Special Issue "Modern Cold Spray Technique—2022"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2023 | Viewed by 4869

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Alessio Silvello
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CPT - Centro de Proyección Térmica (Thermal Spray Center) - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: Cold Spray; Additive Manufacturing; Stainless Steel; Ni Based Superalloy; Thermal Spray Process; Mechanical Properties; Fatigue Behavior; Corrosion; Wear.
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cold spray is becoming more and more prominent among thermal spray processes. The possibility to produce thick coatings with low porosity, as well as the absence of any phase transformation during the deposition process, are of great interest to the scientific community. Further, we should not forget the possibility of spraying any type of materials, from steel to Ti and Ni superalloys, and many more. Not only the microstructural and mechanical properties of the coatings, but also deposition efficiency and geometrical accuracy are key factors for the future success of the process. On these premises, it is no doubt true that cold spray will be the process of the future not only for depositing coatings, but also for producing additive manufactured parts. Consequently, this Special Issue aims to investigate and address the future challenges of cold spray in terms of understanding, improving, modeling, and applying the process in different advanced industrial sectors. Original research articles as well as review papers on the state of the art of the cold spray process are welcome.

Dr. Alessio Silvello
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cold spray
  • powder metallurgy
  • coatings
  • additive manufacturing
  • modeling
  • wear
  • corrosion
  • fatigue
  • maintenance
  • repair
  • overhaul

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Effect of Post-Deposition Thermal Treatments on Tensile Properties of Cold Sprayed Ti6Al4V
Metals 2022, 12(11), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111908 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 657
Abstract
This study aims at investigating the effect of various post-deposition thermal treatments on improving tensile properties of cold spray (CS) deposited titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Dogbone-shaped tensile specimens were designed considering two application scenarios: ‘fully CS’ specimens, and ‘CS repair’ specimens. For both specimen [...] Read more.
This study aims at investigating the effect of various post-deposition thermal treatments on improving tensile properties of cold spray (CS) deposited titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Dogbone-shaped tensile specimens were designed considering two application scenarios: ‘fully CS’ specimens, and ‘CS repair’ specimens. For both specimen types, tests were carried out in four conditions: (i) as-deposited (AD), and after three different thermal treatments, i.e., (ii) solution treatment and ageing (STA), (iii) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and (iv) HIP followed by STA (HIP + STA). Complementary to tensile testing, characterisation of CS deposited material was also carried out in terms of microstructure and hardness. The STA process resulted in the highest improvement in ultimate tensile strength by more than 200%, reaching 868 MPa for ‘fully CS’ and 951 MPa for ‘CS repair’ specimens. However, no appreciable improvement in elongation at failure was achieved, highest being 1.2% for ‘fully CS’ after STA, and 4.3% for ‘CS repair’ after HIP. In addition to experimental investigation, a comprehensive collection of data from the open literature on the effect of various thermal treatments on improving the tensile properties of CS Ti6Al4V deposits is reported and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Cold Spray Technique—2022)
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Article
Thermal Preprocessing of Rapidly Solidified Al 6061 Feedstock for Tunable Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing
Metals 2022, 12(7), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12071214 - 18 Jul 2022
Viewed by 867
Abstract
In this work, the influence of thermal pre-processing upon the microstructure and hardness of Al 6061 feedstock powder is considered through the lens of cold spray processing and additive manufacturing. Since solid-state cold spray processes refine and retain microstructural constituents following impact-driven and [...] Read more.
In this work, the influence of thermal pre-processing upon the microstructure and hardness of Al 6061 feedstock powder is considered through the lens of cold spray processing and additive manufacturing. Since solid-state cold spray processes refine and retain microstructural constituents following impact-driven and high-strain rate severe plastic deformation and bonding, thermal pre-processing enables application-driven tuning of the resultant consolidation achieved via microstructural and, therefore, mechanical manipulation of the feedstock prior to use. Microstructural analysis was achieved via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and differential thermal calorimetry. On the other hand, nanoindentation testing and analysis were relied upon to quantify pre-processing effects and microstructural evolution influences on the resultant hardness as a function of time at 540 °C. In the case of the as-atomized powder, β-Mg2Si-, Al-Fe-, and Mg-Si-type phases were observed along polycrystalline grain boundaries. Furthermore, after a 60 min hold time at 540 °C, Al-Fe-Si-Cr-Mn- and Mg-Si-type intermetallic phases were also observed along grain boundaries. Furthermore, the as-atomized hardness at 250 nm of indentation depth was 1.26 GPa and continuously decreased as a function of hold time until reaching 0.88 GPa after 240 min at 540 °C. Finally, contextualization of the observations with tuning cold spray additive manufacturing part performance via powder pre-processing is presented for through-process and application-minded design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Cold Spray Technique—2022)
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Article
Abrasion Power of Ti and Ni Diamond-Coated Coatings Deposited by Cold Spray
Metals 2022, 12(7), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12071197 - 14 Jul 2022
Viewed by 549
Abstract
In this work, the cold spray technique was used to deposit nickel and titanium coated diamond powder on cast iron and aluminum substrates. To analyze the deposition mechanism, the diamond powders were observed before and after the process using a microscope and scanning [...] Read more.
In this work, the cold spray technique was used to deposit nickel and titanium coated diamond powder on cast iron and aluminum substrates. To analyze the deposition mechanism, the diamond powders were observed before and after the process using a microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adhesion response of the Ni and Ti coatings was investigated during the study. Pin-on-disk tests were then performed to identify the abrasion mechanism of the coated samples and the wear resistance of the Si3N4 ceramic balls. Experimental tests were adopted to determine the significant operating variables, i.e., the local linear speed and the applied load. The modification of the diamond particles in shape, distribution, and the residual debris of Si3N4 on disk were compared before and after the tribological test to analyze the abrasion and wear resistance of the ceramic balls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Cold Spray Technique—2022)
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Article
Fatigue Bending of V-Notched Cold-Sprayed FeCoCrNiMn Coatings
Metals 2022, 12(5), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12050780 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Cold-spray coatings were produced by FeCoCrNiMn high-entropy alloy powders deposited on carbon steel substrate. The coatings were realized at intermediate temperature and high pressure (at 1100 °C and 7 MPa). The coating microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, revealing [...] Read more.
Cold-spray coatings were produced by FeCoCrNiMn high-entropy alloy powders deposited on carbon steel substrate. The coatings were realized at intermediate temperature and high pressure (at 1100 °C and 7 MPa). The coating microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, revealing a very dense deposition and high flattening ratio of the splatted particles. This had a large influence on the strong adhesion of the coating to the substrate. The hardness and residual stress profiles were measured through nanoindentation and X-ray diffraction from the peak broadening measured layer by layer. The cyclic behavior of the coatings was evaluated through three-point bending tests performed on V-notched samples coated via cold spray. Cyclic tests were performed at different maximum strokes from 0.3 to 3.6 mm in order to monitor the crack initiation and propagation during bending tests. The fracture surface aspect was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy in order to reveal the fracture mechanisms in different deformation conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Cold Spray Technique—2022)
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Article
Improving the Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Maraging Part Obtained by Cold Gas Spray Additive Manufacturing
Metals 2021, 11(7), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071092 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
The use of the cold gas spray (CGS) process as a metal additive manufacturing (MAM) technique for metallic part production has been deeply studied recently, mainly due to its advantages over other MAM techniques. CGS MAM is a high-productivity technique with a very [...] Read more.
The use of the cold gas spray (CGS) process as a metal additive manufacturing (MAM) technique for metallic part production has been deeply studied recently, mainly due to its advantages over other MAM techniques. CGS MAM is a high-productivity technique with a very low level of particle oxidation, microstructural changes, phase transformations, or deleterious residual thermal stresses in the part. The use of CGS MAM to produce maraging parts represents a gain for the industry by saving machining time and preventing raw material waste. Its wear resistance and corrosion behavior were evaluated in this work and were compared with cermet coatings deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) on the CGS MAM maraging. This work presents the innovative and effective combination of different thermal spraying processes and materials to obtain MAM maraging parts with higher wear resistance, evaluating abrasion, sliding, and water erosion wear types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Cold Spray Technique—2022)
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