Special Issue "The Fabrication of Compact and Porous Semiconductor Metal Oxide Layers"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Porous Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Cecile Charbonneau
Website
Guest Editor
College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, UK

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At present, semiconductor metal oxides are used in a great variety of commercially available technologies. Thin layers of these materials can now be manufactured at small and large scale to produce self-cleaning surfaces, electrodes for energy systems (photovoltaics, hydrogen generation, batteries, etc.), smart colour-changing windows, electronics, gas sensors, and environmental monitoring, and for many other applications. The fabrication of compact semiconductor metal oxide films tends to rely on techniques such as chemical or physical vapour deposition, atomic layer deposition, wet chemical methods (dip/spin/slot-die coating, electrochemical deposition, spray pyrolysis, ink-jet printing, etc.). Many of these have been succesfully transfered from laboratories to manufacturing plants; however, there is still a great need for continuing the development of these routes to lower our global mass manufacturing carbon foot print and make advanced technologies available to a wider community. Porous semiconductor metal oxide layers, especially micro- and mesoporous materials, offer large specific surface areas, a key property for the successful development of efficient technologies in application fields, such as water purification, energy generation, and storage, or carbon capture and utilisation. However, their use in commercial products is still extremely limited, owing to the many difficulties associated with scaling up their fabrication whilst preserving their uniform structural properties, their durability, and recycling.    

In this issue, we aim to capture some of the latest advances in the development of environmentally friendly deposition methods and materials for the fabrication of semiconductor metal oxide compact and porous layers.

Dr. Cecile Charbonneau
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • semiconductor metal oxide layers
  • fabrication
  • low carbon

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Metal Oxide Oxidation Catalysts as Scaffolds for Perovskite Solar Cells
Materials 2020, 13(4), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040949 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
Whilst the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) perovskite solar cell (PSC) devices that have reported to date have been fabricated by high temperature sintering (>500 °C) of mesoporous metal oxide scaffolds, lower temperature processing is desirable for increasing the range of substrates available [...] Read more.
Whilst the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) perovskite solar cell (PSC) devices that have reported to date have been fabricated by high temperature sintering (>500 °C) of mesoporous metal oxide scaffolds, lower temperature processing is desirable for increasing the range of substrates available and also decrease the energy requirements during device manufacture. In this work, titanium dioxide (TiO2) mesoporous scaffolds have been compared with metal oxide oxidation catalysts: cerium dioxide (CeO2) and manganese dioxide (MnO2). For MnO2, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a low energy band gap metal oxide has been used as a scaffold in the PSC devices. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that organic binder removal is completed at temperatures of 350 °C and 275 °C for CeO2 and MnO2, respectively. By comparison, the binder removal from TiO2 pastes requires temperatures >500 °C. CH3NH3PbBr3 PSC devices that were fabricated while using MnO2 pastes sintered at 550 °C show slightly improved PCE (η = 3.9%) versus mesoporous TiO2 devices (η = 3.8%) as a result of increased open circuit voltage (Voc). However, the resultant PSC devices showed no efficiency despite apparently complete binder removal during lower temperature (325 °C) sintering using CeO2 or MnO2 pastes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Hybrid Al2O3-CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskites towards Avoiding Toxic Solvents
Materials 2020, 13(1), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010243 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
We report the synthesis of organometal halide perovskites by milling CH3NH3I and PbI2 directly with an Al2O3 scaffold to create hybrid Al2O3-CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites, without the use [...] Read more.
We report the synthesis of organometal halide perovskites by milling CH3NH3I and PbI2 directly with an Al2O3 scaffold to create hybrid Al2O3-CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites, without the use of organic capping ligands that otherwise limit the growth of the material in the three dimensions. Not only does this improve the ambient stability of perovskites in air (100 min versus 5 min for dimethylformamide (DMF)-processed material), the method also uses much fewer toxic solvents (terpineol versus dimethylformamide). This has been achieved by solid-state reaction of the perovskite precursors to produce larger perovskite nanoparticles. The resulting hybrid perovskite–alumina particles effectively improve the hydrophobicity of the perovskite phase whilst the increased thermal mass of the Al2O3 increases the thermal stability of the organic cation. Raman data show the incorporation of Al2O3 shifts the perovskite spectrum, suggesting the formation of a hybrid 3D mesoporous stack. Laser-induced current mapping (LBIC) and superoxide generation measurements, coupled to thermogravimetric analysis, show that these hybrid perovskites demonstrate slightly improved oxygen and thermal stability, whilst ultra-fast X-ray diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation show substantial (20×) increase in humidity stability. Overall, these data show considerably improved ambient stability of the hybrid perovskites compared to the solution-processed material. Full article
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