Special Issue "The Sources and Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sami J Taipale
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
Interests: aquatic ecology; mixotrophy; fatty acids; algal applications
Dr. Elina Peltomaa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Interests: aquatic ecology; mixotrophy; fatty acids; algal applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent studies have clearly shown the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and their nutritional value for human health. Most of EPA and DHA are synthesized in aquatic environments since terrestrial plants synthesize only small amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, previous studies has shown that EPA and DHA synthesis is common only among some microalgal taxa. In this Special Issue “The Sources and Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids” of Marine Drugs, we hope to discover the breadth and versatility of EPA and DHA synthesis in marine environments. Thus, we welcome all field and laboratory studies related to EPA and DHA production in marine systems. Further, papers comparing marine and freshwater PUFA sources are welcome, however the main focus of the paper needs to be in marine environments. We are interested in the new potential sources of EPA and DHA, as well sources that could be easily adopted on high biomass production. Diet polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA) affect a wide variety of physiological processes in animals and humans. In this special issue, our goal is also to broaden the understanding on EPA and DHA in marine ecosystems and thus we invite also all studies related to that aspect to be submitted in this Special Issue of Marine Drugs.

Dr. Sami J Taipale
Dr. Elina Peltomaa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

  • EPA

  • DHA

  • Microalgae

  • Macroalgae

  • Marine Ecosystem

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Diatoms and Dinoflagellates from Different Habitats as Sources of PUFAs
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040233 - 19 Apr 2019
Abstract
Recent studies have clearly shown the importance of omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human and animal health. The long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6ω-3) are especially recognized for their nutritional value, and ability to [...] Read more.
Recent studies have clearly shown the importance of omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human and animal health. The long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6ω-3) are especially recognized for their nutritional value, and ability to alleviate many diseases in humans. So far, fish oil has been the main human source of EPA and DHA, but alternative sources are needed to satisfy the growing need for them. Therefore, we compared a fatty acid profile and content of 10 diatoms and seven dinoflagellates originating from marine, brackish and freshwater habitats. These two phytoplankton groups were chosen since they are excellent producers of EPA and DHA in aquatic food webs. Multivariate analysis revealed that, whereas the phytoplankton group (46%) explained most of the differences in the fatty acid profiles, habitat (31%) together with phytoplankton group (24%) explained differences in the fatty acid contents. In both diatoms and dinoflagellates, the total fatty acid concentrations and the ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs were markedly higher in freshwater than in brackish or marine strains. Our results show that, even though the fatty acid profiles are genetically ordered, the fatty acid contents may vary greatly by habitat and affect the ω-3 and ω-6 availability in food webs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Sources and Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatty Acid Composition and Fatty Acid Associated Gene-Expression in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) are Affected by Low-Fish Oil Diets, Dietary Resveratrol, and Holding Temperature
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100379 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
To sustainably produce marine fish with a high lipid quality rich in omega-3 fatty acids, alternative sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are being identified. Moreover, the use of bioactive compounds that would stimulate the in vivo fatty acid synthesis, [...] Read more.
To sustainably produce marine fish with a high lipid quality rich in omega-3 fatty acids, alternative sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are being identified. Moreover, the use of bioactive compounds that would stimulate the in vivo fatty acid synthesis, such as resveratrol (RV), would reduce the dependence on fish oil in aquafeeds. Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) were fed four experimental diets combining two fish oil levels (6% dry matter (DM); 2% DM) with or without 0.15% DM resveratrol supplementation (F6, F2, F6 + RV, F2 + RV) for two months. Additionally, the fish were challenged either at 19 °C or 23 °C. A higher water temperature promoted their feed intake and growth, resulting in an increased crude lipid content irrespective of dietary treatment. The fatty acid composition of different tissues was significantly affected by the holding temperature and dietary fish oil level. The dietary RV significantly affected the hepatic EPA and DHA content of fish held at 19 °C. The observed effect of RV may be partly explained by alterations of the mRNA steady-state levels of ∆6-desaturase and β-oxidation-related genes. Besides the relevant results concerning RV-mediated regulation of fatty acid synthesis in marine fish, further studies need to be conducted to clarify the potential value of RV to enhance fillet lipid quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Sources and Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptomic Profiling and Gene Disruption Revealed that Two Genes Related to PUFAs/DHA Biosynthesis May be Essential for Cell Growth of Aurantiochytrium sp.
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(9), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16090310 - 01 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Aurantiochytrium sp. PKU#SW7 is a thraustochytrid strain that was found to exhibit high potential for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) production. In this work, the transcriptome of Aurantiochytrium sp. PKU#SW7 was analyzed for the study of genes involved in basic metabolic functions and especially [...] Read more.
Aurantiochytrium sp. PKU#SW7 is a thraustochytrid strain that was found to exhibit high potential for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) production. In this work, the transcriptome of Aurantiochytrium sp. PKU#SW7 was analyzed for the study of genes involved in basic metabolic functions and especially in the mechanisms of DHA biosynthesis. Sequence annotation and functional analysis revealed that the strain contains components of fatty acid synthesis (FAS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways. Fatty acid desaturases and elongases were identified as components of FAS pathway, whilst key components of PKS pathway were also found in the cDNA library. The relative contribution of the two pathways to the synthesis of DHA was unknown, as both pathways appeared to be lacking full complement of genes for standalone synthesis of DHA. Further analysis of two putative genes encoding the very-long-chain (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase and dehydrase/isomerase involved in FAS and PKS pathways, respectively, revealed that under various salinity conditions, their relative expression levels changed corresponding to the variation of DHA content in Aurantiochytrium sp. Independent knock outs of these genes in Aurantiochytrium sp. resulted in poor cell growth, probably due to little or no intracellular DHA accumulation. Hence, it can be speculated that both genes are engaged in DHA biosynthesis and DHA in Aurantiochytrium sp. could be produced by jointed actions of both FAS and PKS systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Sources and Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)
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Open AccessArticle
Marine Cryptophytes Are Great Sources of EPA and DHA
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16010003 - 26 Dec 2017
Cited by 16
Abstract
Microalgae have the ability to synthetize many compounds, some of which have been recognized as a source of functional ingredients for nutraceuticals with positive health effects. One well-known example is the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are essential for human nutrition. Eicosapentaenoic [...] Read more.
Microalgae have the ability to synthetize many compounds, some of which have been recognized as a source of functional ingredients for nutraceuticals with positive health effects. One well-known example is the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are essential for human nutrition. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the two most important long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) PUFAs involved in human physiology, and both industries are almost exclusively based on microalgae. In addition, algae produce phytosterols that reduce serum cholesterol. Here we determined the growth rates, biomass yields, PUFA and sterol content, and daily gain of eight strains of marine cryptophytes. The maximal growth rates of the cryptophytes varied between 0.34–0.70 divisions day−1, which is relatively good in relation to previously screened algal taxa. The studied cryptophytes were extremely rich in ω-3 PUFAs, especially in EPA and DHA (range 5.8–12.5 and 0.8–6.1 µg mg dry weight−1, respectively), but their sterol concentrations were low. Among the studied strains, Storeatula major was superior in PUFA production, and it also produces all PUFAs, i.e., α-linolenic acid (ALA), stearidonic acid (SDA), EPA, and DHA, which is rare in phytoplankton in general. We conclude that marine cryptophytes are a good alternative for the ecologically sustainable and profitable production of health-promoting lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Sources and Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)
Open AccessArticle
Potential Application of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Monoacylglyceride in the Management of Colorectal Cancer
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(9), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15090283 - 04 Sep 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: There is increasing evidence that marine omega-3 oils are involved in the reduction of cancer risk and progression. However, the anticancer effect of omega-3 monoglyceride on colorectal cancer has yet to be assessed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Background: There is increasing evidence that marine omega-3 oils are involved in the reduction of cancer risk and progression. However, the anticancer effect of omega-3 monoglyceride on colorectal cancer has yet to be assessed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer effects of eicosapentaenoic acid monoglyceride (MAG-EPA) in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells. Methods: The effect of MAG-EPA was evaluated in vitro on HCT116 cells and in vivo on mouse model of HCT116 xenograft. Results: Our data reveal that MAG-EPA decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, daily per os administration of MAG-EPA reduced tumor growth. Furthermore, MAG-EPA treatments decreased EGFR, VEGFR, and AKT activation pathways and reduced VEGF and HIF1α expression levels in tumors. Conclusion: MAG-EPA may promote apoptosis and inhibit growth of tumors by suppressing EGFR and VEGFR activation pathways. Altogether, these data provide new evidence regarding the mode of action of MAG-EPA in colorectal cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Sources and Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatty Acid Profile Is Modulated by Dietary Resveratrol in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15080252 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 12
Abstract
To produce fish of a high quality that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) and simultaneously generate more sustainable aquaculture, the combined use of phytochemicals and vegetable oils in fish feed seems to be a promising approach. Resveratrol (RV) potentially induces [...] Read more.
To produce fish of a high quality that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) and simultaneously generate more sustainable aquaculture, the combined use of phytochemicals and vegetable oils in fish feed seems to be a promising approach. Resveratrol (RV) potentially induces endogenous fatty acid synthesis, resulting in elevated n-3 FA levels in fish. RV putatively influences ∆6-desaturase, the key enzyme in FA metabolism, and serves as a ligand for PPARα, a transcription factor regulating β-oxidation. Rainbow trout (36.35 ± 0.03 g) were randomly allocated into six groups and fed diets with reduced fish oil levels (F4 = 4%, F2 = 2% and F0 = 0% of dry matter) supplemented with 0.3% (w/w) RV (F4 + RV, F2 + RV and F0 + RV). RV significantly affected FA composition in liver tissue and whole fish homogenates. 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were significantly increased whereas precursor FA were diminished in fish fed the F2 + RV and F0 + RV diets when compared to F4 + RV and F0. RV significantly elevated ∆6-desaturase protein levels in the livers of F0 + RV fed animals. Hepatic mRNA expression of ∆6-desaturase, PPARα, and its target genes were affected by the dietary fish oil level and not by dietary RV. The results of this study indicated a potential benefit of supplementing RV in fish oil deprived diets elevating n-3 FA levels in rainbow trout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Sources and Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Fatty Acid Profiles and Production in Marine Phytoplankton
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17030151 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Microalgae are the primary producers of carbon in marine ecosystems, fixing carbon and subsequently generating various biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Most importantly, microalgae are the generators and main suppliers of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3PUFA) in the marine ecosystem, which [...] Read more.
Microalgae are the primary producers of carbon in marine ecosystems, fixing carbon and subsequently generating various biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Most importantly, microalgae are the generators and main suppliers of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3PUFA) in the marine ecosystem, which have a fundamental importance for the functioning and quality of the whole marine food web. A meta-analysis of over 160 fatty acid profiles of 7 marine phytoplankton phyla reveals not only a phyla-specific, but also a highly class-specific PUFA production of marine phytoplankton. The highest EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5ω3) production per total fatty acids was found in 2 classes of Haptophyta and in Ochrophyta, while Dinophyta and the Haptophyte Emiliana huxleyi show the highest production of DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6ω3). An important precursor for EPA, Stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3) is found in high proportions in Cryptophyta and the Chlorophta class Pyramimonadophyceae. Per unit of carbon, Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria were the poorest producers of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). The remaining phyla had a similar HUFA contribution per unit of carbon but with different compositions. The nutritional and environmental effects on the phytoplankton PUFA production is summarized and shows a lowering of the PUFA content under stressful environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Sources and Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)
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