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Special Issue "Advances in Cement, Lime and Concrete"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Materials Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 February 2023 | Viewed by 5228

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Záleská Martina
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic
Interests: application of secondary raw materials in building industry; characterization of building materials; durability issues; eco-efficient of construction products; building chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Concrete and other cement-based composites are the most often used materials in the construction sector worldwide. On the construction market, several advanced cement-based products are available whose benefits have been widely demonstrated and are unquestionable. Recently, lime-based products have become popular, especially in repair and restoration of culture heritage buildings. However, despite the high level of knowledge achieved in the design, development, and manufacturing of advanced and multifunctional materials, there must be an invested effort in finding high-performance, sustainable, end eco-efficient construction materials that can compete or even surpass traditional concrete and lime- and cement-based composites applied today in construction practice. To achieve this, research on them and dissemination of their results is essential. This Special Issue is therefore dedicated to “Advances in Cement, Lime, and Concrete”, and it intends to welcome contributions on, but not limited to, the following subjects: eco-efficiency of the concrete and cement industry; advanced lime-, cement-, and blended binder-based composites; durability issues; waste to materials; alternative pozzolanic admixtures; fiber-reinforced composites; life cycle analysis; hygrothermal performance of building materials with respect to environmental exposure; and application of nano-additives in traditional building materials, repair mortars, and rendering and plastering materials.

Dr. Záleská Martina
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • eco-efficiency of concrete and cement industry
  • advanced lime-, cement- and blended binder-based composites
  • durability issues
  • salt induced damage
  • green concrete
  • waste to materials
  • alternative pozzolanic admixtures
  • fiber-reinforced composites
  • application of nano-additives in traditional building materials, repair mortars, rendering and plastering materials.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Investigation of Self-Healing Mortars with and without Bagasse Ash at Pre- and Post-Crack Times
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051650 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 507
Abstract
Cracks in typical mortar constructions enhance water permeability and degrade ions into the structure, resulting in decreased mortar durability and strength. In this study, mortar samples are created that self-healed their cracks by precipitating calcium carbonate into them. Bacillus subtilus bacterium (10−7 [...] Read more.
Cracks in typical mortar constructions enhance water permeability and degrade ions into the structure, resulting in decreased mortar durability and strength. In this study, mortar samples are created that self-healed their cracks by precipitating calcium carbonate into them. Bacillus subtilus bacterium (10−7, 10−9 cells/mL), calcium lactate, fine aggregate, OPC-cement, water, and bagasse ash were used to make self-healing mortar samples. Calcium lactates were prepared from discarded eggshells and lactic acid to reduce the cost of self-healing mortars, and 5% control burnt bagasse ash was also employed as an OPC-cement alternative. In the presence of moisture, the bacterial spores in mortars become active and begin to feed the nutrient (calcium lactate). The calcium carbonate precipitates and plugs the fracture. Our experimental results demonstrated that cracks in self-healing mortars containing bagasse ash were largely healed after 3 days of curing, but this did not occur in conventional mortar samples. Cracks up to 0.6 mm in self-healing mortars were filled with calcite using 10−7 and 10−9 cell/mL bacteria concentrations. Images from an optical microscope, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to confirm the production of calcite in fractures. Furthermore, throughout the pre- and post-crack-development stages, self-healing mortars have higher compressive strength than conventional mortars. The precipitated calcium carbonates were primed to compact the samples by filling the void spaces in hardened mortar samples. When fissures developed in hardened mortars, bacteria became active in the presence of moisture, causing calcite to precipitate and fill the cracks. The compressive strength and flexural strength of self-healing mortar samples are higher than conventional mortars before cracks develop in the samples. After the healing process of the broken mortar parts (due to cracking), self-healing mortars containing 5% bagasse ash withstand a certain load and have greater flexural strength (100 kPa) than conventional mortars (zero kPa) at 28 days of cure. Self-healing mortars absorb less water than typical mortar samples. Mortar samples containing 10−7 bacteria cells/mL exhibit greater compressive strength, flexural strength, and self-healing ability. XRD and SEM were used to analyze mortar samples with healed fractures. XRD, FTIR, and SEM images were also used to validate the produced calcium lactate. Furthermore, the durability of mortars was evaluated using DTA-TGA analysis and water absorption tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cement, Lime and Concrete)
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Article
Analyzing the Compressive Strength of Ceramic Waste-Based Concrete Using Experiment and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Approach
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164518 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
In a fast-growing population of the world and regarding meeting consumer’s requirements, solid waste landfills will continue receiving a substantial amount of waste. The utilization of solid waste materials in concrete has gained the attention of the researchers. Ceramic waste powder (CWP) is [...] Read more.
In a fast-growing population of the world and regarding meeting consumer’s requirements, solid waste landfills will continue receiving a substantial amount of waste. The utilization of solid waste materials in concrete has gained the attention of the researchers. Ceramic waste powder (CWP) is considered to be one of the most harmful wastes for the environment, which may cause water, soil, and air pollution. The aim of this study was comprised of two phases. Phase one was based on the characterization of CWP with respect to its composition, material testing (coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, cement,) and evaluation of concrete properties both in fresh and hardened states (slump, 28 days compressive strength, and dry density). Concrete mixes were prepared in order to evaluate the compressive strength (CS) of the control mix, with partial replacement of the cement with CWP of 10 and 20% by mass of cement and 60 prepared mixes. However, phase two was based on the application of the artificial neural network (ANN) and decision tree (DT) approaches, which were used to predict the CS of concrete. The linear coefficient correlation (R2) value from the ANN model indicates better performance of the model. Moreover, the statistical check and k-fold cross validation methods were also applied for the performance confirmation of the model. The mean absolute error (MAE), mean square error (MSE), and root mean square error (RMSE) were evaluated to confirm the model’s precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cement, Lime and Concrete)
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Article
Zeolite Lightweight Repair Renders: Effect of Binder Type on Properties and Salt Crystallization Resistance
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3760; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133760 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
Rendering mortars with lightweight zeolite aggregates were designed and tested. The effect of the type of binder used was also researched. For the hardened mortars, macrostructural parameters, mechanical characteristics, hygric and thermal properties were assessed. Specific attention was paid to the analysis of [...] Read more.
Rendering mortars with lightweight zeolite aggregates were designed and tested. The effect of the type of binder used was also researched. For the hardened mortars, macrostructural parameters, mechanical characteristics, hygric and thermal properties were assessed. Specific attention was paid to the analysis of the salt crystallization resistance of the developed rendering mortars. Quartz sand was fully replaced in the composition of mortars with zeolite gave materials with low density, high porosity, sufficient mechanical strength, high water vapor permeability and high water absorption coefficient, which are technical parameters required for repair rendering mortars as prescribed in the WTA directive 2-9-04/D and EN 998-1. Moreover, the zeolite enhanced mortars exhibit good thermal insulation performance and high sorption capacity. The examined rendering mortars were found to be well durable against salt crystallization, which supports their applicability in salt-laden masonry. Based on the compatibility of the repair materials with those originally used, the lime and natural hydraulic lime zeolite mortars can be used as rendering mortars for the repair of historical and heritage buildings. The cement-lime zeolite render is applicable for repair purposes only in the case of the renewal of masonry in which Portland cement-based materials were originally used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cement, Lime and Concrete)
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Article
Magnesium Oxychloride Cement Composites Lightened with Granulated Scrap Tires and Expanded Glass
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4828; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214828 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
In this paper, light burned magnesia dispersed in the magnesium chloride solution was used for the manufacturing of magnesium oxychloride cement-based composites which were lightened by granulated scrap tires and expanded glass. In a reference composite, silica sand was used only as filler. [...] Read more.
In this paper, light burned magnesia dispersed in the magnesium chloride solution was used for the manufacturing of magnesium oxychloride cement-based composites which were lightened by granulated scrap tires and expanded glass. In a reference composite, silica sand was used only as filler. In the lightened materials, granulated shredded tires were used as 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70% silica sand volumetric replacement. The rest was compensated by the addition of expanded glass granules. The filling materials were characterized by particle size distribution, specific density, dry powder density, and thermal properties that were analyzed for both loose and compacted aggregates. For the hardened air-cured samples, macrostructural parameters, mechanical properties, and hygric and thermal parameters were investigated. Specific attention was paid to the penetration of water and water-damage, which were considered as crucial durability parameters. Therefore, the compressive strength of samples retained after immersion for 24 h in water was tested and the water resistance coefficient was assessed. The use of processed waste rubber and expanded glass granulate enabled the development of lightweight materials with sufficient mechanical strength and stiffness, low permeability for water, enhanced thermal insulation properties, and durability in contact with water. These properties make the produced composites an interesting alternative to Portland cement-based materials. Moreover, the use of low-carbon binder and waste tires can be considered as an eco-efficient added value of these products which could improve the environmental impact of the construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cement, Lime and Concrete)
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Review

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Review
A Comprehensive Review on the Utilization of Recycled Waste Fibers in Cement-Based Composites
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133643 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
Ecological problems such as natural resource depletion and massive quantities of waste for disposal are now guiding progressive civilization towards sustainable construction. The reduction of natural resources and the discarding of debris into open landfills are the two main environmental concerns. As a [...] Read more.
Ecological problems such as natural resource depletion and massive quantities of waste for disposal are now guiding progressive civilization towards sustainable construction. The reduction of natural resources and the discarding of debris into open landfills are the two main environmental concerns. As a result, managing these solid wastes is a major challenge worldwide. In comparison to disposal, insufficient landfills, ecological degradation and the economic load on the relevant agencies, recycling and reusing waste materials have a considerable influence. Waste fiber has been studied for use as a cement-based composite (CBC) ingredient. Recycling waste fibers not only makes the cement composite more cost-effective and long-lasting but also helps to reduce pollution. Plastics, carpets and steels are among the various types of waste fibers reviewed in this study for their applications in cement-based materials. The mechanical properties of CBCs with different kinds of recycled-waste fibers were explored, including their compressive, flexural and splitting tensile strength and durability properties. The use of recycled fibers in the construction industry can help to ensure sustainability from environmental, economic and social standpoints. As a result, additional scientific research is needed, as well as guidance for more researchers and experts in the construction sector to examine the unknown sustainability paths. The barriers to the effective implementation of waste fiber recycling techniques in the construction sector were reviewed, and various solutions were proposed to stimulate and ensure their use in CBCs. It was concluded that CBCs containing recycled fibers provide a long-term and cost-effective alternative for dealing with waste materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cement, Lime and Concrete)
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