Special Issue "Dental Implants: Materials and Design"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jordi Gargallo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: computer-aided surgery; three-dimensional imaging; zirconium; dental materials; bone regeneration; dental tissue conditioning; patient satisfaction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The application of the new technologies in the field of dental implantology, the use of new instruments and the development of new materials, or improving the micro and macro characteristics of widely used materials, have led us to new standards of success, the reduction of complications, and improvement in the well-being of patients. Bone and soft tissue managing, ideal three-dimensional implant positioning, and high compliance of supportive peri-implant maintenance therapy have been revealed to be key factors to achieve dental implant long-term success. Furthermore, new scientific evidence concerning implants of reduced dimensions, new paradigms about immediate implant loading protocols with aesthetic patient demand challenges, in combination with advancements in digital technology and the penetration of telemedicine in dental implantology to overcome certain limitations of conventional treatments, opens up new scenarios to improve the long-term good prognosis of dental implant treatments and enhance final patient satisfaction.

Prof. Dr. Jordi Gargallo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • computer-aided surgery
  • three-dimensional imaging
  • zirconium
  • dental materials
  • bone regeneration
  • dental tissue conditioning
  • patient satisfaction

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Bone Stress Evaluation with and without Cortical Bone Using Several Dental Restorative Materials Subjected to Impact Load: A Fully 3D Transient Finite-Element Study
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5801; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195801 - 04 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Statement of problem. Previous peri-implantitis, peri-implant bone regeneration, or immediate implant placement postextraction may be responsible for the absence of cortical bone. Single crown materials are then relevant when dynamic forces are transferred into bone tissue and, therefore, the presence (or absence) [...] Read more.
Statement of problem. Previous peri-implantitis, peri-implant bone regeneration, or immediate implant placement postextraction may be responsible for the absence of cortical bone. Single crown materials are then relevant when dynamic forces are transferred into bone tissue and, therefore, the presence (or absence) of cortical bone can affect the long-term survival of the implant. Purpose: the purpose of this study is to assess the biomechanical response of dental rehabilitation when selecting different crown materials in models with and without cortical bone. Methods: several crown materials were considered for modeling six types of crown rehabilitation: full metal (MET), metal-ceramic (MCER), metal-composite (MCOM), peek-composite (PKCOM), carbon fiber-composite (FCOM), and carbon fiber-ceramic (FCCER). An impact-load dynamic finite-element analysis was carried out on all the 3D models of crowns mentioned above to assess their mechanical behavior against dynamic excitation. Implant-crown rehabilitation models with and without cortical bone were analyzed to compare how the load-impact actions affect both type of models. Results: numerical simulation results showed important differences in bone tissue stresses. The results show that flexible restorative materials reduce the stress on the bone and would be especially recommendable in the absence of cortical bone. Conclusions: this study demonstrated that more stress is transferred to the bone when stiffer materials (metal and/or ceramic) are used in implant supported rehabilitations; conversely, more flexible materials transfer less stress to the implant connection. Also, in implant-supported rehabilitations, more stress is transferred to the bone by dynamic forces when cortical bone is absent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implants: Materials and Design)
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Article
Hard Tissue Volume Stability Effect beyond the Bony Envelope of a Three-Dimensional Preformed Titanium Mesh with Two Different Collagen Barrier Membranes on Peri-Implant Dehiscence Defects in the Anterior Maxilla: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195618 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 282
Abstract
This single-blinded, randomized, controlled study aimed to clinically and radiographically evaluate hard tissue volume stability beyond the bony envelope using three-dimensional preformed titanium mesh (3D-PFTM) for peri-implant dehiscence defects in the anterior maxilla. A total of 28 patients who wished to undergo implant [...] Read more.
This single-blinded, randomized, controlled study aimed to clinically and radiographically evaluate hard tissue volume stability beyond the bony envelope using three-dimensional preformed titanium mesh (3D-PFTM) for peri-implant dehiscence defects in the anterior maxilla. A total of 28 patients who wished to undergo implant surgery combined with guided bone regeneration (GBR) after extraction of a single maxillary anterior tooth were randomly assigned to two groups depending on the type of collagen membrane used, additionally with the 3D-PFTM—test (n = 14, cross-linked collagen membrane; CCM) and control (n = 14, non-cross-linked collagen membrane; NCCM) groups. Each implant was evaluated radiographically using CBCT at baseline, immediately after surgery, and at 6 months postoperatively. The relative position and distances from the bony envelope to the outlines of the augmented ridge were further determined immediately after GBR and 6 months after healing. At the platform level, the mean horizontal hard tissue gain (HG) at all the sites was 2.35 ± 0.68 mm at 6 months postoperatively. The mean HG rate was 84.25% ± 14.19% in the CCM group and 82.56% ± 13.04% in the NCCM group, but the difference was not significant between the groups. In all cases, HG was maintained beyond the bony envelope even after 6 months of GBR. This study suggests that 3D-PFTM should be considered a valuable option for GBR for peri-implant dehiscence defects in the anterior maxilla. In addition, 3D-PFTM may confer predictable hard tissue volume stability even after the healing period of hard tissue augmented outside the bony envelope by GBR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implants: Materials and Design)
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Article
Vertical Discrepancy in Height of Morse Cone Abutments Submitted to Different Torque Forces
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4950; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174950 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 390
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of manual torque (10 Ncm) versus clinical torque (30 Ncm), which is recommended by the manufacturer, on the total length of morse cone implant abutments. Twenty specimens were prepared and distributed into two groups: group [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of manual torque (10 Ncm) versus clinical torque (30 Ncm), which is recommended by the manufacturer, on the total length of morse cone implant abutments. Twenty specimens were prepared and distributed into two groups: group 1 with ten analogs for morse cone type implant, and group 2 with ten morse type implants, size 4.3 × 15 cm. In each group, the distance between the implant platform to the top of the prosthetic abutment (abutment height) was measured and subjected to a torque of 10 Ncm. Then, the 30 Ncm torque was applied to the same abutment, and abutment height was measured. The distance between the top of the abutment and the implant/analog base was measured. In order to verify the clinical reproducibility of the experiment, comparisons between the abutment height of the analog at 10 Ncm and the implant at 30 Ncm were performed, showing a greater discrepancy in torque for the 10 Ncm analog (p < 0.05). In order to verify if the change in the laboratory protocol from 10 to 30 Ncm could minimize the differences in the height of the prosthetic abutments, the abutment height in groups 1 and 2 was compared with 30 Ncm, and no significant difference was observed (p > 0.05). The data indicated that the manual torque and the torque recommended by the manufacturer influence the total length of the prosthetic abutments of morse cone implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implants: Materials and Design)
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Article
Active Tactile Sensibility of Brånemark Protocol Prostheses: A Case–Control Clinical Study
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4644; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164644 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Few studies have assessed active tactile sensibility in patients rehabilitated with implants. Improved knowledge about functional tactile sensibility will contribute to several clinical applications, such as protocols for immediate loading, prosthesis design, occlusal improvement in implantology, and physiological integration of implant-supported prostheses. The [...] Read more.
Few studies have assessed active tactile sensibility in patients rehabilitated with implants. Improved knowledge about functional tactile sensibility will contribute to several clinical applications, such as protocols for immediate loading, prosthesis design, occlusal improvement in implantology, and physiological integration of implant-supported prostheses. The present study evaluated active tactile sensibility in patients rehabilitated with Brånemark-type mandibular prostheses that impede the total mucosa-supported maxillary prosthesis. Thirty-five subjects participated in this study. The experimental group (n = 18) inclusion criteria were as follows: Brånemark-type prosthesis and a total mucosa-supported maxillary prosthesis. The control group (n = 17) was composed of participants with complete healthy dentition. Carbon foils with different thicknesses (12 μm, 24 μm, 40 μm, 80 μm, and 200 μm) were placed in the premolar region to evaluate the brink of active oral tactile sensibility. The researchers assessed the participants 120 times. After evaluation, we observed a statistical difference (p < 0.05) between the groups. Additionally, the degree of sensibility was found for all thicknesses, except for 12 μm, on both sides. There was a more significant increase in perception in the control group as the carbon thickness increased. The tactile sensibility threshold was 2.5 times greater for participants with prostheses. Thus, the tactile sensibility for mandibular implant-supported and maxillary mucosa-supported prostheses is significantly lower than that of dentate patients, which was detected above the thickness of 80 μm; in patients with natural dentition, different thicknesses were seen starting from 24 μm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implants: Materials and Design)
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Article
Factors Affecting Implant Failure and Marginal Bone Loss of Implants Placed by Post-Graduate Students: A 1-Year Prospective Cohort Study
Materials 2020, 13(20), 4511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13204511 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1096
Abstract
Statement of the problem: Most of the clinical documentation of implant success and survival published in the literature have been issued by either experienced teams from university settings involving strict patient selection criteria or from seasoned private practitioners. By contrast, studies focusing on [...] Read more.
Statement of the problem: Most of the clinical documentation of implant success and survival published in the literature have been issued by either experienced teams from university settings involving strict patient selection criteria or from seasoned private practitioners. By contrast, studies focusing on implants placed and rehabilitated by inexperienced post-graduate students are scarce. Purpose: To record failure rates and identify the contributing factors to implant failure and marginal bone loss (MBL) of implants placed and rehabilitated by inexperienced post-graduate students at the one-year follow-up. Material and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on study participants scheduled for implant therapy at the International University of Catalonia. An experienced mentor determined the treatment plan in accordance with the need of each participant who signed an informed consent. All surgeries and prosthetic rehabilitation were performed by the post-graduate students. Implant failure rate, contributors to implant failure, and MBL were investigated among 24 variables related to patient health, local site, and implant and prosthetic characteristics. The risk of implant failure was analyzed with a simple binary logistic regression model with generalized equation equations (GEE) models, obtaining unadjusted odds ratios (OR). The relationship between MBL and the other independent variables was studied by simple linear regression estimated with GEE models and the Wald chi2 test. Results: One hundred and thirty dental implants have been placed and rehabilitated by post-graduate students. Five implants failed before loading and none after restoration delivery; survival and success rates were 96.15% and 94.62%, respectively. None of the investigated variables significantly affected the implant survival rate. At the one-year follow-up, the mean (SD) MBL was 0.53 (0.39) mm. The following independent variables significantly affected the MBL: Diabetes, implant depth placement. The width of keratinized tissue (KT) and probing depth (PD) above 3 mm were found to be good indicators of MBL, with each additional mm of probing depth resulting in 0.11 mm more MBL. Conclusion: The survival and success rates of dental implants placed and rehabilitated by inexperienced post-graduate students at the one-year follow-up were high. No contributing factor was identified regarding implant failure. However, several factors significantly affected MBL: Diabetes, implant depth placement, PD, and width of KT. Clinical Implications: Survival and success rates of dental implants placed and rehabilitated by inexperienced post-graduate students were high at the one-year follow-up, similar to experienced practitioners. No contributing factors were identified regarding implant failure; however, several factors significantly affected MBL: Diabetes, implant depth placement, PD, and KM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implants: Materials and Design)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Tentative Paper Title: Clinical Evaluation of Dental Implants with a Double Acid-etched Surface Treatment: A Cohort Observational Study with Up to 10-year Follow-up

Background and objectives: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival and success rates of dental implants with a double acid etched surface treatment with evaluation times up to 10 years post-loading.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at a hospital oral surgery and implantology unit. It included 111 dental implants with a double acid-etched surface. Three groups were created: Group 1 (1-3 years loading), Group 2 (3-5 years loading), Group 3 (over 5 years loading). Probing depth, resonance frequency analysis (ISQ value), and marginal bone loss were evaluated. Results: The data obtained underwent statistical analysis.78 patients were included, who received 111 dental implants, all replacing single teeth. Mean probing depth was 3.03mm and mean ISQ was 65.54. Regarding marginal bone loss, in Group 1, 67.6% of implants did not undergo any thread loss, in Group 2, 48.3% and in Group 3, 59.6%; 59.10% of all implants did not present thread loss with a mean bone loss of 0.552mm. The implant survival rate was 99.1% and the success rate was 96.37%.

Conclusions: Implants with a double acid-etched surface showed excellent success rates in terms of marginal bone loss, ISQ and probing depth after up to 10 years of loading, making them a clinically predictable treatment option. Future studies are needed to compare this implant surface with other types in different restorative situations.

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