Special Issue "Advances in High-Performance Non-ferrous Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Metals and Alloys".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hailiang Yu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Stake Key Laboratory of High Peformance Complex Manufacturing, Light Alloys Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Interests: metals and alloys; metalforming; microstructure and properties
Dr. Zhilin Liu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Stake Key Laboratory of High Peformance Complex Manufacturing, Light Alloys Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Interests: metal solidification; micro- and nanomechanics; material characterization; crystallography of phase transformation
Dr. Xiaohui Cui
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Stake Key Laboratory of High Peformance Complex Manufacturing, Light Alloys Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Interests: metalforming; microstructure and properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, there is great pressure on energy conservation and emission reduction. In order to achieve these goals, weight reduction in manufacturing fields such as the vehicle, marine, and aerospace industries, and microelectromechanical systems, is the major trend. Although some structures and parts that require special properties and service conditions must use ferrous materials such as steels due to their superior thermal and wear resistance, there is a desperate need to replace these alloys with non-ferrous materials such as Al alloys, Mg alloys, Ti-based alloys, and Cu alloys in order to reduce operational and maintenance costs. Recently, many material processing techniques have been developed to enhance the performance of non-ferrous materials. This Special Issue covers these topics and focuses on the process–structure–performance relationships of high-performance non-ferrous materials.

Prof. Dr. Hailiang Yu
Dr. Zhilin Liu
Dr. Xiaohui Cui
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • non-ferrous materials
  • microstructure and mechanical properties
  • mechanical behavior
  • material processing
  • heat treatment

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Effect of CeO2 Size on Microstructure, Synthesis Mechanism and Refining Performance of Al-Ti-C Alloy
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226739 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 246
Abstract
The effects of CeO2 size on the microstructure and synthesis mechanism of Al-Ti-C alloy were investigated using a quenching experiment method. A scanning calorimetry experiment was used to investigate the synthesis mechanism of TiC, the aluminum melt in situ reaction was carried [...] Read more.
The effects of CeO2 size on the microstructure and synthesis mechanism of Al-Ti-C alloy were investigated using a quenching experiment method. A scanning calorimetry experiment was used to investigate the synthesis mechanism of TiC, the aluminum melt in situ reaction was carried out to synthesize master alloys and its refining performance was estimated. The results show that the Al-Ti-C-Ce system is mainly composed of α-Al, Al3Ti, TiC and Ti2Al20Ce. The addition of CeO2 obviously speeds up the progress of the reaction, reduces the size of Al3Ti and TiC and lowers the formation temperature of second-phase particles. When the size of CeO2 is 2–4 μm, the promotion effect on the system is most obvious. The smaller the size of CeO2, the smaller the size of Al3Ti and TiC and the lower the formation temperature. Al-Ti-C-Ce master alloy has a significant refinement effect on commercial pure aluminum. When the CeO2 size is 2–4 μm, the grain size of commercial pure aluminum is refined to 227 μm by Al-Ti-C-Ce master alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Performance Non-ferrous Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Grain Refiner on Fracture Toughness of 7050 Ingot and Plate
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216705 - 07 Nov 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
In this paper, two types of grain refining alloys, Al-3Ti-0.15C and Al-5Ti-0.2B, were used to cast two types of 7050 rolling ingots. The effect of Al-3Ti-0.15C and Al-5Ti-0.2B grain refiners on fracture toughness in different directions for 7050 ingots after heat treatment and [...] Read more.
In this paper, two types of grain refining alloys, Al-3Ti-0.15C and Al-5Ti-0.2B, were used to cast two types of 7050 rolling ingots. The effect of Al-3Ti-0.15C and Al-5Ti-0.2B grain refiners on fracture toughness in different directions for 7050 ingots after heat treatment and 7050-T7651 plates was investigated using optical electron microscopy (OEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties testing included both tensile and plane strain fracture toughness (KIC). The grain size was measured from the surface to the center of the 7050 ingots with two different grain refiners. The fracture surface was analyzed by SEM and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The experiments showed the grain size from edge to center was reduced in 7050 ingots with both the TiC and TiB refiners, and the grain size was larger for ingots with the Al-3Ti-0.15C grain refiner at the same position. The tensile properties of 7050 ingots after heat treatment with Al-3Ti-0.15C grain refiner were 1–2 MPa lower than the ingot with the Al-5Ti-0.2B grain refiner. For the 7050-T7651 100 mm thick plate with the Al-3Ti-0.15C grain refiner, for the L direction, the tensile properties were lower by about 10~15 MPa; for the plate with the Al-3Ti-0.15C refiner than plate with Al-5Ti-0.2B refiner, for the LT direction, the tensile properties were lower by about 13–18 MPa; and for the ST direction, they were lower by about 8–10 MPa compared to that of Al-5Ti-0.2B refiner. The fracture toughness of the 7050-T7651 plate produced using the Al-3Ti-0.15C ingot was approximately 2–6 MPa · m higher than the plate produced from the Al-5Ti-0.2B ingot. Fractography of the failed fracture toughness specimens revealed that the path of crack propagation of the 7050 ingot after heat treatment produced from the Al-3Ti-0.15C grain refiner was more tortuous than in the ingot produced from the Al-5Ti-0.2B, which resulted in higher fracture toughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Performance Non-ferrous Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
In Situ Observation of the Tensile Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–1Cr–1Fe Alloy with Different Microstructures
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195794 - 03 Oct 2021
Viewed by 487
Abstract
The plastic deformation processes and fracture behavior of a Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–1Cr–1Fe alloy with bimodal and lamellar microstructures were studied by room-temperature tensile tests with in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. The results indicate that a bimodal microstructure has a lower strength but higher [...] Read more.
The plastic deformation processes and fracture behavior of a Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–1Cr–1Fe alloy with bimodal and lamellar microstructures were studied by room-temperature tensile tests with in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. The results indicate that a bimodal microstructure has a lower strength but higher ductility than a lamellar microstructure. For the bimodal microstructure, parallel, deep slip bands (SBs) are first noticed in the primary α (αp) phase lying at an angle of about 45° to the direction of the applied tension, while they are first observed in the coarse lath α (αL) phase or its interface at grain boundaries (GBs) for the lamellar microstructure. The β matrix undergoes larger plastic deformation than the αL phase in the bimodal microstructure before fracture. Microcracks are prone to nucleate at the αp/β interface and interconnect, finally causing the fracture of the bimodal microstructure. The plastic deformation is mainly restricted to within the coarse αL phase at GBs, which promotes the formation of microcracks and the intergranular fracture of the lamellar microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Performance Non-ferrous Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Cobalt Content Effect on the Magnetic Properties of Ni50-xCoxMn35.5In14.5 Annealed Ribbons
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195497 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
We present a study of the annealing effect and its influence on magnetic and structural properties for a series of Heusler alloys Ni50xCoxMn35.5In14.5 (x=0,3,5) prepared in [...] Read more.
We present a study of the annealing effect and its influence on magnetic and structural properties for a series of Heusler alloys Ni50xCoxMn35.5In14.5 (x=0,3,5) prepared in ribbon form. We studied the morphology and composition using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an X-ray microanalyzer (EDX). The magnetic properties were determined by two methods: electron magnetic resonance (EMR) and vibrating sample magetometer (VSM). We found that cobalt content in the annealed samples reveals an additional magnetic phase transition at lower temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Performance Non-ferrous Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Deformation Behavior and Properties of 7075 Aluminum Alloy under Electromagnetic Hot Forming
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4954; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174954 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 490
Abstract
High-strength 7075 aluminum alloy is widely used in the aerospace industry. The forming performance of 7075 aluminum alloy is poor at room temperature. Therefore, hot forming is mainly adopted. Electromagnetic forming is a high-speed forming technology that can significantly improve the forming limit [...] Read more.
High-strength 7075 aluminum alloy is widely used in the aerospace industry. The forming performance of 7075 aluminum alloy is poor at room temperature. Therefore, hot forming is mainly adopted. Electromagnetic forming is a high-speed forming technology that can significantly improve the forming limit of difficult-to-deform materials. However, there are few studies on electromagnetic hot forming of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. In this study, the deformation behavior of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy in the temperature range of 25 °C to 400 °C was investigated. As the temperature increased, the sheet forming height first decreased, then increased. When the forming temperature is between 200 °C and 300 °C, η phase coarsening leads to a decrease in stress and hardness of the material. When the forming temperature is between 300 °C and 400 °C, continuous dynamic recrystallization of 7075 aluminum alloy occurs, resulting in grain refinement and an increase in stress and hardness. The results of numerical simulations and experiments all show that the forming height and deformation uniformity of the sheet metal are optimal at 400 °C, compared to 200 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Performance Non-ferrous Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Efficient Approach to the Five-Axis Flank Milling of Non-Ferrous Spiral Bevel Gears
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174848 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Five-axis flank milling has been applied in industry as a relatively new method to cut spiral bevel gears (SBGs) for its flexibility, especially for the applications of small batches and repairs. However, it still has critical inferior aspects compared to the traditional manufacturing [...] Read more.
Five-axis flank milling has been applied in industry as a relatively new method to cut spiral bevel gears (SBGs) for its flexibility, especially for the applications of small batches and repairs. However, it still has critical inferior aspects compared to the traditional manufacturing ways of SBGs: the efficiency is low, and the machining accuracy may not ensure the qualified meshing performances. To improve the efficiency, especially for cutting non-ferrous metals, this work proposes an approach to simultaneously cut the tooth surface and tooth bottom by a filleted cutter with only one pass. Meanwhile, the machining accuracy of the contact area is considered beforehand for the tool path optimization to ensure the meshing performances, which is further confirmed by FEM (finite element method). For the convenience of the FEM, the tooth surface points are calculated with an even distribution, and the calculation process is efficiently implemented with a closed-form solution. Based on the proposed method, the number (or total length) of the tool path is reduced, and the contact area is qualified. Both the simulation and cutting experiment are implemented to validate the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Performance Non-ferrous Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Correlation Analysis of Microstructure and Tribological Characteristics of In Situ VCp Reinforced Iron-Based Composite
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154343 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 807
Abstract
In this study, four kinds of heat treatments were performed to obtain a certain amount of retained austenite, which can result in good toughness and low brittleness accompanied with wear resistance of an in situ VC particle reinforced iron-based composite (VCFC). Microstructure, mechanical [...] Read more.
In this study, four kinds of heat treatments were performed to obtain a certain amount of retained austenite, which can result in good toughness and low brittleness accompanied with wear resistance of an in situ VC particle reinforced iron-based composite (VCFC). Microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance of the samples under heat treatment of QP, QPT, MQP and MQPT were compared. The experimental results indicated that there is a huge difference in microstructure between MQPT and the other heat treatments. High-proportion retained austenite and white net-like precipitates of M7C3 carbide existed in the MQPT-treated sample, but thick M7C3 carbide with brittleness was discovered in the other sample. Thereby, high-proportion retained austenite contributed to its low hardness of 634 HV and high tensile strength of 267 MPa, while a maximum hardness of 705.5 HV and a minimum tensile strength of 205 MPa were exhibited in the QPT-treated sample with a V-rich carbide of high hardness, a Cr-rich carbide of brittleness and a high-proportion martensite. Meanwhile, a phase transformation from retained austenite to martensite could increase the hardness and enhance wear resistance based on the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect; its wear rate was only 1.83 × 10−6 mm−3/(N·m). However, the wear rates of the samples under QP, QPT and MQP heat treatments increased by 16.4%, 44.3% and 41.0%, respectively. The wear mechanism was a synergistic effect of the adhesive wear mechanism and the abrasive wear mechanism. The adhesive wear mechanism was mainly considered in the MQPT-treated sample to reduce the wear rate attributed to high-proportion retained austenite and the existence of wear debris with a W element on the surface of the wear track. However, the abrasive wear mechanism could exist in the other samples because of a lot of thick, brittle M7C3, thereby resulting in a higher wear rate due to immediate contact between the designed material and the counterpart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Performance Non-ferrous Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of an Equimolar Cr-Mn-Fe-Co High-Entropy Alloy
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154259 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 690
Abstract
The oxidation behavior of an equimolar Cr-Mn-Fe-Co high-entropy alloy (HEA) processed by 3D laser printing was investigated at 700 °C and 900 °C. The oxidation kinetics of the alloy followed the parabolic rate law, and the oxidation rate constant increased with the rising [...] Read more.
The oxidation behavior of an equimolar Cr-Mn-Fe-Co high-entropy alloy (HEA) processed by 3D laser printing was investigated at 700 °C and 900 °C. The oxidation kinetics of the alloy followed the parabolic rate law, and the oxidation rate constant increased with the rising of the temperature. Inward diffusion of oxygen and outward diffusion of cations took place during the high-temperature oxidation process. A spinel-type oxide was formed on the surface, and the thickness of the oxide layer increased with the rising of experimental temperature or time. The exfoliation of the oxide layer took place when the test was operated at 900 °C over 12 h. During oxidation tests, the matrix was propped open by oxides and was segmented into small pieces. The formation of loose structures had great effects on the high-temperature oxidation resistance of the HEA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Performance Non-ferrous Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Grain Growth Mechanism of Lamellar-Structure High-Purity Nickel via Cold Rolling and Cryorolling during Annealing
Materials 2021, 14(14), 4025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14144025 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 762
Abstract
High-purity (99.999%) nickel with lamellar-structure grains (LG) was obtained by room-temperature rolling and cryorolling in this research, and then annealed at different temperatures (75 °C, 160 °C, and 245 °C). The microstructure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The grain growth mechanism during [...] Read more.
High-purity (99.999%) nickel with lamellar-structure grains (LG) was obtained by room-temperature rolling and cryorolling in this research, and then annealed at different temperatures (75 °C, 160 °C, and 245 °C). The microstructure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The grain growth mechanism during annealing of the LG materials obtained via different processes was studied. Results showed that the LG high-purity nickel obtained by room-temperature rolling had a static discontinuous recrystallization during annealing, whereas that obtained by cryorolling underwent static and continuous recrystallization during annealing, which was caused by the seriously inhibited dislocation recovery in the rolling process under cryogenic conditions, leading to more accumulated deformation energy storage in sheets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Performance Non-ferrous Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Titanium in Cast Cu-Sn Alloys—A Review
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164587 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
The article reviews the progress made on bronze alloys processed through various casting techniques, and focuses on enhancements in the microstructural characteristics, hardness, tensile properties, and tribological behaviour of Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Ti alloys. Copper and its alloys have found several applications in the [...] Read more.
The article reviews the progress made on bronze alloys processed through various casting techniques, and focuses on enhancements in the microstructural characteristics, hardness, tensile properties, and tribological behaviour of Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Ti alloys. Copper and its alloys have found several applications in the fields of automobiles, marine and machine tools specifically for propellers in submarines, bearings, and bushings. It has also been reported that bronze alloys are especially used as an anti-wear and friction-reducing material to make high performance bearings for roller cone cock bits and warships for defence purposes. In these applications, properties like tensile strength, yield strength, fatigue strength, elongation, hardness, impact strength, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance are very important; however, these bronze alloys possess only moderate hardness, which results in low wear resistance, thereby limiting the application of these alloys in the automobile industry. The major factor that influences the properties of bronze alloys is the microstructure. Morphological changes in these bronze alloys are achieved through different manufacturing techniques, such as casting, heat treatment, and alloy addition, which enhance the mechanical, tribological, and corrosion characteristics. Alloying of Ti to cast Cu-Sn is very effective in changing the microstructure of bronze alloys. Reinforcing the bronze matrix with several ceramic particles and surface modifications also improves the properties of bronze alloys. The present article reviews the techniques involved in changing the microstructure and enhancing the mechanical and tribological behaviours of cast Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Ti alloys. Moreover, this article also reviews the industrial applications and future scope of these cast alloys in the automobile and marine industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Performance Non-ferrous Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop