Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures

A special issue of Machines (ISSN 2075-1702). This special issue belongs to the section "Machine Design and Theory".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 22369

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
Interests: morphing aircraft; structural dynamics; smart structure; nonlinear dynamics system
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
Interests: morphing aircraft; structural dynamics; structural health monitoring; rotordynamics; smart structures; nonlinear dynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
Interests: nonlinear structural dynamics;rotordynamics;vibration isolation; morphing aircraft; adaptive structures

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am pleased to announce the launch of a new open access Special Issue of the MDPI journal Machines dedicated to the “Dynamic Instability Analysis of Aerospace Structures”. Aerospace structures are a combination of light structures used for aircraft and spacecraft, which are generally subject to cyclic loads. Such structures operate in complex conditions that may determine the occurrence of dynamic instability phenomena, such as parametric resonance, structural vibration and aeroelastic flutter. The large amplitude response, resulting from dynamic instability, can have severe consequences for the safety and survivability of the structures and should, therefore, be mitigated and, where possible, avoided. Different technological solutions can be developed by using optimised design, traditional mechanisms or smart materials to overcome the internal resistance and external loads and avoid the instability. However, in some cases, such as when actuating a morphing structure or a blade, controlling dynamic instability might be leveraged for increased system performance.

This Special Issue aims to provide insights into the state of the art of dynamic instability of aerospace structures and to highlight methods and solutions that may be transferrable between various application areas. Contributions on modelling, simulation and experiments are welcomed.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Jiaying Zhang
Prof. Dr. Michael I. Friswell
Dr. Alexander Shaw
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • dynamic instability 
  • structural dynamics and control 
  • multistable structures 
  • nonlinear dynamics 
  • aeroelasticity 
  • morphing aircraft 
  • deployable structure 
  • parametric resonance 
  • flexible spacecraft

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 7640 KiB  
Article
Study on the Engagement Characteristics and Control Strategy of High Speed Difference Dry Friction Clutch
by Chu Zhu, Zhi Chen, Zongcai Shi and Yingdong Zhang
Machines 2023, 11(3), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030407 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
In the short/vertical take-off and landing aircraft propulsion system, the vertical take-off/landing and rapid flight are switched through the engagement and disconnection of the dry friction clutch. The smooth and rapid connection of the friction clutch is crucial for the mobility and reliability [...] Read more.
In the short/vertical take-off and landing aircraft propulsion system, the vertical take-off/landing and rapid flight are switched through the engagement and disconnection of the dry friction clutch. The smooth and rapid connection of the friction clutch is crucial for the mobility and reliability of this type of aircraft. However, the friction clutch vibrates and generates a large amount of heat at high speed, which affects the engagement performance of the clutch. In practice, when the engagement pressure rises quickly, the clutch engagement time is short, and the temperature rise is small, but the impact torque is large, and vice versa. In view of this problem, with a short/vertical take-off aircraft dry friction clutch as the research object, considering the nonlinear variation of friction coefficient and lift fan load torque, the dynamics model and temperature field model of the high speed difference dry friction clutch are established to analyze the clutch engagement time, impact torque, and temperature change. The engagement test at the high speed of the clutch shows that the simulation results of the kinetic model and temperature field model are consistent with the test results. To realize low temperature rise, low impact torque, and short engagement time, the variable slope engagement pressure control method is proposed. Compared with the traditional fixed slope engagement pressure, the proposed variable slope engagement pressure can reduce the engagement time, impact torque and temperature rise simultaneously. The research results can provide a reference for the friction clutch engagement control of short-range take-off and landing aircraft, reduce the development cost of such aircraft, and improve the reliability of the design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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11 pages, 3682 KiB  
Article
Predicting and Reinforcing the Critical Buckling Loads of Flexible Corrugated Panels
by Chen Wang, Ye Mao, Quan Liu, Siyun Fan, Xing Shen, Jiaying Zhang and Yuying Xia
Machines 2023, 11(3), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030339 - 1 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
Corrugated panels are promising in the field of morphing structures due to their high anisotropy. A low stiffness in the morphing direction allows for a reduced actuation force, which provides the benefit of reducing the system weight. However, a low stiffness also leads [...] Read more.
Corrugated panels are promising in the field of morphing structures due to their high anisotropy. A low stiffness in the morphing direction allows for a reduced actuation force, which provides the benefit of reducing the system weight. However, a low stiffness also leads to reduced critical buckling loads, which makes it easier for corrugated panels to buckle in the morphing process. The conflict between the actuation force and the critical buckling load requires an efficient method to predict the critical buckling load, which can then be applied in a trade-off study to find the optimal design. In the current study, a simplified method to predict the critical buckling load is proposed based on the derivation of equivalent properties. The method is verified using the finite element analysis and applied for the optimisation of corrugated panels. A conceptual design to reinforce corrugated panels is also proposed, which shows a significant increase in the critical buckling load of flexible corrugated panels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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15 pages, 3131 KiB  
Article
Resonant Actuation Based on Dynamic Characteristics of Bistable Laminates
by Yuting Liu, Jiaying Zhang, Diankun Pan, Zhangming Wu and Qingyun Wang
Machines 2023, 11(3), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030318 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Bistable or multi-stable structures have found broad applications in the fields of adaptive structures, flow control, and energy harvesting devices due to their unique nonlinear characteristics and strong local stability behavior. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the principle of minimum [...] Read more.
Bistable or multi-stable structures have found broad applications in the fields of adaptive structures, flow control, and energy harvesting devices due to their unique nonlinear characteristics and strong local stability behavior. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the principle of minimum potential energy and the Rayleigh–Ritz method is established to study the dynamic characteristics of a bistable unsymmetric laminate with a fixed center. Numerical results of this theoretical model were obtained and verified by an FEA model using ABAQUS. The nonlinear dynamic characteristics and the structural response under different levels of external excitation were investigated and verified by experiments. The realization conditions of single-well vibration and cross-well vibration of bistable laminates were determined, with which the actuation strategies can be optimized for targeting modal frequencies of bistable laminates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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19 pages, 5908 KiB  
Article
Thermal-Fluid-Solid Coupling Simulation and Oil Groove Structure Optimization of Wet Friction Clutch for High-Speed Helicopter
by Wuzhong Tan, Zhi Chen, Zhizuo Li and Hongzhi Yan
Machines 2023, 11(2), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020296 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Wet friction clutch is the key functional component of the high-speed helicopter variable-speed transmission system, which is used to change the power transmission path. In the engagement process of wet friction clutch, the driving/driven disc will produce drag torque under the shearing of [...] Read more.
Wet friction clutch is the key functional component of the high-speed helicopter variable-speed transmission system, which is used to change the power transmission path. In the engagement process of wet friction clutch, the driving/driven disc will produce drag torque under the shearing of lubricating oil, which reduces the transmission efficiency. This unnecessary drag torque reduces efficiency and increases clutch temperature. The temperature increase promotes the wear of gears and bearings and the aging deformation of friction plates, which leads to local wear and reduces the service life of the clutch. From the principle of wet friction clutch, the oil groove structure is directly related to the drag torque and the temperature rise of friction disc. It is very important for the long-distance flight and service life of high-speed helicopters to obtain the groove structure with low drag torque and low temperature rise. In order to solve this problem, taking the wet friction clutch of a high-speed helicopter as the research object, based on the radial and annular compound groove, the thermal-fluid-solid coupling simulation model of the wet friction clutch is established to obtained the flow characteristics and temperature field distribution of the lubricating oil in the friction disc oil groove, and to analyze the influence law of the oil groove structure parameters on the drag torque and temperature field. In order to improve the transmission efficiency and the service life of friction disc, Taguchi experiment and non-dominated neighborhood immune algorithm were used to optimize the structural parameters of the oil grooves. The comparison results show that the optimized structural can effectively reduce the drag torque and the temperature rise. This work can provide a theoretical reference for the structure design of a wet friction clutch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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21 pages, 4624 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Dynamics and Vibration Localization of Shrouded Blisk with Contact and Friction Effects
by Gaofei Yuan and Yuefang Wang
Machines 2023, 11(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020238 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Shrouds have been widely used to reduce the level of excessive vibration of blisks. However, complicated nonlinear motion can be induced by the contact and friction between shrouds. Even worse, harmful localization of vibration can be encountered due to nonsmooth behaviour at the [...] Read more.
Shrouds have been widely used to reduce the level of excessive vibration of blisks. However, complicated nonlinear motion can be induced by the contact and friction between shrouds. Even worse, harmful localization of vibration can be encountered due to nonsmooth behaviour at the shroud contact interfaces in the tuned disk. In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics and localization of vibration of a shrouded blisk are studied considering the spin softening. The continuous parametric model of a shrouded blisk is established, and the transition boundaries between different status (i.e., stick, slip and separation) of shrouds are determined based on the Coulomb friction model. The steady-state responses of the blisk are analysed using variable rotation speed, and the primary resonance, beat and quasi-periodic vibration are presented in connection with the non-smooth behaviour of contact. A particular type of vibration localization initiated by the contact and friction effect of the shrouds in the form of asymmetric vibration in the tuned blisk is discovered. It is found that the blades-disk coupling has strong influences on the level of the localization. The effects of the contact stiffness and localization on the blade vibration are demonstrated through the change in the powers of the blade motions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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13 pages, 2813 KiB  
Article
Open-Loop Simulation of Active Vibration Control of Electrically Controlled Rotor
by Kewei Li, Taoyong Su, Jinchao Ma and Zhaozhong Zhang
Machines 2023, 11(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020237 - 6 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
An electrically controlled rotor (ECR), also known as a swashplateless rotor, is an active rotor system that reduces the vibration load of the rotor through active control while achieving primary control by using a trailing edge flap system instead of a swashplate. In [...] Read more.
An electrically controlled rotor (ECR), also known as a swashplateless rotor, is an active rotor system that reduces the vibration load of the rotor through active control while achieving primary control by using a trailing edge flap system instead of a swashplate. In this study, the control effect of a 2Ω higher-order harmonic input on the vibration load of an ECR is investigated. First, an analytical aeroelastic model of the ECR is established based on Hamilton’s principle and an unsteady aerodynamic model with a flapped airfoil. On this basis, the use of higher-order harmonic flap control to reduce the vibration load of the ECR is investigated. The effect of the 2Ω higher-order harmonic flap control on the 2Ω vibration load of the example ECR is analyzed by sweeping the amplitude and phase of the higher-order harmonic flap control. The effect of higher-order harmonic flap control on the primary control of the ECR is also analyzed. The results show that the 2Ω higher-order flap deflection has the most significant control effect on the 2Ω vertical vibration load of the hub, that there is coupling between the higher-order flap deflection and the primary control of the ECR, and that the higher-order flap deflection disrupts the original equilibrium of the ECR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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18 pages, 10542 KiB  
Article
Vibro-Impact Response Analysis of Collision with Clearance: A Tutorial
by Yongjie Xu, Yu Tian, Qiyu Li, Yanbin Li, Dahai Zhang and Dong Jiang
Machines 2022, 10(9), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090814 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
A collision with clearance causes obvious nonlinearity in structures, and dynamic response analysis plays an important role in predicting the mechanical performance of the structure. The general form of the nonlinear dynamic equation of a structure and the clearance modeling method are introduced, [...] Read more.
A collision with clearance causes obvious nonlinearity in structures, and dynamic response analysis plays an important role in predicting the mechanical performance of the structure. The general form of the nonlinear dynamic equation of a structure and the clearance modeling method are introduced, and the clearance-caused nonlinear term is expressed by nonlinear impact forces. Different clearance collision models of local nonlinear structures are presented. The relationships between different impact forces and clearances are analyzed by two rigid sphere models. The solution methods of the nonlinear dynamic equation are compared by a vibro-impact response, such as the Newmark-β method combined with the Newton–Raphson method, generalized α method and precise integration method. The single degree of freedom model is adopted to compare the efficiency of the different numerical integration algorithms. Taking the beam structure model as a case study, the accurate nonlinear collision model with clearance is established by using the impact force model with high accuracy, and the accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the reference model with the numerical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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11 pages, 5828 KiB  
Communication
Experimental Study and Numerical Analysis of the Tensile Behavior of 3D Woven Ceramic Composites
by Hongbo Lu, Yancheng Liu and Shibo Yan
Machines 2022, 10(6), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10060434 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
In this work, the tensile responses of 3D woven quartz fiber silica matrix composites were experimentally and numerically investigated. The ceramic composites reinforced by 3D layer-to-layer angle interlock woven preforms were manufactured and tested under warp direction tension. A numerical method is proposed [...] Read more.
In this work, the tensile responses of 3D woven quartz fiber silica matrix composites were experimentally and numerically investigated. The ceramic composites reinforced by 3D layer-to-layer angle interlock woven preforms were manufactured and tested under warp direction tension. A numerical method is proposed to model the mechanical response of the ceramic composites under tension. The method is based on a mesoscopic single layer unit cell for the composites, using a progressive damage analysis approach to account for damage evolution. The predicted results are compared with experimental data, and good agreement in the stress–strain response up to the ultimate tensile strength of the composites is obtained. It has been demonstrated that the proposed numerical model based on a simple single layer unit cell is both efficient and effective in characterization of the mechanical behavior of the 3D layer-to-layer woven ceramic composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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18 pages, 2231 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Scaling of a Wing Structure Model Using Topology Optimization
by Éder Oliveira, Abdolrasoul Sohouli, Frederico Afonso, Roberto Gil Annes da Silva and Afzal Suleman
Machines 2022, 10(5), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050374 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2579
Abstract
In this paper, a dynamic scaling methodology is introduced to devise reduced scaled models of aircraft with the objectives of minimizing the development cost and exploring the design space. A promising way to accomplish this is using Topology Optimization (TO) for Additive Manufacturing [...] Read more.
In this paper, a dynamic scaling methodology is introduced to devise reduced scaled models of aircraft with the objectives of minimizing the development cost and exploring the design space. A promising way to accomplish this is using Topology Optimization (TO) for Additive Manufacturing (AM). Here, TO is employed to design a reduce scale model by matching its natural frequencies and mode shapes to those of a full scale model. Different TO strategies based on density approach are tested with the goal of achieving a dynamically scaled structure that can be manufactured. To achieve this goal, the TO solution should be free from intermediate densities, which is observed for some TO strategies but not all. When no penalization factor is applied: (i) the relative difference between natural frequencies is less than 1% and (ii) the estimated Modal Assurance Criteria (MAC) metric to evaluate the correlation between mode shapes is close to the ideal identity matrix. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the dynamic scaling methodology. However, when using a penalization factor to avoid intermediate densities, the dynamic behavior correlation between full and scaled models degrades. This trend is more visible in the MAC metric, where off-diagonal terms above 20% and diagonal terms below 90% appear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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15 pages, 5772 KiB  
Article
Verification of a Body Freedom Flutter Numerical Simulation Method Based on Main Influence Parameters
by Pengxuan Lei, Hongtao Guo, Binbin LYu, Dehua Chen and Li Yu
Machines 2021, 9(10), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9100243 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
The body freedom flutter characteristics of an airfoil and a fly wing aircraft model were calculated based on a CFD method for the Navier–Stokes equations. Firstly, a rigid elastic coupling dynamic model of a two-dimensional airfoil with a free–free boundary condition was derived [...] Read more.
The body freedom flutter characteristics of an airfoil and a fly wing aircraft model were calculated based on a CFD method for the Navier–Stokes equations. Firstly, a rigid elastic coupling dynamic model of a two-dimensional airfoil with a free–free boundary condition was derived in an inertial frame and decoupled by rigid body mode and elastic mode. In the fluid–solid coupling method, the rigid body was trimmed by subtracting the generalized steady aerodynamic force from the structural dynamic equation. The flutter characteristics were predicted by the variable stiffness method at a fixed Mach number and flight altitude. Finally, validation of the predicted body freedom flutter characteristics was performed through a comparison of theoretical solutions based on a Theodorsen unsteady aerodynamic model for airfoil and experimental results for a fly wing aircraft model. The mechanism of the influence of the bending mode stiffness and the position of the center of gravity on the body freedom flutter characteristics were briefly analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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13 pages, 1188 KiB  
Article
Aeroelastic Response of Aircraft Wings to External Store Separation Using Flexible Multibody Dynamics
by Aykut Tamer
Machines 2021, 9(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9030061 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2870
Abstract
In aviation, using external stores under the wings is a common method of carrying payload or fuel. In some cases, the payload can be rigidly attached to the wing. However, stores must often be ejected during flight for aircraft, such as military type, [...] Read more.
In aviation, using external stores under the wings is a common method of carrying payload or fuel. In some cases, the payload can be rigidly attached to the wing. However, stores must often be ejected during flight for aircraft, such as military type, which carry drop tanks and missiles. This may cause the wing to respond dynamically with increasing amplitudes, due to the impulsive load of ejection and the change of total mass. This is especially critical in aircraft with highly flexible wings, such as those with high aspect ratios. In this case, it is crucial to evaluate the wing response to store separation, which requires a suitable simulation environment that is able to support nonlinear and multidisciplinary analysis. To address such a need, this work presents the use of flexible multibody dynamics in the simulation of wing response to store separation. To demonstrate, a highly compliant wing was selected with a rigid body that was mounted on the wing to represent an external store. The time marching simulation of the wing before and after the store separation was presented to show the features and benefits of the method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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