Special Issue "Medicinal Plants and Foods"

A special issue of Medicines (ISSN 2305-6320).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018) | Viewed by 47120

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Special Issue Editor

Dr. Gema Nieto
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Guest Editor
Department of Food Technology, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”, Espinardo, 30071 Murcia, Spain
Interests: natural extracts; meat science; bakery science; dairy products; lipolysis and proteolysis; bioactive compounds; development of healthier food products; nutrients; bioactive compounds; food preservation; bioaccessibility; bioavailability
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Medicinal plants or medicinal herbs have been identified and used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food. The main compounds found in plants correspond to four major biochemical classes: Polyphenols, terpenes, glycosides and alkaloids. Plants synthesize these compounds for a variety of purposes, including protection of the plant against fungi and bacteria, defense against insects and attraction of pollinators and dispersal agents to favor the dispersion of seeds and pollens.

Nowadays, there is also a growing interest in medicinal plants as natural alternatives to synthetic additives in foods because herb and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. The major activities of extracts and herbs from medicinal plants are antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, antiviral, antifungal and preservative for foods. The use of natural preservatives to increase the shelf life of food systems is a promising technology since many vegetal substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

Taking into account all these considerations, recent changes in legislation controlling the use of animal feed additives and increased demand by consumers for healthier meat products, if possible free of chemical additives, have stimulated interest in bioactive secondary metabolites from medicinal plants as alternative performance enhancers.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish original research work related to the chemistry of medicinal plants, and the application in food systems. Research work related mainly with antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of medicinal plants and its applications in food systems is welcome. Papers should contribute significantly to furthering scientific knowledge in the above-mentioned scientific fields.

Dr. Gema Nieto
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • medicinal plants
  • shelf life
  • food additives
  • antioxidant
  • antimicrobial, biological activities

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
How Are Medicinal Plants Useful When Added to Foods?
Medicines 2020, 7(9), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7090058 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
Consumers are concerned about the use of synthetic additives in foods and this has forced food processors to find ways to produce food products without the use of these additives [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)

Research

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Article
In Vitro Iron Bioavailability of Brazilian Food-Based by-Products
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020045 - 16 May 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
Background: Iron deficiency is a public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Introduction of agro-industrial food by-products, as additional source of nutrients, could help alleviate this micronutrient deficiency, provide alternative sources of nutrients and calories in developed countries, and be [...] Read more.
Background: Iron deficiency is a public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Introduction of agro-industrial food by-products, as additional source of nutrients, could help alleviate this micronutrient deficiency, provide alternative sources of nutrients and calories in developed countries, and be a partial solution for disposal of agro-industry by-products. Methods: The aim of this study was to determine iron bioavailability of 5 by-products from Brazilian agro-industry (peels from cucumber, pumpkin, and jackfruit, cupuaçu seed peel, and rice bran), using the in vitro digestion/ Caco-2 cell model; with Caco-2 cell ferritin formation as a surrogate marker of iron bioavailability. Total and dialyzable Fe, macronutrients, the concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (phytic acid, tannins, fiber) and their correlation with iron bioavailability were also evaluated. Results: The iron content of all by-products was high, but the concentration of iron and predicted bioavailability were not related. Rice bran and cupuaçu seed peel had the highest amount of phytic acid and tannins, and lowest iron bioavailability. Cucumber peels alone, and with added extrinsic Fe, and pumpkin peels with extrinsic added iron, had the highest iron bioavailability. Conclusion: The results suggest that cucumber and pumpkin peel could be valuable alternative sources of bioavailable Fe to reduce iron deficiency in at-risk populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
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Article
Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities of Two Extracts of the Plant Species Euphorbia dendroides L.
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020036 - 20 Apr 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
Background: These days, the desire for naturally occurring antioxidants has significantly increased, especially for use in foodstuffs, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products, to replace synthetic antioxidants that are regularly constrained due to their carcinogenicity. Methods: The study in hand aimed to appraise the [...] Read more.
Background: These days, the desire for naturally occurring antioxidants has significantly increased, especially for use in foodstuffs, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products, to replace synthetic antioxidants that are regularly constrained due to their carcinogenicity. Methods: The study in hand aimed to appraise the antioxidant effect of two Euphorbia dendroides extracts using reducing power, anti-peroxidation, and DPPH (1,1 Diphenyl 2 Pycril Hydrazil) scavenging essays, in addition to the anticancer activity against two tumor cell lines, namely C6 (rat brain tumor)cells, and Hela (human uterus carcinoma)cell lines. Results: The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extract exhibited antiradical activity of 29.49%, higher than that of n-butanol extract (18.06%) at 100 µg/mL but much lower than that of gallic acid (78.21%).The ethyl acetate extract exhibits better reducing capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity compared to n-butanol extract but less than all tested standards. Moreover, the ethyl acetate extract was found to have an antiproliferative activity of more than 5-FU (5-fluoro-Uracil) against C6 cells at 250 µg/mL with IC50 and IC75 of 113.97, 119.49 µg/mL, respectively, and good cytotoxic activity against the Hela cell lines at the same concentration. The HPLC-TOF-MS (high performance liquid chromatography-Time-of-flight-Mass Spectrometry) analyses exposed the presence of various compounds, among which Gallic and Chlorogenic acids functioned as major compounds. Conclusions: The two extracts exhibited moderate anticancer abilities and behaved somewhat as average antioxidant agents. Based on the total phenolics and flavonoids contents, as well as HPLC results, it could be concluded that antiproliferative and antioxidant activities depend upon the content of different phenolics and flavonoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
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Article
Antioxidant Potential of Extracts Obtained from Macro- (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata) and Micro-Algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis) Assisted by Ultrasound
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020033 - 10 Apr 2018
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3084
Abstract
Background: Natural antioxidants, which can replace synthetic ones due to their potential implications for health problems in children, have gained significant popularity. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of extracts obtained from three brown macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata) [...] Read more.
Background: Natural antioxidants, which can replace synthetic ones due to their potential implications for health problems in children, have gained significant popularity. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of extracts obtained from three brown macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata) and two microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis) using ultrasound-extraction as an innovative and green approach was evaluated. Methods: Algal extracts were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction using water/ethanol (50:50, v:v) as the extraction solvent. The different extracts were compared based on their antioxidant potential, measuring the extraction yield, the total phenolic content (TPC) and the antioxidant activity. Results: Extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum (AN) and Bifurcaria bifurcata (BB) showed the highest antioxidant potential compared to the rest of the samples. In particular, BB extract presented the highest extraction (35.85 g extract/100 g dry weight (DW)) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) (5.74 g phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE)/100 g DW) yields. Regarding the antioxidant activity, macroalgae showed again higher values than microalgae. BB extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the ORAC, DPPH and FRAP assays, with 556.20, 144.65 and 66.50 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, respectively. In addition, a correlation among the antioxidant activity and the TPC was noted. Conclusions: Within the obtained extracts, macroalgae, and in particular BB, are more suitable to be used as sources of phenolic antioxidants to be included in products for human consumption. The relatively low antioxidant potential, in terms of polyphenols, of the microalgae extracts studied in the present work makes them useless for possible industrial applications compared to macroalgae, although further in vivo studies evaluating the real impact of antioxidants from both macro- and micro-algae at the cellular level should be conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
Article
In Vitro Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, Antioxidant and Photoprotective Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Aerial Parts of Capnophyllum peregrinum (L.) Lange (Apiaceae) Growing in Algeria
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020026 - 22 Mar 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
Background: Capnophyllum peregrinum (L.) Lange (Apiaceae) is the unique taxon of capnophyllum genus in Algerian flora. It has never been investigated in regards to its total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant and photoprotective activities. Methods: C. peregrinum aerial parts extracted with absolute [...] Read more.
Background: Capnophyllum peregrinum (L.) Lange (Apiaceae) is the unique taxon of capnophyllum genus in Algerian flora. It has never been investigated in regards to its total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant and photoprotective activities. Methods: C. peregrinum aerial parts extracted with absolute methanol. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents of the extract were evaluated to determine their correlation with the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of the extract. Results: The methanolic extract demonstrated a significant amount of phenolics and flavonoids (74.06 ± 1.23 mg GAE/g, 44.09 ± 2.13 mg QE/g, respectively) and exhibited good antioxidant activity in different systems, especially in 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and total antioxidant capacity assays. Furthermore the extract showed high photoprotective activity with the sun protection factor (SPF) value = 35.21 ± 0.18. Conclusions: The results of the present study show, that the methanolic extract could be used as a natural sunscreen in pharmaceutics or cosmetic formulations and as a valuable source of natural antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
Communication
Characterisation of Polyphenol-Containing Extracts from Stachys mucronata and Evaluation of Their Antiradical Activity
Medicines 2018, 5(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5010014 - 27 Jan 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Background: The aromatic plant Stachys mucronata (Lamiaceae) is endemic to the island of Crete (southern Greece), but as opposed to other native Greek members of this family, this species has never been investigated in the past with regard to its polyphenolic composition [...] Read more.
Background: The aromatic plant Stachys mucronata (Lamiaceae) is endemic to the island of Crete (southern Greece), but as opposed to other native Greek members of this family, this species has never been investigated in the past with regard to its polyphenolic composition and antioxidant potency. Methods: Aerial parts of S. mucronata were exhaustively extracted and partly fractionated through partition, using n-butanol and dichloromethane. Results: Following an initial examination, which consisted of estimating the total polyphenol content and the antiradical activity, the n-butanol extract was found to be by far the richest in polyphenols, exhibiting much stronger antiradical activity compared with the dichloromethane counterpart. On this basis, the n-butanol extract was analysed by liquid chromatography-diode array-mass spectrometry, to tentatively characterise the principal polyphenolic components, which were shown to be flavonol but mainly flavone derivatives. Conclusions: The most potent radical-scavenging compounds were detected in the n-butanol fraction of the extracts, suggesting that the most active antioxidants in S. mucronate are relatively polar. The analyses suggested the major constituents to be derivatives of the flavone luteolin, accompanied by apigenin analogues, as well as flavonol glycosides and chlorogenate conjugates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
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Article
Dose-Dependent Effects of Green Tea or Maté Extracts on Lipid and Protein Oxidation in Brine-Injected Retail-Packed Pork Chops
Medicines 2018, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5010011 - 22 Jan 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
Background: Phenolic plant extracts are added as antioxidants in meat to prevent lipid oxidation, but depending on the concentration applied, may affect proteins either through covalent interactions or by serving as a prooxidant. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops prepared with green tea extract (25–160 [...] Read more.
Background: Phenolic plant extracts are added as antioxidants in meat to prevent lipid oxidation, but depending on the concentration applied, may affect proteins either through covalent interactions or by serving as a prooxidant. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops prepared with green tea extract (25–160 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25–160 ppm GAE) and stored (5 °C, 7 days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O2 and 20% CO2) were analyzed for color changes, lipid oxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and protein oxidation evaluated by thiol loss and protein radical formation by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and compared to a control without antioxidant. Results: Extract of maté and green tea showed significant and comparable antioxidative effects against formation of TBARS in brine-injected pork chops for all concentrations applied compared to the control. Protein radical formation decreased significantly by addition of 25 ppm maté extract, but increased significantly by addition of 80–160 ppm green tea extract, when monitored as formation of protein radicals. Meanwhile, protein thiol groups disappeared when applying the extracts by reactions assigned to addition reactions of oxidized phenols from the extracts to protein thiols. Conclusion: Maté is accordingly a good source of antioxidants for protection of both lipids and proteins in brine-injected pork chops chill-stored in high-oxygen atmosphere, though the dose must be carefully selected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
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Article
Protein Oxidation and Sensory Quality of Brine-Injected Pork Loins Added Ascorbate or Extracts of Green Tea or Maté during Chill-Storage in High-Oxygen Modified Atmosphere
Medicines 2018, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5010007 - 15 Jan 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea [...] Read more.
Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O2 and 20% CO2) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant. Results: No significant differences were observed for green tea and maté extracts as compared to ascorbate when evaluated based on lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, except for stale flavor, which maté significantly reduced. All treatments increased the level of the protein oxidation product, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde as compared to the control, and ascorbate was further found to increase thiol loss and protein cross-linking, with a concomitant decrease in the sensory perceived tenderness. Conclusions: Green tea and maté were found to equally protect against lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, and maté showed less prooxidative activity towards proteins as compared to ascorbate, resulting in more tender meat. Maté is a valuable substitute for ascorbate in brine-injected pork chops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
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Article
The Determination of Blood Glucose Lowering and Metabolic Effects of Mespilus germanica L. Hydroacetonic Extract on Streptozocin-Induced Diabetic Balb/c Mice
Medicines 2018, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5010001 - 01 Jan 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1975
Abstract
Background: The serum glucose lowering, normalization animal body weight, and antioxidative stress effects of Mespilus germanica L. leaf extract were investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced Balb/C mice. Methods: The phenol and flavonoid of the leaves of M. germanica were extracted by percolation and [...] Read more.
Background: The serum glucose lowering, normalization animal body weight, and antioxidative stress effects of Mespilus germanica L. leaf extract were investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced Balb/C mice. Methods: The phenol and flavonoid of the leaves of M. germanica were extracted by percolation and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. Its total phenol and flavonoid content was determined using folin and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. The study was conducted on 48 matured male Balb/C mice (20–30 g) divided into 6 groups (n = 8). Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). Extracts of Mespilus germanica were used orally at the dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 21 days. Results: Oral administrations of the M. germanica L. leaf extract significantly decreased serum glucose, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation and maintained animal body weight during treatment period (p < 0.05) compared to metformin (200 mg/kg) in over 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg dosages, respectively. Conclusions: The present study indicated that the Mespilus germanica leaf extract significantly decreased serum glucose and maintained normal body weight in Balb/C diabetic mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
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Article
The Lipid Lowering and Cardioprotective Effects of Vernonia calvoana Ethanol Extract in Acetaminophen-Treated Rats
Medicines 2017, 4(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4040090 - 12 Dec 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Background: Paracetamol overdose/abuse as a result of self-medication is a common occurrence amongst people living in low/middle income countries. The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic and cardioprotective potentials of Vernonia calvoana (VC) ethanol extract in acetaminophen (paracetamol)-treated rats. Methods: Thirty-five [...] Read more.
Background: Paracetamol overdose/abuse as a result of self-medication is a common occurrence amongst people living in low/middle income countries. The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic and cardioprotective potentials of Vernonia calvoana (VC) ethanol extract in acetaminophen (paracetamol)-treated rats. Methods: Thirty-five Wistar rats weighing 100–150 g were randomly assigned into five groups of seven rats each. Groups 2–5 received high doses of paracetamol to induce liver damage, while group 1 was used as normal control. Afterwards, they were allowed to receive varying doses of VC (group 3 and 4) or vitamin E (group 5), whilst groups 1 and 2 were left untreated. The treatment period lasted for twenty one days after which sera were harvested and assayed for serum lipid indices using standard methods. Results: Groups 3 to 5 treated animals indicated significant decrease (p < 0.001) in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerol (TG) levels relative to the normal and acetaminophen-treated controls, the atherogenic index showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in all treated groups compared with normal and acetaminophen-treated controls. However, the VC- and vitamin E-treated groups showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) relative to the controls. Conclusions: Data from our study suggest that ethanol leaf extract of VC possesses probable hypolipidemic and cardioprotective effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
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Article
Anti-Lipase Potential of the Organic and Aqueous Extracts of Ten Traditional Edible and Medicinal Plants in Palestine; a Comparison Study with Orlistat
Medicines 2017, 4(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4040089 - 08 Dec 2017
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3480
Abstract
Background: Herbs have played a fundamental and essential role in the humans life since ancient times, especially those which are used as food and/or folk medicinedue to both their nutritive and curative properties.This study aimed to investigate new antilipase agents from tentraditional Palestinian [...] Read more.
Background: Herbs have played a fundamental and essential role in the humans life since ancient times, especially those which are used as food and/or folk medicinedue to both their nutritive and curative properties.This study aimed to investigate new antilipase agents from tentraditional Palestinian edible and medicinal plants through inhibition of the absorption of dietary lipids. Methods: The anti-lipase activity for ten plants was evaluated and compared with the reference compound Orlistat by using the porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory test which was conducted by using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. Results: The aqueous extracts of Vitis vinifera and Rhus coriaria had the highest antilipase effects with IC50 values 14.13 and 19.95 mcg/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, the organic extract of Origanum dayi had an IC50 value 18.62 mcg/mL. V. vinifera showed the highest porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects when compared with Orlistat, which has an IC50 value 12.38 mcg/mL. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, V. vinifera, R. coriaria, and O. dayi can be considered a natural inhibitors of the pancreatic lipase enzyme as well as new players in obesity treatment. In fact, these plants can be freely and safely consumed in a daily diet or can be prepared as nutraceutical formulations to treat or prevent of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
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Review

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Review
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, L.): A Review
Medicines 2018, 5(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5030098 - 04 Sep 2018
Cited by 99 | Viewed by 9485
Abstract
Nowadays, there is an interest in the consumption of food without synthetic additives and rather with the use of natural preservatives. In this regard, natural extracts of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, have been studied because of its bioactive properties. Several studies [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is an interest in the consumption of food without synthetic additives and rather with the use of natural preservatives. In this regard, natural extracts of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, have been studied because of its bioactive properties. Several studies have reported that rosemary extracts show biological bioactivities such as hepatoprotective, antifungal, insecticide, antioxidant and antibacterial. It is well known that the biological properties in rosemary are mainly due to phenolic compounds. However, it is essential to take into account that these biological properties depend on different aspects. Their use in foods is limited because of their odour, colour and taste. For that reason, commercial methods have been developed for the preparation of odourless and colourless antioxidant compounds from rosemary. Owing to the new applications of natural extracts in preservatives, this review gives a view on the use of natural extract from rosemary in foods and its effect on preservative activities. Specifically, the relationship between the structure and activity (antimicrobial and antioxidant) of the active components in rosemary are being reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
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Review
Bioactive Compounds and Extracts from Traditional Herbs and Their Potential Anti-Inflammatory Health Effects
Medicines 2018, 5(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5030076 - 16 Jul 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3952
Abstract
The inflammatory processes associated with several chronic illnesses like cardiovascular disease and cancer have been the focus of mechanistic studies of the pathogenicity of these diseases and of the use of different pharmacological and natural methods to prevent them. In this study we [...] Read more.
The inflammatory processes associated with several chronic illnesses like cardiovascular disease and cancer have been the focus of mechanistic studies of the pathogenicity of these diseases and of the use of different pharmacological and natural methods to prevent them. In this study we review the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of natural extracts from as-yet little-studied traditional botanical species in alleviating the inflammation process associated with several chronic diseases. Additionally, the intention is to expose the known pathways of action and the potential synergistic effects of the constituent compounds of the discussed extracts. It is noted that the here-studied extracts, which include black garlic rich in S-allylcystein, polyphenols from cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa), devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum), and citrus fruit extracts rich in hesperidin, have similar or greater effects than other, more extensively studied extracts such as tea and cocoa. The combined use of all of these extracts can give rise to synergetic effects with greater biological relevance at lower doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
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Review
Hydroxytyrosol: Health Benefits and Use as Functional Ingredient in Meat
Medicines 2018, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5010013 - 23 Jan 2018
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 7240
Abstract
Hydroxytyrosol (HXT) is a phenolic compound drawn from the olive tree and its leaves as a by-product obtained from the manufacturing of olive oil. It is considered the most powerful antioxidant compound after gallic acid and one of the most powerful antioxidant compounds [...] Read more.
Hydroxytyrosol (HXT) is a phenolic compound drawn from the olive tree and its leaves as a by-product obtained from the manufacturing of olive oil. It is considered the most powerful antioxidant compound after gallic acid and one of the most powerful antioxidant compounds between phenolic compounds from olive tree followed by oleuropein, caffeic and tyrosol. Due to its molecular structure, its regular consumption has several beneficial effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and as a protector of skin and eyes, etc. For these reasons, the use of HXT extract is a good strategy for use in meat products to replace synthetics additives. However, this extract has a strong odour and flavour, so it is necessary to previously treat this compound in order to not alter the organoleptic quality of the meat product when is added as ingredient. The present review exposes the health benefits provided by HXT consumption and the latest research about its use on meat. In addition, new trends about the application of HXT in the list of ingredients of healthier meat products will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
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