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Special Issue "Atomic Layer Deposition of Functional Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 October 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Peter J. King

School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Newcastle University, Merz Court, NE1 7RU, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: atomic layer deposition, functional thin films, interface engineering, oxide composition and phase control, dielectrics, ferroelectrics, 2D Materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) has become a robust industry tool for functional thin films growth, and a powerful technique to produce novel thin film materials in a research context. Within the ALD community, there still seem to be many avenues for innovation and optimization as the technique matures and diversifies.

In this Special Issue of Materials, the focus is to present new developments for Functional Materials growth by ALD. This could include: precursor design, simulation and modeling, novel materials deposition and characterization (multi-component alloys, ferroelectrics, nitrides, metals, 2D materials), and innovations with tool design.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Dr. Peter J. King
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ALD
  • precursors
  • functional thin films
  • multi-component oxides
  • dielectrics
  • ferroelectrics
  • 2D materials
  • interface engineering
  • photovoltaics
  • solid-state batteries

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Formation of Micro- and Nanostructures on the Nanotitanium Surface by Chemical Etching and Deposition of Titania Films by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8366-8377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8125460
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (8787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, an integrated approach was used for the preparation of a nanotitanium-based bioactive material. The integrated approach included three methods: severe plastic deformation (SPD), chemical etching and atomic layer deposition (ALD). For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the [...] Read more.
In this study, an integrated approach was used for the preparation of a nanotitanium-based bioactive material. The integrated approach included three methods: severe plastic deformation (SPD), chemical etching and atomic layer deposition (ALD). For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the nature of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions) and the etching time have a significant qualitative impact on the nanotitanium surface structure both at the nano- and microscale. The etched samples were coated with crystalline biocompatible TiO2 films with a thickness of 20 nm by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Comparative study of the adhesive and spreading properties of human osteoblasts MG-63 has demonstrated that presence of nano- and microscale structures and crystalline titanium oxide on the surface of nanotitanium improve bioactive properties of the material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Layer Deposition of Functional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrical Properties and Interfacial Studies of HfxTi1–xO2 High Permittivity Gate Insulators Deposited on Germanium Substrates
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8169-8182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8125454
Received: 24 September 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4012 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this research, the hafnium titanate oxide thin films, TixHf1–xO2, with titanium contents of x = 0, 0.25, 0.9, and 1 were deposited on germanium substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 300 °C. The approximate [...] Read more.
In this research, the hafnium titanate oxide thin films, TixHf1–xO2, with titanium contents of x = 0, 0.25, 0.9, and 1 were deposited on germanium substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 300 °C. The approximate deposition rates of 0.2 Å and 0.17 Å per cycle were obtained for titanium oxide and hafnium oxide, respectively. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) indicates the formation of GeOx and germanate at the interface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates that all the thin films remain amorphous for this deposition condition. The surface roughness was analyzed using an atomic force microscope (AFM) for each sample. The electrical characterization shows very low hysteresis between ramp up and ramp down of the Capacitance-Voltage (CV) and the curves are indicative of low trap densities. A relatively large leakage current is observed and the lowest leakage current among the four samples is about 1 mA/cm2 at a bias of 0.5 V for a Ti0.9Hf0.1O2 sample. The large leakage current is partially attributed to the deterioration of the interface between Ge and TixHf1–xO2 caused by the oxidation source from HfO2. Consideration of the energy band diagrams for the different materials systems also provides a possible explanation for the observed leakage current behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Layer Deposition of Functional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Crystal Growth during Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition by Applying BIAS
Materials 2015, 8(11), 7805-7812; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8115425
Received: 28 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the influence of direct current (DC) biasing on the growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2) layers and their nucleation behavior has been investigated. Titania films were prepared by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) using Ti(OiPr)4 as metal [...] Read more.
In this study, the influence of direct current (DC) biasing on the growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2) layers and their nucleation behavior has been investigated. Titania films were prepared by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) using Ti(OiPr)4 as metal organic precursor. Oxygen plasma, provided by remote inductively coupled plasma, was used as an oxygen source. The TiO2 films were deposited with and without DC biasing. A strong dependence of the applied voltage on the formation of crystallites in the TiO2 layer is shown. These crystallites form spherical hillocks on the surface which causes high surface roughness. By applying a higher voltage than the plasma potential no hillock appears on the surface. Based on these results, it seems likely, that ions are responsible for the nucleation and hillock growth. Hence, the hillock formation can be controlled by controlling the ion energy and ion flux. The growth per cycle remains unchanged, whereas the refractive index slightly decreases in the absence of energetic oxygen ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Layer Deposition of Functional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Zr Doping on the Optical, Electrical and Microstructural Properties of Thin ZnO Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition
Materials 2015, 8(10), 7230-7240; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8105369
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 14 October 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), with high optical transparency (≥85%) and low electrical resistivity (10−4 Ω·cm) are used in a wide variety of commercial devices. There is growing interest in replacing conventional TCOs such as indium tin oxide with lower cost, earth abundant [...] Read more.
Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), with high optical transparency (≥85%) and low electrical resistivity (10−4 Ω·cm) are used in a wide variety of commercial devices. There is growing interest in replacing conventional TCOs such as indium tin oxide with lower cost, earth abundant materials. In the current study, we dope Zr into thin ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to target properties of an efficient TCO. The effects of doping (0–10 at.% Zr) were investigated for ~100 nm thick films and the effect of thickness on the properties was investigated for 50–250 nm thick films. The addition of Zr4+ ions acting as electron donors showed reduced resistivity (1.44 × 10−3 Ω·cm), increased carrier density (3.81 × 1020 cm−3), and increased optical gap (3.5 eV) with 4.8 at.% doping. The increase of film thickness to 250 nm reduced the electron carrier/photon scattering leading to a further reduction of resistivity to 7.5 × 10−4 Ω·cm and an average optical transparency in the visible/near infrared (IR) range up to 91%. The improved n-type properties of ZnO: Zr films are promising for TCO applications after reaching the targets for high carrier density (>1020 cm−3), low resistivity in the order of 10−4 Ω·cm and high optical transparency (≥85%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Layer Deposition of Functional Materials)
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