Acoustofluidics in Medicine and Biology

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "B:Biology and Biomedicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2018) | Viewed by 15277

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
Interests: acoustics; microfluidics; ultrasonics; acoustofluidics
Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences (NDORMS), Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK
Interests: bio-microfluidics; biomedical microdevices; acoustofluidics; drug delivery; biomedical ultrasound; ultrasound bio-effects; nano- & micro-particles; interventional medicine; physiological models
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of many acoustofluidic devices has focussed on medical or biological applications, largely because acoustofluidic techniques are well-suited for handling cell sized bodies, from micron-sized bacteria to larger mammalian cells. In addition, acoustic traps can work effectively at energy densities that are compatible with cell survival, the acoustic fields are relatively robust to different cell media, and traps can work over large distances. The majority of reported acoustofluidic cell-manipulation applications are in flow-through devices for sample preparation, detection and diagnosis, with obvious relevance for microfluidic point-of-care approaches. There is also an interest in using traps for static holding of cells and for bringing cells together in a controlled way for applications, such as toxicology testing, drug discovery, tissue engineering, and the study of cell–cell interactions. The acoustic field can mechanically stimulate biological cells to deliver bioactive compounds, to elicit a biological response, or to investigate ultrasound–cell interaction mechanisms.

There remain significant challenges to wider uptake of the technology however, including increasing throughput in flow-through devices, improving device reliability, system integration, refining the stability of trapped cells, and understanding the response of different cell types to the acoustofluidic environment. This Special Issue will comprise original research articles, reviews and short communications that describe recent advances in the field, to include new biomedical applications, addressing of fundamental biological and physical issues, and improving device and system design and implementation.

Prof. Martyn Hill
Dr. Dario Carugo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microfluidics
  • acoustofluidics
  • lab on a chip
  • medical diagnostics
  • tissue engineering
  • point of care devices
  • cell handling

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 3697 KiB  
Article
Acoustofluidic Measurements on Polymer-Coated Microbubbles: Primary and Secondary Bjerknes Forces
by Gianluca Memoli, Kate O. Baxter, Helen G. Jones, Ken P. Mingard and Bajram Zeqiri
Micromachines 2018, 9(8), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9080404 - 15 Aug 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4308
Abstract
The acoustically-driven dynamics of isolated particle-like objects in microfluidic environments is a well-characterised phenomenon, which has been the subject of many studies. Conversely, very few acoustofluidic researchers looked at coated microbubbles, despite their widespread use in diagnostic imaging and the need for a [...] Read more.
The acoustically-driven dynamics of isolated particle-like objects in microfluidic environments is a well-characterised phenomenon, which has been the subject of many studies. Conversely, very few acoustofluidic researchers looked at coated microbubbles, despite their widespread use in diagnostic imaging and the need for a precise characterisation of their acoustically-driven behaviour, underpinning therapeutic applications. The main reason is that microbubbles behave differently, due to their larger compressibility, exhibiting much stronger interactions with the unperturbed acoustic field (primary Bjerknes forces) or with other bubbles (secondary Bjerknes forces). In this paper, we study the translational dynamics of commercially-available polymer-coated microbubbles in a standing-wave acoustofluidic device. At increasing acoustic driving pressures, we measure acoustic forces on isolated bubbles, quantify bubble-bubble interaction forces during doublet formation and study the occurrence of sub-wavelength structures during aggregation. We present a dynamic characterisation of microbubble compressibility with acoustic pressure, highlighting a threshold pressure below which bubbles can be treated as uncoated. Thanks to benchmarking measurements under a scanning electron microscope, we interpret this threshold as the onset of buckling, providing a quantitative measurement of this parameter at the single-bubble level. For acoustofluidic applications, our results highlight the limitations of treating microbubbles as a special case of solid particles. Our findings will impact applications where knowing the buckling pressure of coated microbubbles has a key role, like diagnostics and drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustofluidics in Medicine and Biology)
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3679 KiB  
Article
Acoustic Manipulation of Bio-Particles at High Frequencies: An Analytical and Simulation Approach
by Mohamadmahdi Samandari, Karen Abrinia and Amir Sanati-Nezhad
Micromachines 2017, 8(10), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8100290 - 27 Sep 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5458
Abstract
Manipulation of micro and nano particles in microfluidic devices with high resolution is a challenge especially in bioengineering applications where bio-particles (BPs) are separated or patterned. While acoustic forces have been used to control the position of BPs, its theoretical aspects need further [...] Read more.
Manipulation of micro and nano particles in microfluidic devices with high resolution is a challenge especially in bioengineering applications where bio-particles (BPs) are separated or patterned. While acoustic forces have been used to control the position of BPs, its theoretical aspects need further investigation particularly for high-resolution manipulation where the wavelength and particle size are comparable. In this study, we used a finite element method (FEM) to amend analytical calculations of acoustic radiation force (ARF) arising from an imposed standing ultrasound field. First, an acoustic solid interaction (ASI) approach was implemented to calculate the ARF exerted on BPs and resultant deformation induced to them. The results were then used to derive a revised expression for the ARF beyond the small particle assumption. The expression was further assessed in numerical simulations of one- and multi-directional standing acoustic waves (SAWs). Furthermore, a particle tracing scheme was used to investigate the effect of actual ARF on separation and patterning applications under experimentally-relevant conditions. The results demonstrated a significant mismatch between the actual force and previous analytical predictions especially for high frequencies of manipulation. This deviation found to be not only because of the shifted ARF values but also due to the variation in force maps in multidirectional wave propagation. Findings of this work can tackle the simulation limitations for spatiotemporal control of BPs using a high resolution acoustic actuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustofluidics in Medicine and Biology)
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Review

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19 pages, 27168 KiB  
Review
Ultrasonic Based Tissue Modelling and Engineering
by Karl Olofsson, Björn Hammarström and Martin Wiklund
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110594 - 14 Nov 2018
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4683
Abstract
Systems and devices for in vitro tissue modelling and engineering are valuable tools, which combine the strength between the controlled laboratory environment and the complex tissue organization and environment in vivo. Device-based tissue engineering is also a possible avenue for future explant culture [...] Read more.
Systems and devices for in vitro tissue modelling and engineering are valuable tools, which combine the strength between the controlled laboratory environment and the complex tissue organization and environment in vivo. Device-based tissue engineering is also a possible avenue for future explant culture in regenerative medicine. The most fundamental requirements on platforms intended for tissue modelling and engineering are their ability to shape and maintain cell aggregates over long-term culture. An emerging technology for tissue shaping and culture is ultrasonic standing wave (USW) particle manipulation, which offers label-free and gentle positioning and aggregation of cells. The pressure nodes defined by the USW, where cells are trapped in most cases, are stable over time and can be both static and dynamic depending on actuation schemes. In this review article, we highlight the potential of USW cell manipulation as a tool for tissue modelling and engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustofluidics in Medicine and Biology)
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