Proteomic Studies for the Identification and Characterization of Marine Bioactive Molecules

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Biotechnology Related to Drug Discovery or Production".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 9392

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Gold Coast, QLD 4225, Australia
2. Marine Ecology Research Centre, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Military Rd., East Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia
Interests: marine biology; sequencing; molecular biology; biomedical products; gene expression; genomics; molecular genetics; epigenetics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The marine environment provides a rich source of bioactive compounds which could be efficiently applied in various industries, benefiting the shift towards environmentally sustainable green sectors, environmental protection, and the balanced use of natural resources. Proteomic studies assess all proteins produced in organisms, differential gene expression, and its impact on proteomics profiles, as well as proteins’ activity, stability, degradation, modification, interactions, and their effect on metabolic pathways. Wide-ranging aspects of proteomics research are emerging, including modern technologies implementing artificial intelligence (AI)-based methods. The extension of knowledge regarding proteomics facilitates a better understanding of the bioactive capacities of bioproducts found in aquatic species and is especially important in the field of medical research, which urgently requires new and improved drug therapies.

We would like to invite scientists to submit their high-quality studies, including novel research and review articles addressing proteomics research, to this Special Issue of Marine Drugs in relation to the following topics:

  • Protein expression profiling and the influence of differential gene expression;
  • Proteome mining for the identification of biological target molecules;
  • Post-translational modification of proteins and impact on the function;
  • Functional proteomics, including protein production, degradation, and/or stability;
  • Structural proteomics and protein–protein interactions.

Dr. Nedeljka Rosic
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • proteomics
  • bioproducts
  • anti-bacterial
  • anti-tumour
  • anti-viral
  • anti-aging
  • anti-inflammatory
  • anti-fungal

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 2908 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Potential of Crassostrea nippona Hydrolysates as Dietary Supplements for Mitigating Dexamethasone-Induced Muscle Atrophy in C2C12 Cells
by M. J. M. S. Kurera, D. P. Nagahawatta, N. M. Liyanage, H. H. A. C. K. Jayawardhana, D. S. Dissanayake, Hyo-Geun Lee, Young-Sang Kim, Sang In Kang and You-Jin Jeon
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22030113 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Muscle atrophy is a detrimental and injurious condition that leads to reduced skeletal muscle mass and disruption of protein metabolism. Oyster (Crassostrea nippona) is a famous and commonly consumed shellfish in East Asia and has become a popular dietary choice worldwide. [...] Read more.
Muscle atrophy is a detrimental and injurious condition that leads to reduced skeletal muscle mass and disruption of protein metabolism. Oyster (Crassostrea nippona) is a famous and commonly consumed shellfish in East Asia and has become a popular dietary choice worldwide. The current investigation evaluated the efficacy of C. nippona against muscle atrophy, which has become a severe health issue. Mammalian skeletal muscles are primarily responsible for efficient metabolism, energy consumption, and body movements. The proteins that regulate muscle hypertrophy and atrophy are involved in muscle growth. C. nippona extracts were enzymatically hydrolyzed using alcalase (AOH), flavourzyme (FOH), and protamex (POH) to evaluate their efficacy in mitigating dexamethasone-induced muscle damage in C2C12 cells in vitro. AOH exhibited notable cell proliferative abilities, promoting dose-dependent myotube formation. These results were further solidified by protein expression analysis. Western blot and gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR demonstrated that AOH downregulated MuRF-1, Atrogin, Smad 2/3, and Foxo-3a, while upregulating myogenin, MyoD, myosin heavy chain expression, and mTOR, key components of the ubiquitin–proteasome and mTOR signaling pathways. Finally, this study suggests that AOH holds promise for alleviating dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in C2C12 cells in vitro, offering insights for developing functional foods targeting conditions akin to sarcopenia. Full article
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20 pages, 7385 KiB  
Article
Venomics Reveals the Venom Complexity of Sea Anemone Heteractis magnifica
by Ming Li, Kailin Mao, Meiling Huang, Yanling Liao, Jinxing Fu, Kun Pan, Qiong Shi and Bingmiao Gao
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22020071 - 28 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1791
Abstract
The venoms of various sea anemones are rich in diverse toxins, which usually play a dual role in capturing prey and deterring predators. However, the complex components of such venoms have not been well known yet. Here, venomics of integrating transcriptomic and proteomic [...] Read more.
The venoms of various sea anemones are rich in diverse toxins, which usually play a dual role in capturing prey and deterring predators. However, the complex components of such venoms have not been well known yet. Here, venomics of integrating transcriptomic and proteomic technologies was applied for the first time to identify putative protein and peptide toxins from different tissues of the representative sea anemone, Heteractis magnifica. The transcriptomic analysis of H. magnifica identified 728 putative toxin sequences, including 442 and 381 from the tentacles and the column, respectively, and they were assigned to 68 gene superfamilies. The proteomic analysis confirmed 101 protein and peptide toxins in the venom, including 91 in the tentacles and 39 in the column. The integrated venomics also confirmed that some toxins such as the ShK-like peptides and defensins are co-expressed in both the tentacles and the column. Meanwhile, a homology analysis was conducted to predict the three-dimensional structures and potential activity of seven representative toxins. Altogether, this venomics study revealed the venom complexity of H. magnifica, which will help deepen our understanding of cnidarian toxins, thereby supporting the in-depth development of valuable marine drugs. Full article
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25 pages, 5111 KiB  
Article
Marine Bioprospecting: Enzymes and Stress Proteins from the Sea Anemones Anthopleura dowii and Lebrunia neglecta
by Santos Ramírez-Carreto, Beatriz Miranda-Zaragoza, Nuno Simões, Ricardo González-Muñoz and Claudia Rodríguez-Almazán
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22010012 - 23 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1693
Abstract
The bioprospecting of sea anemone tissues and secretions has revealed that they are natural libraries of polypeptides with diverse biological activities that can be utilized to develop of biotechnological tools with potential medical and industrial applications. This study conducted a proteomic analysis of [...] Read more.
The bioprospecting of sea anemone tissues and secretions has revealed that they are natural libraries of polypeptides with diverse biological activities that can be utilized to develop of biotechnological tools with potential medical and industrial applications. This study conducted a proteomic analysis of crude venom extracts from Anthopleura dowii Verrill, 1869, and Lebrunia neglecta Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860. The obtained data allowed us to identify 201 polypeptides, of which 39% were present in both extracts. Among the obtained sequences, hydrolase-type enzymes, oxidoreductases, transferases, heat shock proteins, adhesion proteins, and protease inhibitors, among others, were identified. Interaction analysis and functional annotation indicated that these proteins are primarily involved in endoplasmic reticulum metabolic processes such as carbon metabolism and protein processing. In addition, several proteins related to oxidative stress were identified, including superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins, thioredoxin, and glutathione oxidase. Our results provide novel information on the polypeptide composition of the crude venom extract from sea anemones, which can be utilized to develop molecules for therapeutic tools and industrial applications. Full article
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17 pages, 3731 KiB  
Article
Proteomic Identification of Plasma Components in Tachypleus tridentatus and Their Effects on the Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Rats
by Shu Jiang, Xinjian Qu, Siping Liu, Jun Wei, Xiangxi Yi, Yonghong Liu and Chenghai Gao
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21020111 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Tachypleus tridentatus (T. tridentatus) is a marine animal and traditional Chinese medicine. T. tridentatus plasma is a valuable resource for important medical and health-based functions. In this experiment, in order to evaluate the effect and mechanism of T. tridentatus plasma with [...] Read more.
Tachypleus tridentatus (T. tridentatus) is a marine animal and traditional Chinese medicine. T. tridentatus plasma is a valuable resource for important medical and health-based functions. In this experiment, in order to evaluate the effect and mechanism of T. tridentatus plasma with respect to the promotion of bone tissue growth in rats, the processes of ultrafiltration and mass spectrometry were first used to separate and identify the components of T. tridentatus plasma. Then, a comparison of the effects of the T. tridentatus plasma samples, which each possessed different molecular weights, regarding the growth of the long bones of rats was conducted. Finally, transcriptomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics were all used to analyze the biological functions and related signaling pathways of the T. tridentatus plasma in order to promote rat bone growth. The results showed that the contents of amino acid residues in peptides are related to the growth promotion that was contained in the 10–30 kDa plasma group. Moreover, the T. tridentatus plasma samples were found to be higher in this respect than those in the whole plasma group. In addition, the 10–30 kDa plasma group could significantly promote bone growth activity in rats. The proteomic analysis showed that the proteins that were differentially expressed in the 10–30 kDa plasma group were mainly enriched in the PI3K-AKT signal pathway. Our study suggested that the T. tridentatus plasma possesses promising potential for the purposes of clinical use, whereby it can serve the role of a growth-promoting agent. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 5632 KiB  
Review
Biotechnological Potential of Macroalgae during Seasonal Blooms for Sustainable Production of UV-Absorbing Compounds
by Nedeljka Rosic and Carol Thornber
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(12), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21120633 - 8 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2017
Abstract
Marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are important primary global producers, with a wide distribution in oceans around the world from polar to tropical regions. Most of these species are exposed to variable environmental conditions, such as abiotic (e.g., light irradiance, temperature variations, nutrient availability, salinity [...] Read more.
Marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are important primary global producers, with a wide distribution in oceans around the world from polar to tropical regions. Most of these species are exposed to variable environmental conditions, such as abiotic (e.g., light irradiance, temperature variations, nutrient availability, salinity levels) and biotic factors (e.g., grazing and pathogen exposure). As a result, macroalgae developed numerous important strategies to increase their adaptability, including synthesizing secondary metabolites, which have promising biotechnological applications, such as UV-absorbing Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid (MAAs). MAAs are small, water-soluble, UV-absorbing compounds that are commonly found in many marine organisms and are characterized by promising antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and photoprotective properties. However, the widespread use of MAAs by humans is often restricted by their limited bioavailability, limited success in heterologous expression systems, and low quantities recovered from the natural environment. In contrast, bloom-forming macroalgal species from all three major macroalgal clades (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae, and Rhodophyta) occasionally form algal blooms, resulting in a rapid increase in algal abundance and high biomass production. This review focuses on the bloom-forming species capable of producing pharmacologically important compounds, including MAAs, and the application of proteomics in facilitating macroalgal use in overcoming current environmental and biotechnological challenges. Full article
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