Special Issue "Advanced Carbon Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Damian Batory
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Vehicles and Fundamentals in Machine Design, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland
Interests: synthesis; optimization and characterization of thin layers used in machining; automotive; aviation and biomedical applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon is a fascinating material that displays a number of interesting properties. The compounds it creates can be found both in everyday life as well as in many areas of science and industry. In materials engineering, it has been used for centuries as one of the basic components of steels and alloys.

In surface engineering, carbon is primarily a component of thin films. Among the wide range of carbon layers, coatings, generally referred to as diamond-like coatings (DLCs), seem to have aroused the greatest interest among scientists in recent years. Although these layers have been known about for more than three decades, their intensive development can still be seen, mostly by creating new application technologies and testing the obtained layers. An exceptional combination of physical and chemical parameters gives them a variety of properties which make them more and more attractive in many areas of life, including tools, machines, electronics, medicine, and the automotive and aviation industry.

The latest achievements of this and the past decade in the synthesis of new forms of carbon materials, especially carbon nanotubes, fullerens and graphene, have been another milestone in the development of materials engineering. Above all, these materials have created broad development perspectives for many fields of science and industry. Their unique mechanical, electrical, biological and chemical properties have led to a variety of emerging applications, such as biomimetics, catalysis, filtering, sensing, electronics and energy storage.

Striving for perfection in the field of synthesis of carbon materials with improved or sometimes completely new properties has resulted in the development of advanced processing techniques, including new technologies, new characterization methods, and new functional properties and application possibilities, forming the basis for new ideas and concepts.

This Special Issue of Materials, “Advanced Carbon Materials”, is especially dedicated but not limited to new advances in the field of modeling, synthesis, modification, characterization, and application of carbon-based materials. Papers presenting new contemporary achievements in terms of techniques, process parameters, resulting properties, and possible applications are most welcome.


Dr. Damian Batory
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • carbon nanotubes
  • fullerens
  • graphene
  • carbon coatings
  • carbon layers

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Plasma-Assisted Production and Milling Processes of DLC Flakes on Their Size, Composition and Chemical Structure
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051209 - 08 Mar 2020
Abstract
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) flakes were produced using a dual-frequency method: microwave/radiofrequency plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition (MW/RF PACVD) with the use of methane or its mixture with gases such as hydrogen, argon, oxygen or nitrogen. Their modification was performed using a planetary ball mill [...] Read more.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) flakes were produced using a dual-frequency method: microwave/radiofrequency plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition (MW/RF PACVD) with the use of methane or its mixture with gases such as hydrogen, argon, oxygen or nitrogen. Their modification was performed using a planetary ball mill with and without a fluid: deionised water or methanol. Changes occurring in the morphology of flake surfaces were presented in pictures taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Their composition and chemical structure were analysed using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The presented research results show that it is possible to control the size of flakes and their chemical structure. An increase in the C-C sp3 bond content in produced carbon-based materials is only possible by modifying DLC flakes during their production process by introducing oxygen or argon into the working chamber together with the carbon-carrying gas. In the processes of mechanical DLC flake modification, it is necessary to add fluid to limit the occurrence of graphitisation processes. The research conducted shows that methanol is best used for this purpose as its use results in a decrease in the percentage of C-C sp3 bonds as compared to the materials, before milling, of only 1.7%. A frequent problem both in the production of DLC flakes and during their mechanical modification is the introduction of additional elements into their structure. Admixing electrode materials from the plasma-chemical device (iron) or grinding beads (zirconium) to DLC flakes was observed in our studies. These processes can be limited by the appropriate selection of production conditions or by mechanical modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Carbon Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of the Size and Oxidation Degree of Graphene Flakes on the Process of Creating 3D Structures during Its Cross-Linking
Materials 2020, 13(3), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030681 - 03 Feb 2020
Abstract
This article presents the results of the cross-linking of oxidized flake graphene (GO) using hydrazine at room temperature. Conducting the process at temperatures up to 30 °C allowed to eliminate the phenomenon of thermal GO reduction to its non-oxidized form. In addition, based [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of the cross-linking of oxidized flake graphene (GO) using hydrazine at room temperature. Conducting the process at temperatures up to 30 °C allowed to eliminate the phenomenon of thermal GO reduction to its non-oxidized form. In addition, based on the Infrared and Raman spectroscopy as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, the cross-linking ability of GO was observed depending on its size and degree of oxidation. These parameters were associated with selected physicochemical and electrical properties of obtained 3D structures. Three GO flakes sizes were tested in three different oxidation degrees. It was shown that, regardless of the size of GO, it is crucial to achieve a specific oxidation degree threshold which for the conducted tests was a >20% share of oxygen atoms in the whole structure. This value determines the ability to cross-link with hydrazine thanks to which it is possible to synthesize the spatial structure in which the π–π interactions among individual flakes are significantly reduced. This directly translates into the fact that the 3D structure shows an electrical resistance value in the range of 4–103 Ω, depending on the size and oxidation degree of the used material. The explanation of this phenomenon related to the electrical conductivity of 3D structures was confirmed based on the molecular modeling of the chemical structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Carbon Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of the Interactions at the Graphene–Substrate Boundary on Graphene Sensitivity to UV Irradiation
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233949 - 28 Nov 2019
Abstract
Graphene is a very promising material for electronics applications. In recent years, its sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has been studied extensively. However, there is no clear answer to the question, which factor has a key influence on the sensitivity of graphene to [...] Read more.
Graphene is a very promising material for electronics applications. In recent years, its sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has been studied extensively. However, there is no clear answer to the question, which factor has a key influence on the sensitivity of graphene to UV. In order to check the influence of the final substrate on the electrical response, graphene transferred on polymeric and non-polymeric substrate was investigated. To achieve this goal three polymeric and three non-polymeric substrates were tested. The results of the preliminary tests indicated the different character of the reaction on UV irradiation in each of group. To explain the reason of the difference, the complementary studies were done. The samples that were resistant to high temperature were annealed in a vacuum at 500 °C to get rid of water trapped between graphene and the substratum. The samples after annealing reacted less dynamically to UV irradiation. Moreover, the progress of changes in electrical response of the annealed samples had a similar character to the polymeric substrates, with the hydrophobic nature of the surface. These studies clearly prove that the sensitivity of graphene to UV irradiation is influenced by water trapped under the graphene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Carbon Materials)
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