Special Issue "Micromachines in Medical Devices, Prosthetics, Diagnostics, Therapeutics and Equipment"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "B:Biology and Biomedicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Beelee Chua
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea
Interests: wearable diagnostics and therapeutics; disposable devices; edible sensors; insulin pumps; glucose sensors
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. David C.K. Ng
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shantou University, Guangdong 515063, China
Interests: medical implants; human–machine interface; neural rehabilitation technologies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The application of micromachines in medicine has seen tremendous growth, especially in the development of new prosthesis, diagnostics, surgery, and therapeutics. Microelectrode arrays have been developed to interface with neurons in vivo and are being used as therapeutic devices to help patients regain their vision or hearing. Microdevices, such as camera pills and microcatheters, have been introduced inside the body for minimally invasive diagnostics and even surgery. Microsyringes are helping doctors administer medicine in non-conventional ways and are benefitting patients who require frequent dosages without professional intervention. Microneedles are being used to access interstitial fluids in skin to measure glucose and other biomarkers.

In view of new and exciting developments in medical applications, we are inviting original submissions on micromachines in medical devices, prosthetics, diagnostics, therapeutics, and equipment. Novel designs or improvement of Class I, II, and III (US FDA) or EN 13795 certified (EU) devices, as well as other certifiable devices, including but not limited to test strips, catheters, implants, suturing tools, glucose sensors, insulin pumps, and smart contact lenses are welcome. Clinical data are welcome but not essential for consideration.

Prof. Dr. Beelee Chua
Prof. Dr. David C.K. Ng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • diagnostics
  • therapeutics
  • intervention
  • implantables
  • wearable
  • disposable
  • paper based
  • reusable
  • biomaterials
  • 3D printed
  • microfabrication
  • micromachining
  • microfluidics
  • microneedles
  • 3D nano-embossing
  • microelectrodes
  • microcatheters
  • bioMEMS
  • minimally invasive
  • microrobotics.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Pain-Administrable Neuron Electrode with Wireless Energy Transmission: Architecture Design and Prototyping
Micromachines 2021, 12(4), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12040356 - 25 Mar 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Back pain resulted from spine disorders reaches 60–80% prevalence in humans, which seriously influences life quality and retards economic production. Conventional electrical pain relief therapy uses radiofrequency to generate a high temperature of 70–85 °C on the electrode tip to destroy the neural [...] Read more.
Back pain resulted from spine disorders reaches 60–80% prevalence in humans, which seriously influences life quality and retards economic production. Conventional electrical pain relief therapy uses radiofrequency to generate a high temperature of 70–85 °C on the electrode tip to destroy the neural transmission and stop the pain. However, due to the larger area of stimulation, eliciting significant side effects, such as paralysis, contraction, and a slightly uncomfortable feeling, our study aimed to design a tiny and stretchable neural stimulatory electrode that could be precisely anchored adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion which needs therapy and properly interfere with the sensory neural transmission. We also designed a subcutaneously implantable wireless power transmission (WPT) device to drive the neural stimulatory electrode. Through the study, we elaborated the design concept and clinical problems, and achieved: (1) the architecture design and simulation of the transdermal wireless power transferred device, (2) a wrap-able pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) stimulatory electrode, (3) an insulation packaging design of the titanium protection box. The feasibility study and hands-on prototype were also carried out. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of a Savvy Mobile ECG Sensor for Heart Rhythm Disorder Screening at the Primary Healthcare Level: An Observational Prospective Study
Micromachines 2021, 12(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12010055 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Introduction: The Jozef Stefan Institute developed a personal portable electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor Savvy that works with a smartphone, and this was used in our study. This study aimed to analyze the usefulness of telecardiology at the primary healthcare level using an ECG personal [...] Read more.
Introduction: The Jozef Stefan Institute developed a personal portable electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor Savvy that works with a smartphone, and this was used in our study. This study aimed to analyze the usefulness of telecardiology at the primary healthcare level using an ECG personal sensor. Methods: We included 400 patients with a history of suspected rhythm disturbance who visited their family physician at the Healthcare Center Ljubljana and Healthcare Center Murska Sobota from October 2016 to January 2018. Results: The study found that there was no statistically significant difference between the test and control groups in the number of present rhythm disorders and actions taken to treat patients with either observation or administration of a new drug. However, in the test group, there were significantly fewer patients being referred to a cardiologist than in the control group (p < 0.001). Discussion: The use of an ECG sensor helps family physicians to distinguish between patients who need to be referred to a cardiologist and those who can be treated by them. This method is useful for both physicians and patients because it shortens the time taken to start treatment, can be used during pandemics such as COVID-19, and reduces unnecessary cost. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bio-Compatibility and Bio-Insulation of Implantable Electrode Prosthesis Ameliorated by A-174 Silane Primed Parylene-C Deposited Embedment
Micromachines 2020, 11(12), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11121064 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Microelectrodes for pain management, neural prosthesis or assistances have a huge medical demand, such as the application of pain management chip or retinal prosthesis addressed on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Due to lifelong implanted in human body and [...] Read more.
Microelectrodes for pain management, neural prosthesis or assistances have a huge medical demand, such as the application of pain management chip or retinal prosthesis addressed on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Due to lifelong implanted in human body and direct adhesion of neural tissues, the electrodes and associated insulation materials should possess an ideal bio-compatibility, including non-cytotoxicity and no safety concern elicited by immune responses. Our goal intended to develop retinal prosthesis, an electrical circuit chip used for assisting neural electrons transmission on retina and ameliorating the retinal disability. Therefore, based on the ISO 10993 guidance for implantable medical devices, the electrode prosthesis with insulation material has to conduct bio-compatibility assessment including cytotoxicity, hemolysis, (skin) irritation and pathological implantation examinations. In this study, we manufactured inter-digitated electrode (IDE) chips mimic the electrode prosthesis through photolithography. The titanium and platinum composites were deposited onto a silicon wafer to prepare an electric circuit to mimic the electrode used in retinal prosthesis manufacture, which further be encapsulated to examine the bio-compatibility in compliance with ISO 10993 and ASTM guidance specifically for implantable medical devices. Parylene-C, polyimide and silicon carbide were selected as materials for electrode encapsulation in comparison. Our data revealed parylene-C coating showed a significant excellence on bio-insulation and bio-compatibility specifically addressed on implantable neuron stimulatory devices and provided an economic procedure to package the electrode prosthesis. Therefore, parylene C encapsulation should serve as a consideration for future application on retinal prosthesis manufacture and examination. Full article
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