Special Issue "Environmental Physiology in Para Sports"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1010-660X). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. David Bentley
Website
Guest Editor
Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, Australia
Interests: environmental and exercise physiology including simulated and actual altitude training response and adaptations; muscle biology of exercise specifically gene and protein responses to exercise training; ergogenic aids and exercise performance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Paralympic athletes demonstrate excellence in sport in combination with unique physical and physiological characteristics. The reliability and validity of the classification system for Paralympic athletes has been recently investigated and depending on class, athletes train in different sports under very specific circumstances and have unique considerations for the coach and support staff. The neurological impairments of athletes are well known and influence a variety of exercise induced physiological responses. Athletes with disability competing at the highest level are required to train and compete under similar environmental conditions but with different physical, physiological and ergonomic considerations. The use of environmental interventions for the preparation of able body athletes such as heat, cold and hypoxia for optimal adaptation and ideal competition performance has been heavily researched. The application of these findings and the extension of this research for Paralympic athletes are numerous.

This Special Issue aims to present the most contemporary research and review papers on environmental exercise physiology and adaptation in Paralympic athletes. Original research, case studies and short review papers are invited by researchers examining aspects of environmental intervention, ergonomic aids related to exercise under extreme environmental conditions and performance enhancement strategies in Paralympic athletes.

Dr. David Bentley
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicina is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • paralympic athletes
  • impairment
  • hypoxia
  • heat balance
  • fatigue
  • training
  • adaptation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Warm-Up on Body Temperature and Strength Performance in Brazilian National-Level Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100538 - 14 Oct 2020
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The effects of warm-up in athletic success have gained strong attention in recent studies. There is, however, a wide gap in awareness of the warm-up process to be followed, especially in Paralympic powerlifting (PP) athletes. This study aimed to analyze [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The effects of warm-up in athletic success have gained strong attention in recent studies. There is, however, a wide gap in awareness of the warm-up process to be followed, especially in Paralympic powerlifting (PP) athletes. This study aimed to analyze different types of warm-up on the physical performance of PP athletes. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 12 elite Brazilian PP male athletes (age, 24.14 ± 6.21 years; bodyweight, 81.67 ± 17.36 kg). The athletes performed maximum isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and speed test (Vmax) in three different methods of warm-up. Tympanic temperature was used to estimate the central body temperature. Results: A significant difference was observed for MIF in the without warm-up (WW) condition in relation to the traditional warm-up (TW) and stretching warm-up (SW) (p = 0.005, η2p = 0.454, high effect). On the contrary, no significant differences were observed in RFD, fatigue index (FI) and time in the different types of warm up (p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in relation to the maximum repetition (p = 0.121, η2p = 0.275, medium effect) or the maximum speed (p = 0.712, η2p = 0.033, low effect) between the different types of warm up. In relation to temperature, significant differences were found for the TW in relation to the “before” and “after” conditions. In addition, differences were found between WW in the “after” condition and SW. In addition, WW demonstrated a significant difference in relation to TW in the “10 min later” condition (F = 26.87, p = 0.05, η2p = 0.710, high effect). Conclusions: The different types of warm-up methods did not seem to provide significant differences in the force indicators in elite PP athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Physiology in Para Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
The Aerodynamics and Energy Cost Assessment of an Able-Bodied Cyclist and Amputated Models by Computer Fluid Dynamics
Medicina 2020, 56(5), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56050241 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the drag and energy cost of three cyclists assessed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical procedures. Materials and methods: A transradial (Tr) and transtibial (Tt) were compared to a [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the drag and energy cost of three cyclists assessed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical procedures. Materials and methods: A transradial (Tr) and transtibial (Tt) were compared to a full-body cyclist at different speeds. An elite male cyclist with 65 kg of mass and 1.72 m of height volunteered for this research with his competition cloths, helmet and bicycle with 5 kg of mass. A 3D model of the bicycle and cyclist in the upright position was obtained for numerical simulations. Upon that, two more models were created, simulating elbow and knee-disarticulated athletes. Numerical simulations by computational fluid dynamics and analytical procedures were computed to assess drag and energy cost, respectively. Results: One-Way ANOVA presented no significant differences between cyclists for drag (F = 0.041; p = 0.960; η2 = 0.002) and energy cost (F = 0.42; p = 0.908; η2 = 0.002). Linear regression presented a very high adjustment for absolute drag values between able-bodied and Tr (R2 = 1.000; Ra2 = 1.000; SEE = 0.200) and Tt (R2 = 1.00; Ra2 = 1.000; SEE = 0.160). The linear regression for energy cost presented a very high adjustment for absolute values between able-bodied and Tr (R2 = 1.000; Ra2 = 1.000; SEE = 0.570) and Tt (R2 = 1.00; Ra2 = 1.00; SEE = 0.778). Conclusions: This study suggests that drag and energy cost was lower in the able-bodied, followed by the Tr and Tt cyclists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Physiology in Para Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Post-Exercise Hypotension Responses in Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes after Completing Two Bench Press Training Intensities
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040156 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background and objective: Post-exercise hypotension, the reduction of blood pressure after a bout of exercise, is of great clinical relevance. Resistance exercise training is considered an important contribution to exercise training programs for hypertensive individuals and athletes. In this context, post-exercise hypotension [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Post-exercise hypotension, the reduction of blood pressure after a bout of exercise, is of great clinical relevance. Resistance exercise training is considered an important contribution to exercise training programs for hypertensive individuals and athletes. In this context, post-exercise hypotension could be clinically relevant because it would maintain blood pressure of hypertensive individuals transiently at lower levels during day-time intervals, when blood pressure is typically at its highest levels. The aim of this study was to compare the post-exercise cardiovascular effects on Paralympic powerlifting athletes of two typical high-intensity resistance-training sessions, using either five sets of five bench press repetitions at 90% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) or five sets of three bench press repetitions at 95% 1RM. Materials and Methods: Ten national-level Paralympic weightlifting athletes (age: 26.1 ± 6.9 years; body mass: 76.8 ± 17.4 kg) completed the two resistance-training sessions, one week apart, in a random order. Results: Compared with baseline values, a reduction of 5–9% in systolic blood pressure was observed after 90% and 95% of 1RM at 20–50 min post-exercise. Furthermore, myocardial oxygen volume and double product were only significantly increased immediately after and 5 min post-exercise, while the heart rate was significantly elevated after the resistance training but decreased to baseline level by 50 min after training for both training conditions. Conclusions: A hypotensive response can be expected in elite Paralympic powerlifting athletes after typical high-intensity type resistance-training sessions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Physiology in Para Sports)
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