Special Issue "Innovative Technologies and Materials for Coatings and Surface Treatments"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Simulation and Design".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Stefano Guarino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, Niccolò Cusano University, Rome, Italy
Interests: materials and technology for surface manufacturing; laser processing; metal foams, material characterization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The need to obtain components with high quality and performance and excellent functional properties is a critical focus which is common to many industrial and technological domains.

This Special Issue aims to collect scientific contributions on new technologies, manufacturing processes, and materials for high-performance coatings and surface treatments. Scientific contributions can be focused on conventional and unconventional manufacturing processes, new materials for high-performance coatings or surface treatments and/or for surface functionalization. Furthermore, characterization methods and computational approaches for modeling the manufacturing process and material properties (such as numerical simulations, mathematical modelling, optimization, control, etc.), and contributions with environmental impact analysis (LCA) are of interest.

Prof. Dr. Stefano Guarino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Coating
  • Surface treatment
  • Manufacturing
  • Processing
  • Characterization
  • Functionalization
  • Numerical and mathematical modeling
  • Life cycle assessment

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Soft Computing Techniques for Laser-Induced Surface Wettability Control
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092379 - 03 May 2021
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Making decisions and deducing control actions in manufacturing environments requires considering many uncertainties. The ability of fuzzy logic to incorporate imperfect information into a decision model has made it suitable for the optimization of both productivity and final quality. In laser surface texturing [...] Read more.
Making decisions and deducing control actions in manufacturing environments requires considering many uncertainties. The ability of fuzzy logic to incorporate imperfect information into a decision model has made it suitable for the optimization of both productivity and final quality. In laser surface texturing for wettability control, in fact, these aspects are governed by a complex interaction of many process parameters, ranging from those connected with the laser source to those concerning the properties of the processed material. The proposed fuzzy-based decision approach overcomes this difficulty by taking into account both the random error, associated with the process variability, and the systematic error, due to the modelling assumptions, and propagating such sources of uncertainties at the input level to the output one. In this work, the laser surface texturing was carried out with a nanosecond-pulsed laser on the surfaces of AISI 304 samples, changing the laser scanning speed, the hatch distance, the number of repetitions, and the scanning pattern. A significant change of the contact angle in the range 24–121° is observed due to the produced textures. The fuzzy maps highlight the inherent uncertainty due to both the laser texturing process and the developed model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aqueous Sol-Gel Synthesis of Different Iron Ferrites: From 3D to 2D
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061554 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 385
Abstract
In this study, an aqueous sol-gel synthesis method and subsequent dip-coating technique were applied for the preparation of yttrium iron garnet (YIG), yttrium iron perovskite (YIP), and terbium iron perovskite (TIP) bulk and thin films. The monophasic highly crystalline different iron ferrite powders [...] Read more.
In this study, an aqueous sol-gel synthesis method and subsequent dip-coating technique were applied for the preparation of yttrium iron garnet (YIG), yttrium iron perovskite (YIP), and terbium iron perovskite (TIP) bulk and thin films. The monophasic highly crystalline different iron ferrite powders have been synthesized using this simple aqueous sol-gel process displaying the suitability of the method. In the next step, the same sol-gel solution was used for the fabrication of coatings on monocrystalline silicon (100) using a dip-coating procedure. This resulted, likely due to substrate surface influence, in all coatings having mixed phases of both garnet and perovskite. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis of the precursor gels was carried out. All the samples were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements were also carried out. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Green Nanocoatings Based on the Deposition of Zirconium Oxide: The Role of the Substrate
Materials 2021, 14(4), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14041043 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Herein, the influence of the substrate in the formation of zirconium oxide monolayer, from an aqueous hexafluorozirconic acid solution, by chemical conversion and by electro-assisted deposition, has been approached. The nanoscale dimensions of the ZrO2 film is affected by the substrate nature [...] Read more.
Herein, the influence of the substrate in the formation of zirconium oxide monolayer, from an aqueous hexafluorozirconic acid solution, by chemical conversion and by electro-assisted deposition, has been approached. The nanoscale dimensions of the ZrO2 film is affected by the substrate nature and roughness. This study evidenced that the mechanism of Zr-EAD is dependent on the potential applied and on the substrate composition, whereas conversion coating is uniquely dependent on the adsorption reaction time. The zirconium oxide based nanofilms were more homogenous in AA2024 substrates if compared to pure Al grade (AA1100). It was justified by the high content of Cu alloying element present in the grain boundaries of the latter. Such intermetallic active sites favor the obtaining of ZrO2 films, as demonstrated by XPS and AFM results. From a mechanistic point of view, the electrochemical reactions take place simultaneously with the conventional chemical conversion process driven by ions diffusion. Such findings will bring new perspectives for the generation of controlled oxide coatings in modified electrodes used, as for example, in the construction of battery cells; in automotive and in aerospace industries, to replace micrometric layers of zinc phosphate by light-weight zirconium oxide nanometric ones. This study is particularly addressed for the reduction of industrial waste by applying green bath solutions without the need of auxiliary compounds and using lightweight ceramic materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thin Diamond Film on Silicon Substrates for Pressure Sensor Fabrication
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173697 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 592
Abstract
Thin polycrystalline diamond films chemically vapor deposited on thinned silicon substrates were used as membranes for pressure sensor fabrication by means of selective chemical etching of silicon. The sensing element is based on a simple low-finesse Fabry–Pérot (FP) interferometer. The FP cavity is [...] Read more.
Thin polycrystalline diamond films chemically vapor deposited on thinned silicon substrates were used as membranes for pressure sensor fabrication by means of selective chemical etching of silicon. The sensing element is based on a simple low-finesse Fabry–Pérot (FP) interferometer. The FP cavity is defined by the end-face of a single mode fiber and the diamond diaphragm surface. Hence, pressure is evaluated by measuring the cavity length by an optoelectronic system coupled to the single mode fiber. Exploiting the excellent properties of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond, in terms of high hardness, low thermal expansion, and ultra-high thermal conductivity, the realized sensors have been characterized up to 16.5 MPa at room temperature. Preliminary characterizations demonstrate the feasibility of such diamond-on-Si membrane structure for pressure transduction. The proposed sensing system represents a valid alternative to conventional solutions, overcoming the drawback related to electromagnetic interference on the acquired weak signals generated by standard piezoelectric sensors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Etching to Pattern Microstructures on Plastics by Vacuum Ultraviolet Light
Materials 2020, 13(9), 2206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13092206 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 604
Abstract
We proposed and demonstrated an optical dry etching method for transferring a pattern on a photomask to a surface of plastics by decomposing the irradiated area using the high energy of vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV) at room temperature and pressure. Two kinds of [...] Read more.
We proposed and demonstrated an optical dry etching method for transferring a pattern on a photomask to a surface of plastics by decomposing the irradiated area using the high energy of vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV) at room temperature and pressure. Two kinds of wavelengths of 160 nm and 172 nm were used as the vacuum ultraviolet light, and the patterning performances for polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC) were compared. As a result, it was revealed that proportional relationships were obtained between the etching rate and the irradiation dose for both wavelengths, and the cross-sectional profiles were anisotropic. In addition, both PMMA and PC were etched at a wavelength of 160 nm, whereas PC could not be etched at a wavelength of 172 nm, suggesting that it correlates with the bond dissociation energies of the molecular bonds of the materials and the energies of the photons. Furthermore, by combining this method with the optical bonding method that we had previously developed to bond surfaces irradiated with VUV, we have demonstrated a method for fabricating microfluidic devices by irradiating only with VUV. This paper shows that this technique is a new microfabrication method suitable for simple and mass production of plastic materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Modification of Lightweight Mortars by Nanopolymers to Improve Their Water-Repellency and Durability
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061350 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
The paper explores the possibility of covering the mortar with the lightweight aggregate by the nanopolymer silane and siloxane as surface hydrophobisation. The investigation involved the mortars with two types of hydrophobic agents diluted with water in a ratio of 1:4 and 1:8. [...] Read more.
The paper explores the possibility of covering the mortar with the lightweight aggregate by the nanopolymer silane and siloxane as surface hydrophobisation. The investigation involved the mortars with two types of hydrophobic agents diluted with water in a ratio of 1:4 and 1:8. Mortar wetting properties were determined by measuring the absorbability, water vapor diffusion, contact angle (CA) and surface free energy (SFE) of their structure. Surface micro-roughness and 2D topography were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has shown the microstructure and distribution of pores in mortars. The reduction in absorbency after the first day of testing by 87% was shown. An improvement in frost resistance after 25 cycles by 97% and an 18-fold decrease in weight loss after the sulphate crystallization test were observed. The hydrophobic coating reduces the SFE of mortars and increases the CA. In the case of using silanes, a 9-fold increase CA was observed. Full article
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