Special Issue "Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Herminia Domínguez
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Spain
Interests: bioactive compounds; macroalgae; vegetal biomass; environmentally-friendly extraction technologies; membranes; waste valorisation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Stefan Kraan

Guest Editor
Ireland
Interests: seaweed; cultivation; bioactives; health promotion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Seaweeds are only partly explored, but their great diversity and complexity of metabolites, induced by the extreme environmental conditions, offer a unique and exclusive source of renewable bioactives.

Fractions, extracts, and purified compounds from marine macroalgae present high potential as preventing and therapeutic agents against several diseases, for their anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, anticoagulant properties, and for their immunomodulatory and neuroprotective capacities.

This Special Issue is aimed at presenting the updated information on the well-documented major biological actions relevant for medical and pharmaceutical applications that the compounds isolated from seaweed can offer.

As Guest Editors, we invite scientists to submit their latest research findings in this area, in relation to the biological activities, mechanisms of action and the formulation of novel products

Prof. Herminia Dominguez
Dr. Stefan Kraan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • seaweed
  • neuroprotection
  • inmunomodulation
  • antitumor
  • antimicrobial
  • anti-inflammatory

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol Isolated from Ishige okamurae Represses High Glucose-Induced Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100375 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus causes abnormalities of angiogenesis leading to vascular dysfunction and serious pathologies. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), which is isolated from Ishige okamurae, is well known for its bioactivities, including antihyperglycemic and protective functions against diabetes-related pathologies. In the present study, the inhibitory effect [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus causes abnormalities of angiogenesis leading to vascular dysfunction and serious pathologies. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), which is isolated from Ishige okamurae, is well known for its bioactivities, including antihyperglycemic and protective functions against diabetes-related pathologies. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of DPHC on high glucose-induced angiogenesis was investigated on the human vascular endothelial cell line EA.hy926. DPHC inhibited the cell proliferation, cell migration, and tube formation in cells exposed to 30 mM of glucose to induce angiogenesis. Furthermore, the effect of DPHC against high glucose-induced angiogenesis was evaluated in zebrafish embryos. The treatment of embryos with DPHC suppressed high glucose-induced dilation in the retinal vessel diameter and vessel formation. Moreover, DPHC could inhibit high glucose-induced vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) expression and its downstream signaling cascade. Overall, these findings suggest that DPHC is actively involved in the suppression of high glucose-induced angiogenesis. Hence, DPHC is a potential agent for the development of therapeutics against angiogenesis induced by diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Oxidant and Fucoxanthin Contents of Brown Alga Ishimozuku (Sphaerotrichia divaricata) from the West Coast of Aomori, Japan
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(8), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16080255 - 30 Jul 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Fucoxanthin is a specific carotenoid in brown seaweeds with remarkable biological properties. Ishimozuku (Sphaerotrichia divaricata), an edible brown alga from northern Japan, has morphology that is almost identical to that of Okinawa-mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranus) harvested off Okinawa, Japan. However, [...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin is a specific carotenoid in brown seaweeds with remarkable biological properties. Ishimozuku (Sphaerotrichia divaricata), an edible brown alga from northern Japan, has morphology that is almost identical to that of Okinawa-mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranus) harvested off Okinawa, Japan. However, because of Ishimozuku’s lower availability compared to Okinawa-mozuku, the contents of its nutrient compounds remain unclear. The present study analyzed fucoxanthin and anti-oxidant compound contents of Ishimozuku harvested off the northern coast of Japan from 2014 to 2016. First, 80% ethanol extract solutions were prepared from Ishimozuku harvested from several west coast areas of Aomori, Japan. Then, polyphenol content was analyzed using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Then anti-oxidative effects were analyzed by their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Furthermore, fucoxanthin contents were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Fucoxanthin contents of Ishimozuku were 105.6–1148.5 μg/g dry weight. Total polyphenol contents of Ishimozuku were of 0.296–0.958 mg/g dry weight: higher than Okinawa-mozuku (0.082 ± 0.011 mg/g dry weight). The anti-oxidation effects of Ishimozuku accompanied the polyphenol content. These results suggest that Ishimozuku contains various anti-oxidant components and has high potential to provide the promotion of human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions)
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Characteristics and Anticoagulant Property In Vitro and In Vivo of a Seaweed Sulfated Rhamnan
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(7), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16070243 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Great diversity and metabolite complexity of seaweeds offer a unique and exclusive source of renewable drug molecules. Polysaccharide from seaweed has potential as a promising candidate for marine drug development. In the present study, seaweed polysaccharide (SPm) was isolated from Monostroma angicava, [...] Read more.
Great diversity and metabolite complexity of seaweeds offer a unique and exclusive source of renewable drug molecules. Polysaccharide from seaweed has potential as a promising candidate for marine drug development. In the present study, seaweed polysaccharide (SPm) was isolated from Monostroma angicava, the polymeric repeat units and anticoagulant property in vitro and in vivo of SPm were investigated. SPm was a sulfated polysaccharide which was mainly constituted by 3-linked, 2-linked-α-l-rhamnose residues with partially sulfate groups at C-2 of 3-linked α-l-rhamnose residues and C-3 of 2-linked α-l-rhamnose residues. Small amounts of xylose and glucuronic acid exist in the forms of β-d-Xylp(4SO4)-(1→ and β-d-GlcA-(1→. SPm effectively prolonged clotting time as evaluated by the activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time assays, and exhibited strong anticoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. The fibrin(ogen)olytic and thrombolytic properties of SPm were evaluated by plasminogen activator inhibitior-1, fibrin degradation products, D-dimer and clot lytic rate assays using rats plasma, and the results showed that SPm possessed high fibrin(ogen)olytic and thrombolytic properties. These results suggested that SPm has potential as a novel anticoagulant agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Alga Ulva spp. Hydrolysates and Their Peptide Fractions Regulate Cytokine Production in Splenic Macrophages and Lymphocytes Involving the TLR4-NFκB/MAPK Pathways
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(7), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16070235 - 11 Jul 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Hydrolysates of food protein sources have immunomodulatory effects, which are of interest for use as functional foods. In this study, we have characterized the immune regulatory effect on rat splenocytes, macrophages and T lymphocytes of Ulva spp. hydrolysates and their peptide fractions with [...] Read more.
Hydrolysates of food protein sources have immunomodulatory effects, which are of interest for use as functional foods. In this study, we have characterized the immune regulatory effect on rat splenocytes, macrophages and T lymphocytes of Ulva spp. hydrolysates and their peptide fractions with or without in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and/or ultrafiltration. IL-10 was induced in almost all conditions and cell types obtained from wild type animals. The induction was in general increased by ultrafiltration and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. TNF was also induced in basal conditions. In turn, TNF and IFN-γ production was attenuated by the hydrolysate products in lipopolysaccharide or concanavalin A immune stimulated cells. Inhibitors for the activation of NFκB, MAPK p38 and JNK inhibited IL-10 induction in rat splenocytes. The response was dramatically attenuated in TLR4−/− cells, and only modestly in TLR2−/− cells. Food peptides from Ulva spp. genus exert anti-inflammatory effects in immune cells mediated by TLR4 and NFκB. Similarity with the immunomodulatory profile of protein hydrolysates from other sources suggests a common mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Fucus evanescence on the Activity of α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase of Human Colon Carcinoma Cells
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16050155 - 10 May 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.49) (alpha-NaGalase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-galactoside residues from non-reducing ends of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. It is known that human cancer cells express an alpha-NaGalase, which accumulates in the blood plasma of patients. The [...] Read more.
α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.49) (alpha-NaGalase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-galactoside residues from non-reducing ends of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. It is known that human cancer cells express an alpha-NaGalase, which accumulates in the blood plasma of patients. The enzyme deglycosylates the Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) and inhibits macrophage activity acting as an immunosuppressor. The high specific activity 0.033 ± 0.002 μmol mg−1 min−1 of the enzyme was found in human colon carcinoma cells DLD-1. The alpha-NaGalase of DLD-1 cells was isolated and biochemical characterized. The enzyme exhibits maximum activity at pH 5.2 and temperature 55 °C. The Km is 2.15 mM, Vmax–0.021 μmol min−1 mL−1, kcat–1.55 min−1 and kcat/Km–0.72 min−1 mM−1 at 37 °C, pH 5.2. The effects of fucoidan from the brown alga Fucus evanescence on the activity of alpha-NaGalase in human colon carcinoma DLD-1 cells and on the biosynthesis of this enzyme were investigated. It was shown that fucoidan did not inhibit free alpha-NaGalase, however, it reduced the expression of the enzyme in the DLD-1 cells at IC50 73 ± 4 μg mL−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions)
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Open AccessArticle
Triphlorethol A, a Dietary Polyphenol from Seaweed, Decreases Sleep Latency and Increases Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16050139 - 24 Apr 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that marine polyphenol phlorotannins promote sleep through the benzodiazepine site of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. In this follow-up study, the sleep-promoting effects of triphlorethol A, one of the major phlorotannin constituents, [...] Read more.
In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that marine polyphenol phlorotannins promote sleep through the benzodiazepine site of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. In this follow-up study, the sleep-promoting effects of triphlorethol A, one of the major phlorotannin constituents, were investigated. The effect of triphlorethol A on sleep-wake architecture and profiles was evaluated based on electroencephalogram and electromyogram data from C57BL/6N mice and compared with the well-known hypnotic drug zolpidem. Oral administration of triphlorethol A (5, 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) dose-dependently decreased sleep latency and increased sleep duration during pentobarbital-induced sleep in imprinting control region mice. Triphlorethol A (50 mg/kg) significantly decreased sleep latency and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) in C57BL/6N mice, without affecting rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). There was no significant difference between the effects of triphlorethol A at 50 mg/kg and zolpidem at 10 mg/kg. Triphlorethol A had no effect on delta activity (0.5–4 Hz) of NREMS, whereas zolpidem significantly decreased it. These results not only support the sleep-promoting effects of marine polyphenol phlorotannins, but also suggest that the marine polyphenol compound triphlorethol A is a promising structure for developing novel sedative hypnotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions)
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Open AccessArticle
3-Bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde Enhances the Level of Reduced Glutathione via the Nrf2-Mediated Pathway in Human Keratinocytes
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(9), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15090291 - 18 Sep 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
A natural bromophenol found in seaweeds, 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (BDB), has been shown to possess antioxidant effects. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which BDB protects skin cells subjected to oxidative stress. The effect of BDB on the protein and mRNA levels of [...] Read more.
A natural bromophenol found in seaweeds, 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (BDB), has been shown to possess antioxidant effects. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which BDB protects skin cells subjected to oxidative stress. The effect of BDB on the protein and mRNA levels of glutathione-related enzymes and the cell survival of human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) was investigated. BDB treatment increased the protein and mRNA levels of glutathione synthesizing enzymes and enhanced the production of reduced glutathione in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, BDB activated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and promoted its localization into the nucleus by phosphorylating its up-stream signaling proteins, extracellular signal–regulated kinase and protein kinase B. Thus, BDB increased the production of reduced glutathione and established cellular protection against oxidative stress via an Nrf2-mediated pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Diterpenes from the Marine Algae of the Genus Dictyota
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16050159 - 11 May 2018
Cited by 17
Abstract
Species of the brown algae of the genus Dictyota are rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites with diverse structural features. Excellent progress has been made in the discovery of diterpenes possessing broad chemical defensive activities from this genus. Most of these diterpenes exhibit [...] Read more.
Species of the brown algae of the genus Dictyota are rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites with diverse structural features. Excellent progress has been made in the discovery of diterpenes possessing broad chemical defensive activities from this genus. Most of these diterpenes exhibit significant biological activities, such as antiviral, cytotoxic and chemical defensive activities. In the present review, we summarized diterpenes isolated from the brown algae of the genus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Seaweed Bioactive Compounds against Pathogens and Microalgae: Potential Uses on Pharmacology and Harmful Algae Bloom Control
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020055 - 09 Feb 2018
Cited by 27
Abstract
Cyanobacteria are found globally due to their adaptation to various environments. The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms is not a new phenomenon. The bloom-forming and toxin-producing species have been a persistent nuisance all over the world over the last decades. Evidence suggests that this [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria are found globally due to their adaptation to various environments. The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms is not a new phenomenon. The bloom-forming and toxin-producing species have been a persistent nuisance all over the world over the last decades. Evidence suggests that this trend might be attributed to a complex interplay of direct and indirect anthropogenic influences. To control cyanobacterial blooms, various strategies, including physical, chemical, and biological methods have been proposed. Nevertheless, the use of those strategies is usually not effective. The isolation of natural compounds from many aquatic and terrestrial plants and seaweeds has become an alternative approach for controlling harmful algae in aquatic systems. Seaweeds have received attention from scientists because of their bioactive compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, anti-microalgae, and antioxidant properties. The undesirable effects of cyanobacteria proliferations and potential control methods are here reviewed, focusing on the use of potent bioactive compounds, isolated from seaweeds, against microalgae and cyanobacteria growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions)
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