Special Issue "Shape Memory Materials: New Design Concepts and Novel Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Andrea Spaggiari
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Sciences and Methods for Engineering University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Via Amendola n° 2 - Padiglione Tamburini, 42122 - Reggio Emilia - Italy
Interests: Design and development of shape memory alloys based actuators; Shape Memory Alloys; Shape Memory based Composites; Shape Memory and Superelasticity; Smart Structures; Shape Memory and Superelastic Applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Shape Memory Materials are a hot topic in many scientific and technological fields where sensing and actuating are high-added-value properties; for instance, in sectors such as aerospace, robotic, bio-medical, wearable technologies, flexible electronic and MEMS. In the last decade, the number of novel materials exhibiting shape memory and/or superelasticity has increased with the irruption of shape memory polymers (SMP), shape memory and superelastic ceramics (SMC), and novel shape memory alloy (SMA) families. This development also opens the way for the design of new shape-memory based composites (SM-Comp).

All these shape memory materials are expected to offer particular abilities and performances, and each kind of material would be better adapted for some specific environment working conditions and requirements than the other ones. Consequently, all these shape memory materials will compete in the same “materials market” and a global vision of their particularities and advantages will be a fundamental starting point to afford new challenges on the coming applications of shape memory materials.

This Special Issue is focused on the emerging concepts allowing the design of new or improved shape memory and superelastic performances, as well as in the characterization of the microstructure and properties of novel shape memory materials. Topics include, but not limited to:

  • Design and development of shape memory alloys based actuators;
  • New concepts on the design of shape memory alloys, as for instance developing small hysteresis, or controlling memory effect during partial cycling;
  • New concepts on the design of shape memory polymeric materials, as for instance improving strength and temperature range by chemical design;
  • New Concepts on the development of shape memory and/or superelastic materials at small scale;
  • Novel shape memory alloys (SMA), as for instance high temperature shape memory alloys, new iron-based SMA or new magnetic SMA;
  • Novel shape memory polymers (SMP), as for instance new families of SMP or designed with improved performances;
  • Novel shape memory or superelastic ceramics, designed for high temperature;
  • Novel shape-memory based composites designed for specific applications;
  • New trends in production technologies, as for instance shape memory materials produced by Additive Manufacturing;
  • New trends in shape memory applications for emerging technologies;
  • New trends in shape memory materials at small scale, SMEMS.

I hope that new ideas will promote a fast development of this exciting topic of shape memory materials, and I invite you to submit your contributions to this Special Issue with the best of your research activities.

Prof. Dr. Andrea Spaggiari
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Novel shape memory alloys
  • Novel shape memory polymers
  • Novel shape memory ceramics
  • Design of shape memory based composites
  • Physical and chemical new concepts for designing shape memory materials
  • Structure-property relationship in shape memory materials
  • In-situ characterization of shape memory materials and properties
  • Emerging applications of shape memory materials
  • Nano- and Micro- shape memory properties
  • Design and development of shape memory alloys based actuators

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Uniaxial Compressive Behavior of Concrete Columns Confined with Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy Wires
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051227 - 09 Mar 2020
Abstract
Superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) exhibits the ability to undergo large deformations before reverting back to its undeformed shape following the removal of the load. This unique property underlies its great potential in the seismic design and retrofitting of structure members. In this [...] Read more.
Superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) exhibits the ability to undergo large deformations before reverting back to its undeformed shape following the removal of the load. This unique property underlies its great potential in the seismic design and retrofitting of structure members. In this paper, superelastic SMA wires were utilized to confine concrete cylinders to enhance their axial compressive behavior. The axial carrying and deformation capacities of SMA-confined concrete cylinders are assessed by uniaxial compression testing on a total of eight SMA-confined concrete columns and one unconfined column. The influence of the amount of SMA and the prestrain level of SMA wires, as well as the reinforcing mode, on the axial carrying and deformation capacity of confined concrete columns were considered. The analysis focuses on the axial carrying capacity and deformation performance of concrete columns reinforced with superelastic SMA under different loading conditions. Based on the experimental data and analysis results, it is found that superelastic SMA wires can increase the axial loading capacity and enhance deformation performance of concrete columns. Under the same loading condition, the ultimate bearing capacity of SMA-confined concrete columns increases as the increasing of the amount of SMA wire. The results of this study verify the effectiveness of superelastic SMA in enhancing the loading capacity and deformation behavior of concrete cylinders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Materials: New Design Concepts and Novel Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Smart Textile Materials with Shape Memory Alloys for Application in Protective Clothing
Materials 2020, 13(3), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030689 - 04 Feb 2020
Abstract
The latest directions of research on the design of protective clothing concern the implementation of smart materials, in order to increase its protective performance. This paper presents results on the resistance to thermal factors such as flames, radiant heat, and molten metals, which [...] Read more.
The latest directions of research on the design of protective clothing concern the implementation of smart materials, in order to increase its protective performance. This paper presents results on the resistance to thermal factors such as flames, radiant heat, and molten metals, which were obtained for the developed smart textile material with shape memory alloys (SMAs). The laboratory tests performed indicated that the application of the designed SMA elements in the selected textile material system caused more than a twofold increase in the resistance to radiant heat (RHTI24 = 224 s) with an increase of thickness of 13 mm (sample located vertically with a load), while in the case of tests on the resistance to flames, it was equal to 41 mm (sample located vertically without a load) and in the case of tests on the resistance to molten metal, it was 17 mm (sample located horizontally). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Materials: New Design Concepts and Novel Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification on the Microstructure and Martensitic Transformation of Selective Laser Melted Nitinol
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193068 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Nitinol has significant potential for biomedical and actuating-sensing devices, thanks to its functional properties. The use of selective laser melting (SLM) with Nitinol powder can promote novel applications aimed to produce 3D complex parts with integrated functional performances. As the final step of [...] Read more.
Nitinol has significant potential for biomedical and actuating-sensing devices, thanks to its functional properties. The use of selective laser melting (SLM) with Nitinol powder can promote novel applications aimed to produce 3D complex parts with integrated functional performances. As the final step of the production route, finishing processing needs to be investigated both for the optimization of the surface morphology and the limit alteration of the Nitinol functional properties. In this work, the effect of an advanced method of surface modification, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM), on the martensitic transformation and microstructure of SLM built Ni50.8Ti49.2 (at.%) was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the UNSM process can generate stress-induced martensite, at least partially suppressing the martensitic transformation. The microhardness profile indicates that the UNSM process can affect the mechanical properties of the SLMed Nitinol sample in a range of up to approximately 750 μm in depth from the upper surface, while electron backscatter diffraction analysis highlighted that the initial austenitic phase was modified within a depth below 200 μm from the UNSMed surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Materials: New Design Concepts and Novel Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A Bio-Hygromorph Fabricated with Fish Swim Bladder Hydrogel and Wood Flour-Filled Polylactic Acid Scaffold by 3D Printing
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182896 - 07 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Non-powered adaptive systems are attractive in the construction of environment actuators, meteorosensitive architectures, biomedical devices, and soft robotics. Combining hydrophilic materials and anisotropic structures to mimic self-morphing plant structures has been demonstrated as an effective approach to creating artificial hygromorphs. The convenience of [...] Read more.
Non-powered adaptive systems are attractive in the construction of environment actuators, meteorosensitive architectures, biomedical devices, and soft robotics. Combining hydrophilic materials and anisotropic structures to mimic self-morphing plant structures has been demonstrated as an effective approach to creating artificial hygromorphs. The convenience of 3D printing technologies in shaping programmable complex structures facilitates the imitation of complex anisotropic plant structures. In this research, we constructed a bio-hygromorph using fish swim bladder hydrogel as the hydrophilic material and wood flour-filled polylactic acid (WPLA) scaffold, which was printed with fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing technology (3DP). The environmental benign bio-hygromorph displayed morphing abilities triggered by moisture content changes, as the fish swim bladder hydrogel swelled and shrunk during absorption and desorption cycles. The strain disproportion of the two-layered composite structure in the bio-hygromorph drove the bending deformation. Stress analyses performed with finite element analysis (FEA) also revealed the mechanism behind the moisture content driven morphing of the bio-hygromorph. Notably, the bio-hygromorph exhibited faster response times to moisture absorption than desorption, which may donate actuators’ different attributes in distinct moisture conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Materials: New Design Concepts and Novel Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Design Method for Constant Force Components Based on Superelastic SMA
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182842 - 04 Sep 2019
Abstract
Clamping devices with constant force or pressure are desired in medical instruments, such as hemostatic forceps and the artificial sphincter, to prevent soft tissues from injures due to overloading. This paper studies the design method issues in constant force components using superelastic shape [...] Read more.
Clamping devices with constant force or pressure are desired in medical instruments, such as hemostatic forceps and the artificial sphincter, to prevent soft tissues from injures due to overloading. This paper studies the design method issues in constant force components using superelastic shape memory alloy. A generalized method for generating a constant force components-based shape memory alloy is proposed. An example of a C-shaped shape memory alloy sheet with a thickness of 0.2 mm is presented. The design results using the generalized design method for a C-shaped shape memory alloy sheet with 0.2 mm thickness are compared with its experimental results. Based on the generalized design method, the obtained design solutions for Cases 1 and 2 are coincident with the results obtained by the experiments. It could be seen that the generated design shape of the superelastic shape memory alloy component might obtain constant force within a relatively large deformation range. It is validated that the proposed generalized design method was feasible and effective. It is also illustrated that changing the geometric dimensions of the superelastic SMA component might obtain constant force within a relatively large deformation range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Materials: New Design Concepts and Novel Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Gradient Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Properties of Cu–Al–Mn Shape Memory Alloy
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162505 - 07 Aug 2019
Abstract
The columnar-grained Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloys (SMAs), which have good shape memory properties and are prepared by a unidirectional solidification technique, were subjected to a gradient heat treatment under temperatures ranging from 100 to 450 °C. After this treatment, the microstructure, hardness, transformation [...] Read more.
The columnar-grained Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloys (SMAs), which have good shape memory properties and are prepared by a unidirectional solidification technique, were subjected to a gradient heat treatment under temperatures ranging from 100 to 450 °C. After this treatment, the microstructure, hardness, transformation temperature and shape memory properties of these samples could exhibit gradient changing trends, all of which were investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a Vickers microhardness tester, and a compression machine. The microstructure observation result shows that the acicular bainite-precipitated phase produces from scratch and then grows continuously with the increasing of the heat treatment temperature, finally presenting a graded distribution from one end section to another of the sample. The hardness tests give the samples results also increasing with temperature. Specifically, the change relationship between hardness and the treatment temperature mathematically satisfies dynamic function. In addition, it can be concluded from mechanical tests the compressive elastic–superelastic strain and strength of the samples show gradient variation features. Overall, our experimental investigation indicates that a gradient heat treatment is an effective way to conduct microstructure control or design for the Cu–Al–Mn SMAs, and their graded properties are mainly caused by the different fractions of the bainite phase producing in different local areas after the gradient heat treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Materials: New Design Concepts and Novel Materials)
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