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Bio-Inspired Materials for Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020) | Viewed by 22324

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Guest Editor
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: tissue engineering; bioengineering; antibacterial treatments; silver; fibroin; sericin; nanocoatings
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Guest Editor
Department Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: wound healing; bioengineering; tissue engineering; silk-proteins based biomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nature is an incredible source of inspiration for scientific research and for the development of novel materials for different applications. Biological constructs have inspired the design of a considerable number of biomaterials with a high potential in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Biocompatibility, controllable biodegradation, and improved mechanical properties are just some examples of the properties achieved through the appropriate definition of bio-inspired materials for a wide range of biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, bioactive surface, antimicrobial devices for clinical use, and so on.

From nano- to macro-scale, by investigating the hierarchical structures and living systems in nature, novel effective strategies that mimic the biological environment and constructs can be proposed in order to provide innovative approaches in bioengineering and biotechnology.

This Special Issue aims to collect the most recent advances in the development of bio-inspired materials for biomedical applications, and to provide the reader with examples of the relation between nature and progress in scientific research.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, short communications, and reviews, would be greatly appreciated.

Dr. Mauro Pollini
Dr. Federica Paladini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomaterials 
  • Tissue engineering 
  • Biomedical 
  • Bioengineering

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 5340 KiB  
Article
Highly Effective Fibrin Biopolymer Scaffold for Stem Cells Upgrading Bone Regeneration
by Camila Fernanda Zorzella Creste, Patrícia Rodrigues Orsi, Fernanda Cruz Landim-Alvarenga, Luis Antônio Justulin, Marjorie de Assis Golim, Benedito Barraviera and Rui Seabra Ferreira, Jr.
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122747 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3226
Abstract
Fibrin scaffold fits as a provisional platform promoting cell migration and proliferation, angiogenesis, connective tissue formation and growth factors stimulation. We evaluated a unique heterologous fibrin biopolymer as scaffold to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat a critical-size bone defect. Femurs of 27 [...] Read more.
Fibrin scaffold fits as a provisional platform promoting cell migration and proliferation, angiogenesis, connective tissue formation and growth factors stimulation. We evaluated a unique heterologous fibrin biopolymer as scaffold to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat a critical-size bone defect. Femurs of 27 rats were treated with fibrin biopolymer (FBP); FBP + MSCs; and FBP + MSC differentiated in bone lineage (MSC-D). Bone repair was evaluated 03, 21 and 42 days later by radiographic, histological and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. The FBP + MSC-D association was the most effective treatment, since newly formed Bone was more abundant and early matured in just 21 days. We concluded that FBP is an excellent scaffold for MSCs and also use of differentiated cells should be encouraged in regenerative therapy researches. The FBP ability to maintain viable MSCs at Bone defect site has modified inflammatory environment and accelerating their regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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14 pages, 6294 KiB  
Article
Native Osseous CaP Biomineral Coating on a Biomimetic Multi-Spiked Connecting Scaffold Prototype for Cementless Resurfacing Arthroplasty Achieved by Combined Electrochemical Deposition
by Ryszard Uklejewski, Mariusz Winiecki, Piotr Krawczyk and Renata Tokłowicz
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233994 - 2 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2946
Abstract
The multi-spiked connecting scaffold (MSC-Scaffold) prototype with spikes mimicking the interdigitations of articular subchondral bone is an essential innovation in surgically initiated fixation of resurfacing arthroplasty (RA) endoprosthesis components. This paper aimed to present a determination of the suitable range of conditions for [...] Read more.
The multi-spiked connecting scaffold (MSC-Scaffold) prototype with spikes mimicking the interdigitations of articular subchondral bone is an essential innovation in surgically initiated fixation of resurfacing arthroplasty (RA) endoprosthesis components. This paper aimed to present a determination of the suitable range of conditions for the calcium phosphate (CaP) potentiostatic electrochemical deposition (ECDV=const) on the MSC-Scaffold prototype spikes to achieve a biomineral coating with a native Ca/P ratio. The CaP ECDV=const process on the MSC-Scaffold Ti4Al6V pre-prototypes was investigated for potential VECDfrom −9 to −3 V, and followed by 48 h immersion in a simulated body fluid. An acid–alkaline pretreatment (AAT) was applied for a portion of the pre-prototypes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of deposited coatings together with coatings weight measurements were performed. Themost suitable VECD range, from −5.25 to −4.75 V, was determined as the native biomineral Ca/P ratio of coatings was achieved. AAT increases the weight of deposited coatings (44% for VECD = −5.25 V, 9% for VECD = −5.00 V and 15% for VECD = −4.75 V) and the coverage degree of the lateral spike surfaces (40% for VECD = −5.25 V, 14% for VECD = −5.00 V and 100% for VECD = −4.75 V). XRD confirmed that the multiphasic CaP coating containing crystalline octacalcium phosphate is produced on the lateral surface of the spikes of the MSC-Scaffold. ECDV=const preceded by AAT prevents micro-cracks on the bone-contacting surfaces of the MSC-Scaffold prototype, increases its spikes’ lateral surface coverage, and results in the best modification effect at VECD = −5.00 V. To conclude, the biomimetic MSC-Scaffold prototype with desired biomineral coating of native Ca/P ratio was obtained for cementless RA endoprostheses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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19 pages, 1831 KiB  
Review
Bioinspired Materials for Wound Healing Application: The Potential of Silk Fibroin
by Mauro Pollini and Federica Paladini
Materials 2020, 13(15), 3361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13153361 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 5216
Abstract
Nature is an incredible source of inspiration for scientific research due to the multiple examples of sophisticated structures and architectures which have evolved for billions of years in different environments. Numerous biomaterials have evolved toward high level functions and performances, which can be [...] Read more.
Nature is an incredible source of inspiration for scientific research due to the multiple examples of sophisticated structures and architectures which have evolved for billions of years in different environments. Numerous biomaterials have evolved toward high level functions and performances, which can be exploited for designing novel biomedical devices. Naturally derived biopolymers, in particular, offer a wide range of chances to design appropriate substrates for tissue regeneration and wound healing applications. Wound management still represents a challenging field which requires continuous efforts in scientific research for definition of novel approaches to facilitate and promote wound healing and tissue regeneration, particularly where the conventional therapies fail. Moreover, big concerns associated to the risk of wound infections and antibiotic resistance have stimulated the scientific research toward the definition of products with simultaneous regenerative and antimicrobial properties. Among the bioinspired materials for wound healing, this review focuses attention on a protein derived from the silkworm cocoon, namely silk fibroin, which is characterized by incredible biological features and wound healing capability. As demonstrated by the increasing number of publications, today fibroin has received great attention for providing valuable options for fabrication of biomedical devices and products for tissue engineering. In combination with antimicrobial agents, particularly with silver nanoparticles, fibroin also allows the development of products with improved wound healing and antibacterial properties. This review aims at providing the reader with a comprehensive analysis of the most recent findings on silk fibroin, presenting studies and results demonstrating its effective role in wound healing and its great potential for wound healing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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17 pages, 2901 KiB  
Review
Biologically Inspired Collagen/Apatite Composite Biomaterials for Potential Use in Bone Tissue Regeneration—A Review
by Barbara Kołodziejska, Agnieszka Kaflak and Joanna Kolmas
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071748 - 9 Apr 2020
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 5789
Abstract
Type I collagen and nanocrystalline-substituted hydroxyapatite are the major components of a natural composite—bone tissue. Both of these materials also play a significant role in orthopedic surgery and implantology; however, their separate uses are limited; apatite is quite fragile, while collagen’s mechanical strength [...] Read more.
Type I collagen and nanocrystalline-substituted hydroxyapatite are the major components of a natural composite—bone tissue. Both of these materials also play a significant role in orthopedic surgery and implantology; however, their separate uses are limited; apatite is quite fragile, while collagen’s mechanical strength is very poor. Therefore, in biomaterial engineering, a combination of collagen and hydroxyapatite is used, which provides good mechanical properties with high biocompatibility and osteoinduction. In addition, the porous structure of the composites enables their use not only as bone defect fillers, but also as a drug release system providing controlled release of drugs directly to the bone. This feature makes biomimetic collagen–apatite composites a subject of research in many scientific centers. The review focuses on summarizing studies on biological activity, tested in vitro and in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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11 pages, 707 KiB  
Review
Phosphorene Is the New Graphene in Biomedical Applications
by Marco Tatullo, Fabio Genovese, Elisabetta Aiello, Massimiliano Amantea, Irina Makeeva, Barbara Zavan, Sandro Rengo and Leonzio Fortunato
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142301 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 4413
Abstract
Nowadays, the research of smart materials is focusing on the allotropics, which have specific characteristics that are useful in several areas, including biomedical applications. In recent years, graphene has revealed interesting antibacterial and physical peculiarities, but it has also shown limitations. Black phosphorus [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the research of smart materials is focusing on the allotropics, which have specific characteristics that are useful in several areas, including biomedical applications. In recent years, graphene has revealed interesting antibacterial and physical peculiarities, but it has also shown limitations. Black phosphorus has structural and biochemical properties that make it ideal for biomedical applications: 2D sheets of black phosphorus are called Black Phosphorene (BP), and it could replace graphene in the coming years. BP, similar to other 2D materials, can be used for colorimetric and fluorescent detectors, as well as for biosensing devices. BP also shows high in vivo biodegradability, producing non-toxic agents in the body. This characteristic is promising for pharmacological applications, as well as for scaffold and prosthetic coatings. BP shows low cytotoxicity, thus avoiding the induction of local inflammation or toxicity. As such, BP is a good candidate for different applications in the biomedical sector. Properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and biosafety are essential for use in medicine. In this review, we have exploited all such aspects, also comparing BP with other similar materials, such as the well-known graphene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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