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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(7), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16070235

Green Alga Ulva spp. Hydrolysates and Their Peptide Fractions Regulate Cytokine Production in Splenic Macrophages and Lymphocytes Involving the TLR4-NFκB/MAPK Pathways

1
Instituto de Tecnología de Alimentos, CONICET, FIQ-UNL, 1 de Mayo 3250, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, CIBERehd, School of Pharmacy, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
3
Department of Pharmacology, CIBERehd, School of Pharmacy, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions)
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Abstract

Hydrolysates of food protein sources have immunomodulatory effects, which are of interest for use as functional foods. In this study, we have characterized the immune regulatory effect on rat splenocytes, macrophages and T lymphocytes of Ulva spp. hydrolysates and their peptide fractions with or without in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and/or ultrafiltration. IL-10 was induced in almost all conditions and cell types obtained from wild type animals. The induction was in general increased by ultrafiltration and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. TNF was also induced in basal conditions. In turn, TNF and IFN-γ production was attenuated by the hydrolysate products in lipopolysaccharide or concanavalin A immune stimulated cells. Inhibitors for the activation of NFκB, MAPK p38 and JNK inhibited IL-10 induction in rat splenocytes. The response was dramatically attenuated in TLR4−/− cells, and only modestly in TLR2−/− cells. Food peptides from Ulva spp. genus exert anti-inflammatory effects in immune cells mediated by TLR4 and NFκB. Similarity with the immunomodulatory profile of protein hydrolysates from other sources suggests a common mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive peptides; green seaweeds; interleukin 10; TLR2; TLR4; NFκB bioactive peptides; green seaweeds; interleukin 10; TLR2; TLR4; NFκB
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Cian, R.E.; Hernández-Chirlaque, C.; Gámez-Belmonte, R.; Drago, S.R.; Sánchez de Medina, F.; Martínez-Augustin, O. Green Alga Ulva spp. Hydrolysates and Their Peptide Fractions Regulate Cytokine Production in Splenic Macrophages and Lymphocytes Involving the TLR4-NFκB/MAPK Pathways. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 235.

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