes for oral surgery have yet to achieve a perfect design. Existing materials used are either non-resorbable and require a second surgery for their extraction, or alternatively are resorbable but suffer from poor structural integrity or degrade into acidic by-products. Silk has the potential to overcome these issues and has yet to be made into a commercially available dental barrier membrane. Reactive inkjet printing (RIJ) has recently been demonstrated to be a suitable method for assembling silk in its regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) form into different constructs. This paper will establish the properties of RSF solutions for RIJ and the suitability of RIJ for the construction of RSF barrier membranes. Printed RSF films were characterised by their crystallinity and surface properties, which were shown to be controllable via RIJ. RSF films degraded in either phosphate buffered saline or protease XIV solutions had degradation rates related to RSF crystallinity. RSF films were also printed with the inclusion of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). As reactive inkjet printing could control RSF crystallinity and hence its degradation rate, as well as offering the ability to incorporate bioactive nHA inclusions, reactive inkjet printing is deemed a suitable alternative method for RSF processing and the production of dental barrier membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of a Lab-on-Chip Device Using Material Extrusion (3D Printing) and Demonstration via Malaria-Ab ELISA
Micromachines 2018, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9010027 - 14 Jan 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Additive manufacturing, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM), has been increasingly employed to produce microfluidic platforms due to ease of use, wide distribution of affordable 3D printers and relatively inexpensive materials for printing. In this work, we discuss fabrication and testing of an [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM), has been increasingly employed to produce microfluidic platforms due to ease of use, wide distribution of affordable 3D printers and relatively inexpensive materials for printing. In this work, we discuss fabrication and testing of an FDM-printed fully automated colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to detect malaria. The detection platform consists of a disposable 3D-printed fluidic cartridge (with elastomeric silicone domes on top of reagent-storage reservoirs) and a nondisposable frame with servomotors and electronic controls such as an Arduino board and a rechargeable battery. The system is controlled by a novel interface where a music file (so-called “song”) is sent to the Arduino board, where the onboard program converts the set of frequencies into action of individual servomotors to rotate their arms a certain amount, thus depressing specific elastomeric domes atop reagent reservoirs and displacing the specific reagents into the detection wells, where bioassay steps are executed. Another of the distinguished characteristics of the demonstrated system is its ability to aspirate the fluid from the detection wells into the waste reservoir. Therefore, the demonstrated automated platform has the ability to execute even the most complex multi-step assays where dilution and multiple washes are required. Optimization of 3D-printer settings and ways to control leakages typical of FDM-printed fluidic systems are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Universal Micromachining Platform and Basic Technologies for the Manufacture and Marking of Microphysiological Systems
Micromachines 2017, 8(8), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8080246 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Micro Physiological Systems (MPS), also known as Multi-Organ-Chip, Organ-on-a-Chip, or Body-on-a-Chip, are advanced microfluidic systems that allow the cultivation of different types of cells and tissue in just one common circuit. Furthermore, they thus can also adjust the interaction of these different tissues. [...] Read more.
Micro Physiological Systems (MPS), also known as Multi-Organ-Chip, Organ-on-a-Chip, or Body-on-a-Chip, are advanced microfluidic systems that allow the cultivation of different types of cells and tissue in just one common circuit. Furthermore, they thus can also adjust the interaction of these different tissues. Perspectival MPS will replace animal testing. For fast and flexible manufacturing and marking of MPS, a concept for a universal micromachining platform has been developed which provides the following latest key technologies: laser micro cutting of polymer foils, laser micro- and sub-micro-structuring of polymer foils, 3D printing of polymer components as well as optical inspection and online process control. The combination of different laser sources, processing optics, inspection systems, and print heads on multiple axes allows the change and exactly positioning to the workpiece during the process. Therewith, the realization of MPS including 3D printed components as well as direct laser interference patterned surfaces for well-defined cell adhesion and product protection is possible. Additional basic technologies for the generation of periodical line-like structures at polycarbonate foils using special Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) optics as well as for the 3D printing of fluid-tight cell culture reservoirs made of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene directly onto polycarbonate microfluidics were established. A first prototype of the universal micromachining platform combining different lasers with Direct Laser Writing and DLIP is shown. With this laser micro cutting as well as laser micro-structuring of polycarbonate (PC) foils and therewith functionalization for MPS application could be successfully demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Printing of Artificial Blood Vessel: Study on Multi-Parameter Optimization Design for Vascular Molding Effect in Alginate and Gelatin
Micromachines 2017, 8(8), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8080237 - 31 Jul 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
3D printing has emerged as one of the modern tissue engineering techniques that could potentially form scaffolds (with or without cells), which is useful in treating cardiovascular diseases. This technology has attracted extensive attention due to its possibility of curing disease in tissue [...] Read more.
3D printing has emerged as one of the modern tissue engineering techniques that could potentially form scaffolds (with or without cells), which is useful in treating cardiovascular diseases. This technology has attracted extensive attention due to its possibility of curing disease in tissue engineering and organ regeneration. In this paper, we have developed a novel rotary forming device, prepared an alginate–gelatin solution for the fabrication of vessel-like structures, and further proposed a theoretical model to analyze the parameters of motion synchronization. Using this rotary forming device, we firstly establish a theoretical model to analyze the thickness under the different nozzle extrusion speeds, nozzle speeds, and servo motor speeds. Secondly, the experiments with alginate–gelatin solution are carried out to construct the vessel-like structures under all sorts of conditions. The experiment results show that the thickness cannot be adequately predicted by the theoretical model and the thickness can be controlled by changing the parameters. Finally, the optimized parameters of thickness have been adjusted to estimate the real thickness in 3D printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Cell-Laden Hydrogel Fibers with Controllable Diameters
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8050161 - 18 May 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Cell-laden hydrogel fibers are widely used as the fundamental building blocks to fabricate more complex functional three-dimensional (3D) structures that could mimic biological tissues. The control on the diameter of the hydrogel fibers is important so as to precisely construct structures in the [...] Read more.
Cell-laden hydrogel fibers are widely used as the fundamental building blocks to fabricate more complex functional three-dimensional (3D) structures that could mimic biological tissues. The control on the diameter of the hydrogel fibers is important so as to precisely construct structures in the above 3D bio-fabrication. In this paper, a pneumatic-actuated micro-extrusion system is developed to produce hydrogel fibers based on the crosslinking behavior of sodium alginate with calcium ions. Excellent uniformity has been obtained in the diameters of the fabricated hydrogel fibers as a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm is applied on the driving pressure control. More importantly, a linear relationship has been obtained between the diameter of hydrogel fiber and the driving pressure. With the help of the identified linear model, we can precisely control the diameter of the hydrogel fiber via the control of the driving pressure. The differences between the measured and designed diameters are within ±2.5%. Finally, the influence of the calcium ions on the viability of the encapsulated cells is also investigated by immersing the cell-laden hydrogel fibers into the CaCl2 bath for different periods of time. LIVE/DEAD assays show that there is little difference among the cell viabilities in each sample. Therefore, the calcium ions utilized in the fabrication process have no impact on the cells encapsulated in the hydrogel fiber. Experimental results also show that the cell viability is 83 ± 2% for each sample after 24 h of culturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Compound-Forming Technology Using Bioprinting and Electrospinning for Patterning a 3D Scaffold Construct with Multiscale Channels
Micromachines 2016, 7(12), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7120238 - 21 Dec 2016
Cited by 7
Abstract
One of the biggest challenges for tissue engineering is to efficiently provide oxygen and nutrients to cells on a three-dimensional (3D) engineered scaffold structure. Thus, achieving sufficient vascularization of the structure is a critical problem in tissue engineering. This facilitates the need to [...] Read more.
One of the biggest challenges for tissue engineering is to efficiently provide oxygen and nutrients to cells on a three-dimensional (3D) engineered scaffold structure. Thus, achieving sufficient vascularization of the structure is a critical problem in tissue engineering. This facilitates the need to develop novel methods to enhance vascularization. Use of patterned hydrogel structures with multiscale channels can be used to achieve the required vascularization. Patterned structures need to be biocompatible and biodegradable. In this study, gelatin was used as the main part of a hydrogel to prepare a biological structure with 3D multiscale channels using bioprinting combined with selection of suitable materials and electrostatic spinning. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were then used to confirm efficacy of the structure, inferred from cell viability on different engineered construct designs. HUVECs were seeded on the surface of channels and cultured in vitro. HUVECs showed high viability and diffusion within the construct. This method can be used as a practical platform for the fabrication of engineered construct for vascularization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Medical Applications)
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