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Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 39545

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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy
Interests: electromagnetism; smart materials and devices; magnetostriction; smart composites; energy harvesting; hysteresis modeling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy harvesting is one of the key enabling technologies for the IoT world. It allows to feed wireless sensors and low-power electronics in general, exploiting environmentally available energy.

As a matter of fact, the limiting factor for wearable electronics or wireless sensors is the finite energy stored in the batteries onboard that gives a finite duration to stand-alone performances. Of course, the solution is to change or recharge the batteries as often as necessary, but this strategy is neither practical nor economical nor green-oriented. Indeed, in the case of wireless sensors, located in strategic places in the environment, the replacement or the recharge of the batteries needs qualified technicians reaching the sensors and doing the operation, and this increases the maintenance costs. On the other hand, energy harvesting can convert the energy, right in the place where it is needed. This may also have applications for other applications, such as powering implantable medical/sensing devices for humans and animals.

Several methods allow energy harvesting from the environment: Magnetostrictives and piezoelectrics; Coupling mechanical and/or thermal variables to electro- or magnetic variables; materials and devices exploiting the Seebeck effect for direct conversion of temperature gradients into electricity; new materials for more efficient solar energy conversion; electro-active polymers (EAP) for energy harvesting, to name but a few of the many energy harvesting techniques. Indeed, the field will continue to advance as long as new multifunctional materials are discovered.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews on the properties, modeling, and characterizations of materials and devices are all welcome.

Dr. Daniele Davino
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • energy harvesting
  • smart materials
  • multifunctional materials
  • magnetostriction
  • piezoelectricity
  • Seebeck effect
  • electro-active polymers
  • shape memory alloys
  • magnetic shape memory alloys
  • solar energy

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting
by Daniele Davino
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164738 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
Energy harvesting will be one of the key enabling technologies for the Internet of Things (IoT) world [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

14 pages, 5930 KiB  
Article
An Approach toward the Realization of a Through-Thickness Glass Fiber/Epoxy Thermoelectric Generator
by George Karalis, Christos K. Mytafides, Lazaros Tzounis, Alkiviadis S. Paipetis and Nektaria-Marianthi Barkoula
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092173 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of a 10-ply glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite laminate to operate as a structural through-thickness thermoelectric generator. For this purpose, inorganic tellurium nanowires were mixed with single-wall carbon nanotubes in a wet chemical approach, [...] Read more.
The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of a 10-ply glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite laminate to operate as a structural through-thickness thermoelectric generator. For this purpose, inorganic tellurium nanowires were mixed with single-wall carbon nanotubes in a wet chemical approach, capable of resulting in a flexible p-type thermoelectric material with a power factor value of 58.88 μW/m·K2. This material was used to prepare an aqueous thermoelectric ink, which was then deposited onto a glass fiber substrate via a simple dip-coating process. The coated glass fiber ply was laminated as top lamina with uncoated glass fiber plies underneath to manufacture a thermoelectric composite capable of generating 54.22 nW power output at a through-thickness temperature difference οf 100 K. The mechanical properties of the proposed through-thickness thermoelectric laminate were tested and compared with those of the plain laminates. A minor reduction of approximately 11.5% was displayed in both the flexural modulus and strength after the integration of the thermoelectric ply. Spectroscopic and morphological analyses were also employed to characterize the obtained thermoelectric nanomaterials and the respective coated glass fiber ply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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17 pages, 3767 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Energy Generation Capacity of PVDF Sensors: Effects of Sensor Geometry and Loading
by Mohammad Uddin, Shane Alford and Syed Mahfuzul Aziz
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1895; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081895 - 10 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
This paper focuses on the energy generating capacity of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric material through a number of prototype sensors with different geometric and loading characteristics. The effect of sensor configuration, surface area, dielectric thickness, aspect ratio, loading frequency and strain on electrical [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the energy generating capacity of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric material through a number of prototype sensors with different geometric and loading characteristics. The effect of sensor configuration, surface area, dielectric thickness, aspect ratio, loading frequency and strain on electrical power output was investigated systematically. Results showed that parallel bimorph sensor was found to be the best energy harvester, with measured capacitance being reasonably acceptable. Power output increased with the increase of sensor’s surface area, loading frequency, and mechanical strain, but decreased with the increase of the sensor thickness. For all scenarios, sensors under flicking loading exhibited higher power output than that under bending. A widely used energy harvesting circuit had been utilized successfully to convert the AC signal to DC, but at the sacrifice of some losses in power output. This study provided a useful insight and experimental validation into the optimization process for an energy harvester based on human movement for future development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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17 pages, 8225 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters with Various Piezoelectric Unit Distributions
by Cong Du, Pengfei Liu, Hailu Yang, Gengfu Jiang, Linbing Wang and Markus Oeser
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061405 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
The piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) is a device for recycling wasted mechanical energy from pavements. To evaluate energy collecting efficiency of PEHs with various piezoelectric unit distributions, finite element (FE) models of the PEHs were developed in this study. The PEH was a [...] Read more.
The piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) is a device for recycling wasted mechanical energy from pavements. To evaluate energy collecting efficiency of PEHs with various piezoelectric unit distributions, finite element (FE) models of the PEHs were developed in this study. The PEH was a square of 30 cm × 30 cm with 7 cm in thickness, which was designed according to the contact area between tire and pavement. Within the PEHs, piezoelectric ceramics (PZT-5H) were used as the core piezoelectric units in the PEHs. A total of three distributions of the piezoelectric units were considered, which were 3 × 3, 3 × 4, and 4 × 4, respectively. For each distribution, two diameters of the piezoelectric units were considered to investigate the influence of the cross section area. The electrical potential, total electrical energy and maximum von Mises stress were compared based on the computational results. Due to the non-uniformity of the stress distribution in PEHs, more electrical energy can be generated by more distributions and smaller diameters of the piezoelectric units; meanwhile, more piezoelectric unit distributions cause a higher electrical potential difference between the edge and center positions. For the same distribution, the piezoelectric units with smaller diameter produce higher electrical potential and energy, but also induce higher stress concentration in the piezoelectric units near the edge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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13 pages, 3538 KiB  
Article
Lumped Element Model for Thermomagnetic Generators Based on Magnetic SMA Films
by Joel Joseph, Makoto Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki Miki and Manfred Kohl
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051234 - 5 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
This paper presents a lumped element model (LEM) to describe the coupled dynamic properties of thermomagnetic generators (TMGs) based on magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) films. The TMG generators make use of the concept of resonant self-actuation of a freely movable cantilever, caused [...] Read more.
This paper presents a lumped element model (LEM) to describe the coupled dynamic properties of thermomagnetic generators (TMGs) based on magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) films. The TMG generators make use of the concept of resonant self-actuation of a freely movable cantilever, caused by a large abrupt temperature-dependent change of magnetization and rapid heat transfer inherent to the MSMA films. The LEM is validated for the case of a Ni-Mn-Ga film with Curie temperature TC of 375 K. For a heat source temperature of 443 K, the maximum power generated is 3.1 µW corresponding to a power density with respect to the active material’s volume of 80 mW/cm3. Corresponding LEM simulations allow for a detailed study of the time-resolved temperature change of the MSMA film, the change of magnetic field at the position of the film and of the corresponding film magnetization. Resonant self-actuation is observed at 114 Hz, while rapid temperature changes of about 10 K occur within 1 ms during mechanical contact between heat source and Ni-Mn-Ga film. The LEM is used to estimate the effect of decreasing TC on the lower limit of heat source temperature in order to predict possible routes towards waste heat recovery near room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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12 pages, 3607 KiB  
Article
Triboelectric Energy Harvesting Response of Different Polymer-Based Materials
by Tiago Rodrigues-Marinho, Nelson Castro, Vitor Correia, Pedro Costa and Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4980; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214980 - 5 Nov 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2986
Abstract
Energy harvesting systems for low-power devices are increasingly being a requirement within the context of the Internet of Things and, in particular, for self-powered sensors in remote or inaccessible locations. Triboelectric nanogenerators are a suitable approach for harvesting environmental mechanical energy otherwise wasted [...] Read more.
Energy harvesting systems for low-power devices are increasingly being a requirement within the context of the Internet of Things and, in particular, for self-powered sensors in remote or inaccessible locations. Triboelectric nanogenerators are a suitable approach for harvesting environmental mechanical energy otherwise wasted in nature. This work reports on the evaluation of the output power of different polymer and polymer composites, by using the triboelectric contact-separation systems (10 N of force followed by 5 cm of separation per cycle). Different materials were used as positive (Mica, polyamide (PA66) and styrene/ethylene-butadiene/styrene (SEBS)) and negative (polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyurethane (PU), polypropylene (PP) and Kapton) charge materials. The obtained output power ranges from 0.2 to 5.9 mW, depending on the pair of materials, for an active area of 46.4 cm2. The highest response was obtained for Mica with PVDF composites with 30 wt.% of barium titanate (BT) and PA66 with PU pairs. A simple application has been developed based on vertical contact-separation mode, able to power up light emission diodes (LEDs) with around 30 cycles to charge a capacitor. Further, the capacitor can be charged in one triboelectric cycle if an area of 0.14 m2 is used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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12 pages, 20550 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Photoactive Transition-Metal Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) to Replace Dye-Sensitized Materials in Solar Cells
by Sajid Naseem, Bianca R. Gevers, Frederick J. W. J. Labuschagné and Andreas Leuteritz
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194384 - 1 Oct 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3929
Abstract
This work highlights the use of Fe-modified MgAl-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to replace dye and semiconductor complexes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), forming a layered double hydroxide solar cell (LDHSC). For this purpose, a MgAl-LDH and a Fe-modified MgAl LDH were prepared. X-ray [...] Read more.
This work highlights the use of Fe-modified MgAl-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to replace dye and semiconductor complexes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), forming a layered double hydroxide solar cell (LDHSC). For this purpose, a MgAl-LDH and a Fe-modified MgAl LDH were prepared. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used to analyze the structural properties, morphology, and success of the Fe-modification of the synthesized LDHs. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze the photoactive behavior of these LDHs and compare it to that of TiO2 and dye-sensitized TiO2. Current-voltage (I–V) solar simulation was used to determine the fill factor (FF), open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current (ISC), and efficiency of the LDHSCs. It was shown that the MgFeAl-LDH can act as a simultaneous photoabsorber and charge separator, effectively replacing the dye and semiconductor complex in DSSCs and yielding an efficiency of 1.56%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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12 pages, 5505 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of Signal Response Characteristic of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters Embedded in Pavement
by Hailu Yang, Qian Zhao, Xueli Guo, Weidong Zhang, Pengfei Liu and Linbing Wang
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122770 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Piezoelectric pavement energy harvesting is a technological approach to transform mechanical energy into electrical energy. When a piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) is embedded in asphalt pavements or concrete pavements, it is subjected to traffic loads and generates electricity. The wander of the tire [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric pavement energy harvesting is a technological approach to transform mechanical energy into electrical energy. When a piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) is embedded in asphalt pavements or concrete pavements, it is subjected to traffic loads and generates electricity. The wander of the tire load and the positioning of the PEH affect the power generation; however, they were seldom comprehensively investigated until now. In this paper, a numerical study on the influence of embedding depth of the PEH and the horizontal distance between a tire load and the PEH on piezoelectric power generation is presented. The result shows that the relative position between the PEH and the load influences the voltage magnitude, and different modes of stress state change voltage polarity. Two mathematic correlations between the embedding depth, the horizontal distance, and the generated voltage were fitted based on the computational results. This study can be used to estimate the power generation efficiency, and thus offer basic information for further development to improve the practical design of PEHs in an asphalt pavement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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13 pages, 8072 KiB  
Article
Output of MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester of Double-Clamped Beams with Different Width Shapes
by Lei Jin, Shiqiao Gao, Xiyang Zhang and Qinghe Wu
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102330 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2094
Abstract
For a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) piezoelectric energy harvester consisting of double-clamped beams, the effects of both beam shape and electrode arrangement on the voltage outputs are analyzed. For two kinds of harvester structures including millimeter-scale and micro-scale, and different shapes including rectangular, segmentally [...] Read more.
For a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) piezoelectric energy harvester consisting of double-clamped beams, the effects of both beam shape and electrode arrangement on the voltage outputs are analyzed. For two kinds of harvester structures including millimeter-scale and micro-scale, and different shapes including rectangular, segmentally trapezoidal and concave parabolic are taken into account. Corresponding electric outputs are calculated and tested. Their results are in good agreement with each other. The experimental results validate the theoretical analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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19 pages, 13428 KiB  
Article
Harvesting Variable-Speed Wind Energy with a Dynamic Multi-Stable Configuration
by Yuansheng Wang, Zhiyong Zhou, Qi Liu, Weiyang Qin and Pei Zhu
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061389 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2486
Abstract
To harvest the energy of variable-speed wind, we proposed a dynamic multi-stable configuration composed of a piezoelectric beam and a rectangular plate. At low wind speeds, the system exhibits bi-stability, whereas, at high wind speeds, the system exhibits a dynamic tri-stability, which is [...] Read more.
To harvest the energy of variable-speed wind, we proposed a dynamic multi-stable configuration composed of a piezoelectric beam and a rectangular plate. At low wind speeds, the system exhibits bi-stability, whereas, at high wind speeds, the system exhibits a dynamic tri-stability, which is beneficial for harvesting variable-speed wind energy. The theoretical analysis was carried out. For validation, the prototype was fabricated, and a piezoelectric material was bonded to the beam. The corresponding experiment was conducted, with the wind speed increasing from 1.5 to 7.5 m/s. The experiment results prove that the proposed harvester could generate a large output over the speed range. The dynamic stability is helpful to maintain snap-through motion for variable-speed wind. In particular, the snap-through motion could reach coherence resonance in a range of wind speed. Thus, the system could keep large output in the environment of variable-speed wind. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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10 pages, 7942 KiB  
Article
The Radial Piezoelectric Response from Three-Dimensional Electrospun PVDF Micro Wall Structure
by Guoxi Luo, Yunyun Luo, Qiankun Zhang, Shubei Wang, Lu Wang, Zhikang Li, Libo Zhao, Kwok Siong Teh and Zhuangde Jiang
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061368 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2691
Abstract
The ability of electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibers to produce piezoelectricity has been demonstrated for a while. Widespread applications of electrospun PVDF as an energy conversion material, however, have not materialized due to the random arrangement of fibers fabricated by traditional electrospinning. In [...] Read more.
The ability of electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibers to produce piezoelectricity has been demonstrated for a while. Widespread applications of electrospun PVDF as an energy conversion material, however, have not materialized due to the random arrangement of fibers fabricated by traditional electrospinning. In this work, a developed 3D electrospinning technique is utilized to fabricate a PVDF micro wall made up of densely stacked fibers in a fiber-by-fiber manner. Results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) demonstrate that the crystalline structure of this PVDF wall is predominant in the β phase, revealing the advanced integration capability of structural fabrication and piezoelectric poling with this 3D electrospinning. The piezoelectric response along the radial direction of these PVDF fibers is measured while the toppled micro wall, comprised of 60 fibers, is sandwich assembled with a pair of top/bottom electrodes. The measured electrical output is ca. 0.48 V and 2.7 nA. Moreover, after constant mechanical compression happening over 10,000 times, no obvious reduction in the piezoelectric response has been observed. The combined merits of high-precision 3D fabrication, in situ piezoelectric poling, and high mechanical robust make this novel structure an attractive candidate for applications in piezoelectric energy harvesting and sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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16 pages, 6505 KiB  
Article
A New Prospect in Road Traffic Energy Harvesting Using Lead-Free Piezoceramics
by Manuel Vázquez-Rodríguez, Francisco J. Jiménez, Lorena Pardo, Pilar Ochoa, Amador M. González and José de Frutos
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223725 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3014
Abstract
In this paper, a new prospect using lead-free piezoelectric ceramics is presented in order to determine their behavior in piezoelectric-based road traffic energy harvesting applications. This paper will describe the low-cost and fully programmable novel test bench developed. The test bench includes a [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new prospect using lead-free piezoelectric ceramics is presented in order to determine their behavior in piezoelectric-based road traffic energy harvesting applications. This paper will describe the low-cost and fully programmable novel test bench developed. The test bench includes a traffic simulator and acquires the electrical signals of the piezoelectric materials and the energy harvested when stress is produced by analogous mechanical stimuli to road traffic effects. This new computer-controlled laboratory instrument is able to obtain the active electrical model of the piezoelectric materials and the generalized linear equivalent electrical model of the energy storage and harvesting circuits in an accurate and automatized empirical process. The models are originals and predict the extracted maximum power. The methodology presented allows the use of only two load resistor values to empirically verify the value of the output impedance of the harvester previously determined by simulations. This parameter is unknown a priori and is very relevant for optimizing the energy harvesting process based on maximum power point algorithms. The relative error achieved between the theoretical analysis by applying the models and the practical tests with real harvesting systems is under 3%. The environmental concerns are explored, highlighting the main differences between lead-containing (lead zirconate titanate, PZT) and lead-free commercial piezoelectric ceramics in road traffic energy harvesting applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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12 pages, 4226 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Simulation of a Fe-Ga Energy Harvester Prototype Through a Preisach-Type Hysteresis Model
by Stefano Palumbo, Mario Chiampi, Oriano Bottauscio and Mauro Zucca
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203384 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
This paper presents the modeling of an Fe–Ga energy harvester prototype, within a large range of values of operating parameters (mechanical preload, amplitude and frequency of dynamic load, electric load resistance). The simulations, based on a hysteretic Preisach-type model, employ a voltage-driven finite [...] Read more.
This paper presents the modeling of an Fe–Ga energy harvester prototype, within a large range of values of operating parameters (mechanical preload, amplitude and frequency of dynamic load, electric load resistance). The simulations, based on a hysteretic Preisach-type model, employ a voltage-driven finite element formulation using the fixed-point technique, to handle the material nonlinearities. Due to the magneto–mechanical characteristics of Fe–Ga, a preliminary tuning must be performed for each preload to individualize the fixed point constant, to ensure a good convergence of the method. This paper demonstrates how this approach leads to good results for the Fe–Ga prototype. The relative discrepancies between experimental and computational values of the output power remain lower than 5% in the entire range of operating parameters considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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21 pages, 5225 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Characterization of a Kinetic Energy Harvesting Device Based on Galfenol
by Carmine Stefano Clemente and Daniele Davino
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193199 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2826
Abstract
The proposal of Energy Harvesting (EH) techniques and devices has experienced a significant growth over the last years, because of the spread of low power electronic devices. Small ambient energy quantities can be recovered through EH and exploited to power Wireless Sensor Networks [...] Read more.
The proposal of Energy Harvesting (EH) techniques and devices has experienced a significant growth over the last years, because of the spread of low power electronic devices. Small ambient energy quantities can be recovered through EH and exploited to power Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) used, for example, for the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridges or viaducts. For this purpose, research on EH devices based on magnetostrictive materials has significantly grown in the last years. However, these devices comprise different parts, such as a mechanical system, magnetic circuit and electrical connections, which are coupled together. Then, a method able to reproduce the performance may be a handy tool. This paper presents a nonlinear equivalent circuit of a harvester, based on multiple rods of Galfenol, which can be solved with standard circuit simulator. The circuital parameters are identified with measurements both on one rod and on the whole device. The validation of the circuit and the analysis of the power conversion performance of the device have been conducted with different working conditions (force profile, typology of permanent magnets, resistive electrical load). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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7 pages, 2697 KiB  
Communication
Footstep Energy Harvesting with the Magnetostrictive Fiber Integrated Shoes
by Hiroki Kurita, Kenichi Katabira, Yu Yoshida and Fumio Narita
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132055 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2921
Abstract
Wearable energy harvesting devices attract attention as the devices provide electrical power without inhibiting user mobility and independence. While the piezoelectric materials integrated shoes have been considered as wearable energy harvesting devices for a long time, they can lose their energy harvesting performance [...] Read more.
Wearable energy harvesting devices attract attention as the devices provide electrical power without inhibiting user mobility and independence. While the piezoelectric materials integrated shoes have been considered as wearable energy harvesting devices for a long time, they can lose their energy harvesting performance after being used several times due to their brittleness. In this study, we focused on Fe–Co magnetostrictive materials and fabricated Fe–Co magnetostrictive fiber integrated shoes. We revealed that Fe–Co magnetostrictive fiber integrated shoes are capable of generating 1.2 µJ from 1000 steps of usual walking by the Villari (inverse magnetostrictive) effect. It seems that the output energy is dependent on user habit on ambulation, not on their weight. From both a mechanical and functional point of view, Fe–Co magnetostrictive fiber integrated shoes demonstrated stable energy harvesting performance after being used many times. It is likely that Fe–Co magnetostrictive fiber integrated shoes are available as sustainable and wearable energy harvesting devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Devices for Energy Harvesting)
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