Prooxidant–Antioxidant and Inflammation Markers in Metabolic Syndrome and Its Complications

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 11488

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Propaedeutics of Internal Diseases and Emergency Medicine, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, 41-902 Bytom, Poland
Interests: metabolic syndrome; oxidative stress; nutritional pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants; next generating sequence; autopgahy
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Guest Editor
Department of Oncological Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, 41-808 Katowice, Poland
Interests: obesity-related cancers; inflammation; carcinogenesis; diabetic foot syndrome; micro- and macroangiopathy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The fundamental element for establishing prevention, treatment, and prognosis of metabolic syndrome and its complications is the assessment of clinical forms of the disease. Dysglycemia, lipid abnormalities, and/or visceral obesity are the clinical exponents of the syndrome. However, disrupted prooxidant–antioxidant balance and increased inflammation are mechanisms responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome and its complications, such as macro- and microangiopathy. Moreover, metabolic syndrome is accompanied by changes not only in lipids and glucose but also increased glycation indices and accelerated autophagy processes, which also lead to oxidative stress and inflammation. In metabolic syndrome, accelerated inflammation and oxidative stress may lead to obesity-related cancers and accelerated aging, therefore requiring advanced treatment procedures. Thus, we encourage researchers from basic science through translational medicine to different clinical fields to participate in this Special Issue, which will serve as a platform for discussion of topics ranging from early prevention to advanced clinical and surgical procedures in the study of oxidant–antioxidant and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome and its complications.

Dr. Sylwia Dzięgielewska-Gęsiak
Prof. Dr. Dariusz Waniczek
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • prooxidant indices
  • antioxidants
  • inflammation markers
  • adipose tissue inflammation
  • obesity and visceral obesity
  • autophagy
  • insulin resistance
  • micro- and macroangiopathy
  • prevention
  • diet
  • physical activity/exercise
  • hypoglycemic treatment/hypoglycemic therapy
  • insulin
  • glp-1 inhibitors
  • metformin
  • obesity-related cancers
  • colorectal cancer
  • prognosis
  • morbidity and mortality

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 963 KiB  
Article
Polymorphisms −374 T/A and −429 T/C of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products (RAGE) and Serum Levels of RAGE (sRAGE) Are Not Associated with Metabolic Syndrome
by Diana Elizabeth González-Guerrero, Maria-Luisa Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Armando Gómez-Ojeda, Claudia Luévano-Contreras, Armando Rojas-Rubio and Ma. Eugenia Garay-Sevilla
Metabolites 2023, 13(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13040521 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
RAGE is a multi-ligand transmembrane glycoprotein that promotes biological signals associated with inflammatory responses and degenerative diseases. sRAGE is a soluble variant that has been proposed as an inhibitor of RAGE activity. The −374 T/A and −429 T/C polymorphisms of the advanced glycation [...] Read more.
RAGE is a multi-ligand transmembrane glycoprotein that promotes biological signals associated with inflammatory responses and degenerative diseases. sRAGE is a soluble variant that has been proposed as an inhibitor of RAGE activity. The −374 T/A and −429 T/C polymorphisms of the advanced glycation end-product receptor AGER gene have been associated with the development of some diseases, such as types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and micro- and macro-vascular disease in diabetes, among others, but their role in metabolic syndrome (MS) is still unknown. We studied 80 healthy males without MS, and 80 males with MS, according to the harmonized criteria. The −374 T/A and −429 T/C polymorphisms were genotyped by RT-PCR, and sRAGE was measured by ELISA. Allelic and genotypic frequencies did not differ between the non-MS and MS groups (−374 T/A p = 0.48, p = 0.57 and −429 T/C p = 0.36, p = 0.59, respectively). Significant differences were found in fasting glucose levels and diastolic blood pressure in the genotypes of the −374 T/A polymorphism in the non-MS group (p < 0.01 and p = 0.008). Glucose levels were different in the −429 T/C genotypes in the MS group (p = 0.02). The sRAGE levels were similar in both groups, but the non-MS group showed a significant difference between individuals with only 1 or 2 components of metabolic syndrome (p = 0.047). However, no associations of any SNP with MS were found (recessive model p = 0.48, dominant model p = 0.82 for −374 T/A; recessive model p = 0.48, dominant model p = 0.42 for −429 T/C). The −374 T/A and −429 T/C polymorphisms were not associated with MS in a Mexican population and had no influence on serum sRAGE levels. Full article
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14 pages, 2245 KiB  
Article
The Effect of 75 Grams of Glucose during OGTT on Plasma Markers of Lipid and Lipoprotein Peroxidation, Oxidized LDL and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances, in People with Increased Body Mass
by Lena Bielawska, Ewa Wysocka, Aleksandra Baszczuk, Anna Dżumak, Aleksandra Ludziejewska, Maciej Cymerys and Alicja Płóciniczak
Metabolites 2023, 13(4), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13040483 - 27 Mar 2023
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Abstract
Obesity, currently defined as a disease, is associated with a number of metabolic disorders, and oxidative stress is discussed as the link between them. The aim of this study was to analyze the plasma markers reflecting oxidative modification of lipids and lipoproteins, oxidized [...] Read more.
Obesity, currently defined as a disease, is associated with a number of metabolic disorders, and oxidative stress is discussed as the link between them. The aim of this study was to analyze the plasma markers reflecting oxidative modification of lipids and lipoproteins, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), under the influence of the 75 g of oral glucose during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in patients with increased body mass. One hundred twenty individuals of both genders (46 women and 74 men) aged 26 to 75 years with increased body mass (BMI > 25 kg/m2) were recruited for the study. OGTT was performed in each of the qualified persons, and glycemia, insulinemia, and concentrations of oxLDL and TBARS were measured fasting and at 120 min of OGTT. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to assess the degree of insulin resistance (IR). In order to assess the changes of the investigated parameters under the influence of 75 g glucose, the index ROGTT = [120’]/[0’] was calculated to obtain oxLDL-ROGTT and TBARS-ROGTT. The statistical analysis was performed in the entire study population and subsequent groups from H1 to H4, defined by HOMA-IR quartiles. In the entire study population and the subgroups, oxidative stress markers changed during OGTT. From H1 to H4 group, increasing oxLDL and TBARS were observed both in the fasting state and at 120 min of OGTT, and the oxLDL-ROGTT index decreased from the H2 to the H4 group. The intensification of IR in people with increased body mass may predispose them to enhanced oxidative modification of lipoproteins. Individual reduction in the concentration of oxLDL during OGTT, in reference to fasting value (decreased oxLDL-ROGTT), suggests increased uptake of modified lipoproteins by scavenger receptor-presenting cells or increased migration to the vascular wall. Full article
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10 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Deregulations in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
by Marzena Jabczyk, Justyna Nowak, Paweł Jagielski, Bartosz Hudzik, Karolina Kulik-Kupka, Aleksander Włodarczyk, Katarzyna Lar and Barbara Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska
Metabolites 2023, 13(2), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13020302 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2656
Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) contributes to endocrine and metabolic complications for women worldwide. The aim of this study was to establish the usefulness of new anthropometric indices and atherogenic indices in the evaluation of metabolic disorders, in particular, glucose and insulin abnormalities in [...] Read more.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) contributes to endocrine and metabolic complications for women worldwide. The aim of this study was to establish the usefulness of new anthropometric indices and atherogenic indices in the evaluation of metabolic disorders, in particular, glucose and insulin abnormalities in the profiles of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In the study, a total of 49 women with PCOS aged between 18 and 39 years were recruited. All patients were tested for fasting glucose and insulin, lipid parameters, oral-glucose administration, and biochemical parameters. All of them underwent anthropometric measurements, such as BMI (body mass index), WHR (waist-to-hip ratio), WHtR (waist-to-height ratio), BAI (body adiposity index), VAI (visceral adiposity index), LAP (lipid accumulation product), BRI (body roundness index), ABSI (A body shape index), AIP (atherogenic risk of plasma), AC (atherogenic coefficient), Castelli risk index-I, Castelli risk index-II and (LCI) lipoprotein combine index, TG/HDL-C ratio, METS-IR (The metabolic score of insulin resistance), triglyceride glucose index (TyG index), triglyceride glucose-body mass index (TyG-BMI index) and triglyceride glucose-waist circumference index (TyG-WC index) were calculated. The analyzed anthropometric measurements/indices and atherogenic indices demonstrated significant correlations in PCOS women. T A strong relationship was found between fasting glucose, fasting insulin, glucose after 60 min, HOMA-IR index in the patients with PCOS. There was no significant relationship between HbA1c and other analyzed parameters and indices. Most of the analyzed anthropometric and atherogenic indices may be useful tools in evaluating metabolic disorders, and, in particular, glucose and insulin abnormalities in PCOS women. Full article
18 pages, 13870 KiB  
Article
p-Coumaric Acid Nanoparticles Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating mRNA Expression of KIM-1 and GLUT-2 in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
by Amalan Venkatesan, Anitha Roy, Srinivasan Kulandaivel, Vijayakumar Natesan and Sung-Jin Kim
Metabolites 2022, 12(12), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12121166 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become a leading cause of end-stage renal failure worldwide. The goal of the current study was to examine the protective effects of chitosan-loaded p-Coumaric acid nanoparticles (PCNPs) in nephrotoxicity induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Because of the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, [...] Read more.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become a leading cause of end-stage renal failure worldwide. The goal of the current study was to examine the protective effects of chitosan-loaded p-Coumaric acid nanoparticles (PCNPs) in nephrotoxicity induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Because of the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of PCNPs, the development of DN may be considerably decreased. In this study, the rats received a single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of STZ (45 mg/kg) to induce DN. PCNPs were given orally 80 mg/kg b.w to the rats for a duration of four weeks. Body weight, kidney weight, blood glucose, and insulin levels were measured at the end of the experiment. Serum and urine parameters were also examined, along with the histological, immunobiological, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression of the nephrotic rats. To comprehend the impact of PCNPs, the expression patterns of the kidney injury molecule (KIM-1) and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2) were evaluated. Administration of PCNPs significantly increased body weight, decreased kidney weight and also ameliorated blood glucose levels in the nephropathic rats. The administration of PCNPs also reverted the levels of urea, serum creatinine, urinary NAG, β-glucuronidase and albumin to near-normal levels. The administration of PCNPs also caused the levels of serum and urine parameters to return to near-normal levels. Additionally, the PCNP-treated rats had markedly reduced TNF-α, IL-6, and KIM-1 expressions as well as enhanced GLUT-2 mRNA expression. Our findings clearly showed that PCNP administration prevents the onset of DN in rats by lowering hyperglycemia, decreasing inflammation, and improving the expression of GLUT-2 mRNA in nephropathic rats. Full article
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10 pages, 1330 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Malondialdehyde Level, Total Oxidant/Antioxidant Status and Oxidative Stress Index in Colorectal Cancer Patients
by Karolina Janion, Joanna Katarzyna Strzelczyk, Katarzyna Weronika Walkiewicz, Krzysztof Biernacki, Angelika Copija, Elżbieta Szczepańska and Ewa Nowakowska-Zajdel
Metabolites 2022, 12(11), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12111118 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Oxidative stress may play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study included 94 adult patients with CRC (52 men and 42 women) and 26 hospitalized patients (12 men and 14 women) in whom CRC was excluded (control group). During hospitalization, [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress may play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study included 94 adult patients with CRC (52 men and 42 women) and 26 hospitalized patients (12 men and 14 women) in whom CRC was excluded (control group). During hospitalization, blood serum samples were collected from both groups. Apart from that, anthropometric measurements were taken and other clinical data were analyzed. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were assayed. Subsequently, the relationship between the analyzed oxidative stress markers and selected clinical characteristics was investigated in both groups. The evaluation of oxidative stress marker values demonstrated that MDA and TAS levels were significantly higher in the control group than the CRC group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.019, respectively), while TOS levels were significantly higher in the CRC group than the control group (p = 0.005). Significantly lower OSI levels were found in the control group than in the CRC group (p < 0.001). Similar results can be observed when performing ROC analysis (receiver operating characteristic curve). Preliminary statistical analysis demonstrated that MDA levels in the study group depend on the location of the primary tumour (p = 0.035). Based on the post hoc Tukey test, a relationship was demonstrated between the MDA level and the left and right side of the colon (p = 0.040). The results may be evidence for a higher level of oxidative stress, including a compromised antioxidative defence system, in patients with CRC. Full article
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Review

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13 pages, 701 KiB  
Review
Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Frailty and Metabolic Syndromes—Two Sides of the Same Coin
by Sylwia Dzięgielewska-Gęsiak and Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń
Metabolites 2023, 13(4), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13040475 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
In developed countries, aging is often seen as typical, but it is made complicated by many disorders and co-morbidities. Insulin resistance seems to be an underlying pathomechanism in frailty and metabolic syndromes. The decline in insulin sensitivity leads to changes in the oxidant–antioxidant [...] Read more.
In developed countries, aging is often seen as typical, but it is made complicated by many disorders and co-morbidities. Insulin resistance seems to be an underlying pathomechanism in frailty and metabolic syndromes. The decline in insulin sensitivity leads to changes in the oxidant–antioxidant balance and an accelerated inflammatory response, especially by adipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue, as well as muscle mass density. Thus, in the pathophysiology of syndemic disorders—the metabolic syndrome and frailty syndrome—an extremely important role may be played by increased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory state. Papers included in this review explored available full texts and the reference lists of relevant studies from the last 20 years, before the end of 2022; we also investigated the PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases. The online resources describing an elderly population (≥65 years old) published as full texts were searched for the following terms: “oxidative stress and/or inflammation”, “frailty and/or metabolic syndrome”. Then, all resources were analyzed and narratively described in the context of oxidative stress and/or inflammation markers which underlie pathomechanisms of frailty and/or metabolic syndromes in elderly patients. So far, different metabolic pathways discussed in this review show that a similar pathogenesis underlies the development of the metabolic as well as frailty syndromes in the context of increased oxidative stress and acceleration of inflammation. Thus, we argue that the syndemia of the syndromes represents two sides of the same coin. Full article
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