Tribological Applications of Nano & Submicro Structured Materials

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2022) | Viewed by 16959

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Material Science, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, Russia
Interests: tribology; friction; wear; adhesion; abrasion; contact mechanics; materials science; surfaces; coatings; films; mathematical modeling

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Guest Editor
Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland
Interests: materials engineering; surface engineering; biomaterials; SEM; X-ray microanalysis; electron backscattered diffraction
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is no exaggeration to say that surface engineering is one of the biggest priority areas of research for the development of modern materials science. Different coatings for metals, ceramics, and other materials are necessary to effectively increase the performance properties of machine parts and tools.

Antifriction coatings are particularly important. Such coatings provide a great increase in the service life of machines by reducing wear due to the action of both mechanical loads and the impact of various aggressive media. Modern coatings produce a sharp reduction in the coefficient of friction and, as a result, a decrease in energy losses. It is well known that certain coatings possessing a special structure and composition can work successfully in the absence of lubrication.

Antifriction materials with nano- and submicrograin structure are also of great significance. The extreme hardness of nanostructured coatings, including multilayer, is well known. Some nanostructured coatings have special chemical properties. The behavior of submicrostructured coatings and bulk materials is a subject of particular interest from a tribological point of view.

The main aim of the current Special Issue is the further development of tribological studies of nano- and submicro structured coatings and materials.

Prof. Dr. Michael Semenov
Prof. Dr. Leszek Klimek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanomaterials
  • Submicrograin materials
  • Nanocomposites
  • Friction
  • Wear
  • Abrasion
  • Adhesion
  • Load
  • Aggressive media
  • Lubrication

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 3428 KiB  
Article
Machinability Assessment of Hybrid Nano Cutting Oil for Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in Hard Turning of 90CrSi Steel
by Tran Bao Ngoc, Tran Minh Duc, Ngo Minh Tuan, Vu Lai Hoang and Tran The Long
Lubricants 2023, 11(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11020054 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Friction and very high temperature are still the major challenges in hard machining technology and they greatly affect cutting efficiency. The application of the MQL (minimum quantity lubrication) method, using nanoparticles in order to improve the cooling lubrication performance of the base cutting [...] Read more.
Friction and very high temperature are still the major challenges in hard machining technology and they greatly affect cutting efficiency. The application of the MQL (minimum quantity lubrication) method, using nanoparticles in order to improve the cooling lubrication performance of the base cutting oil, has proven to be a promising solution. Hence, this work aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Al2O3/MoS2 hybrid nanofluid and Al2O3 and MoS2 mono nanofluids in the hard turning of 90CrSi steel (60–62 HRC) under an MQL environment. The Box-Behnken experimental design was used for three input variables, including nanoparticle concentration, air pressure, and air flow rate. Their influences on surface roughness and cutting forces were studied. According to the obtained results, it was shown that the application of hybrid nano cutting oils in MQL contributes to achieving better hard machining performance than the use of mono nanofluids. In particular, a lower cutting temperature is reported and the values of surface roughness Ra, back force Fp, and cutting force Fc were smaller and more stable under Al2O3/MoS2 hybrid nanofluid MQL than those under Al2O3 and MoS2 mono nanofluid MQL due to an improvement in cooling lubrication characteristics. Thus, this work provides a novel approach to study hybrid nanofluids for MQL hard machining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Applications of Nano & Submicro Structured Materials)
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14 pages, 5974 KiB  
Article
Polyaniline Nanoparticles: A Novel Additive for Augmenting Thermal Conductivity and Tribo-Properties of Mineral Oil and Commercial Engine Oil
by Vinay Saini and Jayashree Bijwe
Lubricants 2022, 10(11), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10110300 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
The present work demonstrates the novel composition of nanoparticles (NPs) of polyaniline (PANI) solo and, in combination with particles of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ~230 nm, as a powerful additive (antiwear-AWA and extreme-pressure additive EPA) in lubricating oils. The concentration of PANI NPs varied from [...] Read more.
The present work demonstrates the novel composition of nanoparticles (NPs) of polyaniline (PANI) solo and, in combination with particles of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ~230 nm, as a powerful additive (antiwear-AWA and extreme-pressure additive EPA) in lubricating oils. The concentration of PANI NPs varied from 1–4 wt.% in a base oil and commercial 5W30 engine oil. The tribo-performance was evaluated on a four-ball tester. The PANI-based oils significantly enhanced the load-bearing ability, and 3 wt.% of PANI NPs led to enhancement in EP properties by 220% in a base oil and 58% in engine oil. Additionally, hybrid combinations of NPs of PTFE with PANI in base oil were prepared by mixing in a ratio of 3:1 and 2:1 and were explored for possible tribo-synergism in EP properties. The hybrid nano-oils led to the highest reported ~ 535% enhancement in the load-carrying capacity of mineral oil. The lubrication mechanisms for enhanced tribo performance were linked with studies on a scanning electron microscope, an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer, and with the use of Raman spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Applications of Nano & Submicro Structured Materials)
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18 pages, 3929 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Tribological Properties of Alumina-Coated, Silver-Reinforced Copper Nanocomposites Using Long Short-Term Model Combined with Golden Jackal Optimization
by Ismail R. Najjar, Ayman M. Sadoun, Adel Fathy, Ahmed W. Abdallah, Mohamed Abd Elaziz and Marwa Elmahdy
Lubricants 2022, 10(11), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10110277 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
In this paper, we present a newly modified machine learning model that employs a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network model with the golden jackal optimization (GJO) algorithm to predict the tribological performance of Cu–Al2O3 nanocomposites. The modified model was [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a newly modified machine learning model that employs a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network model with the golden jackal optimization (GJO) algorithm to predict the tribological performance of Cu–Al2O3 nanocomposites. The modified model was applied to predict the wear rates and coefficient of friction of Cu–Al2O3 nanocomposites that were developed in this study. Electroless coating of Al2O3 nanoparticles with Ag was performed to improve the wettability followed by ball milling and compaction to consolidate the composites. The microstructural, mechanical, and wear properties of the produced composites with different Al2O3 content were characterized. The wear rates and coefficient of friction were evaluated using sliding wear tests at different loads and speeds. From a materials point of view, the manufactured composites with 10% Al2O3 content showed huge enhancement in hardness and wear rates compared to pure copper, reaching 170% and 65%, respectively. The improvement of the properties was due to the excellent mechanical properties of Al2O3, grain refinement, and dislocation movement impedance. The developed model using the LSTM-GJO algorithm showed excellent predictability of the wear rate and coefficient of friction for all the considered composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Applications of Nano & Submicro Structured Materials)
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13 pages, 9472 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Tribological Properties of Two Fully Formulated Engine Oils with Additional Nanoscale Spherical Zirconia Particles
by Rajmund Kuti, Ádám István Szabó and Álmos Dávid Tóth
Lubricants 2022, 10(10), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10100246 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Decreasing harmful emissions of vehicle engines is becoming more and more challenging due to stricter standards. A possible solution is to improve the tribological attributes of lubricants, which can be achieved through the application of appropriate additives. According to preliminary studies conducted by [...] Read more.
Decreasing harmful emissions of vehicle engines is becoming more and more challenging due to stricter standards. A possible solution is to improve the tribological attributes of lubricants, which can be achieved through the application of appropriate additives. According to preliminary studies conducted by the authors, ZrO2 (zirconium-dioxide) nano-sized ceramic particles as lubricant additives have overwhelmingly positive tribological attributes in the presence of non-metallic superficial materials. Additive concentration, as well as cross-effects with other additives were investigated in order to determine a formulation resulting in optimal tribological attributes. In this paper, the experimental investigation of ZrO2 nano-ceramic powder as a lubricant additive is presented. The tribological performance of individually samples were experimentally investigated on a ball-on-disc translational tribometer. The experiments revealed an optimal additive content of 0.3 wt%. Increasing the quantity of additives further ruined friction and wear properties of the examined tribological system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Applications of Nano & Submicro Structured Materials)
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14 pages, 3168 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Applicability of Y2O3–ZrO2 Spherical Nanoparticles as Tribological Lubricant Additives
by Ádám I. Szabó, Álmos D. Tóth, Máté Zs. Leskó and Hajnalka Hargitai
Lubricants 2022, 10(7), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10070152 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Long-term environmental goals will motivate the automotive industry, component suppliers, and lubricating oil developers to reduce the friction of their tribosystems to improve overall efficiency and wear for increased component lifetime. Nanoscale ceramic particles have been shown to form a protective layer on [...] Read more.
Long-term environmental goals will motivate the automotive industry, component suppliers, and lubricating oil developers to reduce the friction of their tribosystems to improve overall efficiency and wear for increased component lifetime. Nanoscale ceramic particles have been shown to form a protective layer on components’ surface that reduces wear rate with its high hardness and chemical resistance. One such ceramic is yttria (Y2O3), which has an excellent anti-wear effect, but due to its rarity it would be extremely expensive to produce engine lubricant made from it. Therefore, part of the yttria is replaced by zirconia (ZrO2) with similar physical properties. The study presents the result of the experimental tribological investigation of nanosized yttria–zirconia ceramic mixture as an engine lubricant additive. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticle was used as the basis for the ratio of the ceramic mixture, so that the weight ratio of yttria–zirconia in the resulting mixture was determined to be 11:69. After the evaluation of the ball-on-disc tribological measurements, it can be stated that the optimal concentration was 0.4 wt%, which reduced the wear diameter by 30% and the wear volume by 90% at the same coefficient of friction. High-resolution SEM analysis showed a significant amount of zirconia on the surface, but no yttria was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Applications of Nano & Submicro Structured Materials)
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12 pages, 3495 KiB  
Article
Polymeric Coatings for Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Materials
by Witold Brostow, IKang Chen and Haley E. Hagg Lobland
Lubricants 2022, 10(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10040072 - 18 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Thermoelectric (TE) devices have short service lives. These materials undergo thermal degradation at elevated temperatures by processes such as oxidation or sublimation. Our substrates were skutterudite-based TE materials. We covered their surfaces with a liquid high-temperature polymer (HTP)—crosslinked after the deposition, what converted [...] Read more.
Thermoelectric (TE) devices have short service lives. These materials undergo thermal degradation at elevated temperatures by processes such as oxidation or sublimation. Our substrates were skutterudite-based TE materials. We covered their surfaces with a liquid high-temperature polymer (HTP)—crosslinked after the deposition, what converted those surfaces into solid coatings. Sintering was performed at 250 °C for times of up to 48 h on both uncoated (control) and HTP-coated samples. The changes caused by thermal degradation were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis, electrical resistivity, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and observed by scanning electron microscopy. Significant mitigation of oxidation and sublimation of our TE materials was achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Applications of Nano & Submicro Structured Materials)
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10 pages, 4402 KiB  
Article
Wear Resistance of TiAlCrSiN Coatings Deposited by Means of the Co-Sputtering Technique
by Fredy Antonio Estupiñan, Carlos Mauricio Moreno, Jhon Jairo Olaya and Luis Carlos Ardila
Lubricants 2021, 9(6), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9060064 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
TiAlCrSiN thin films were deposited on K20 WC–Co substrates using the co-sputtering method. The silicon content in the deposited coatings were varied by modifying the number of silicon pieces (1, 2, or 3) on the Cr target. The morphology, semi-quantitative chemical composition, and [...] Read more.
TiAlCrSiN thin films were deposited on K20 WC–Co substrates using the co-sputtering method. The silicon content in the deposited coatings were varied by modifying the number of silicon pieces (1, 2, or 3) on the Cr target. The morphology, semi-quantitative chemical composition, and microstructure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Modified ASTM B611 abrasive wear and nano-hardness tests were used to evaluate the tribological and mechanical properties of the different coatings, respectively. The results showed that the addition of Si promotes an increased hardness and elastic modulus. Also, mass loss in wear tests decreased as Si increased, due to the growth in hardness related to the microstructural refinement produced by the blocking of sliding bands by the grain boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Applications of Nano & Submicro Structured Materials)
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Review

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12 pages, 1933 KiB  
Review
Frictional Properties of Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials as an Additive in Liquid Lubricants: Current Challenges and Potential Research Topics
by Edgar Leonardo Castellanos-Leal, Angel Osuna-Zatarain and Alejandra Garcia-Garcia
Lubricants 2023, 11(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11030137 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
This paper reports on the trend of studying and applying two-dimensional materials in tribology. Two-dimensional materials have improved the ability of lubricants when used as additives to reduce wear between surfaces through the formation of protective layers by sliding on metal surfaces. The [...] Read more.
This paper reports on the trend of studying and applying two-dimensional materials in tribology. Two-dimensional materials have improved the ability of lubricants when used as additives to reduce wear between surfaces through the formation of protective layers by sliding on metal surfaces. The morphology and chemical nature of 2D materials are among the important factors that influence their dispersion in the lubricant medium and determine the final performance of the lubricant for various applications. The mentioned materials in this work are h-BN, graphene, graphene oxide, and MoS2 as part of the transition metal dichalcogenides. The most studied material to date is graphene and its analogs, such as graphene oxide, which, under controlled conditions, can present superlubricity, with COF values less than 0.01. Some methodologies applied to modify two-dimensional materials and examples of the application and characterization of their performance in tribology are mentioned. This review also shows the benefits of using 2D nanomaterials and the synergy generated when two or more of them are combined to not only achieve superlubricity but also improve corrosion resistance and mechanical properties at the interfaces found in contact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Applications of Nano & Submicro Structured Materials)
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24 pages, 5690 KiB  
Review
Tribological Properties of CNTs-Reinforced Nano Composite Materials
by Chika Oliver Ujah, Daramy Vandi Von Kallon and Victor Sunday Aigbodion
Lubricants 2023, 11(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11030095 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
High modulus of about 1 TPa, high thermal conductivity of over 3000 W/mK, very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), high electrical conductivity, self-lubricating characteristics and low density have made CNTs one of the best reinforcing materials of nano composites for advanced structural, [...] Read more.
High modulus of about 1 TPa, high thermal conductivity of over 3000 W/mK, very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), high electrical conductivity, self-lubricating characteristics and low density have made CNTs one of the best reinforcing materials of nano composites for advanced structural, industrial, high strength and wear-prone applications. This is so because it has the capacity of improving the mechanical, tribological, electrical, thermal and physical properties of nanocomposites. So, this study is aimed at providing the latest discoveries on the tribological behavior of CNTs-reinforced composites. The composites reviewed included metal matrix composites (MMCs), polymer matrix composites (PMCs) and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) reinforced with CNTs. Their tribological characteristics, uses, production challenges, conclusion and recommendations are presented. The work presented the best technique to disperse CNTs on matrices to avoid its agglomeration, since agglomeration is one of the major challenges in reinforcing with CNTs. It was discovered that ball milling destroys the outer walls of CNTs but recommended that ultrasonication and functionalization before ball milling eliminate this adverse effect of ball milling. In addition, it was discovered that addition of CNTs to composite matrices improved the wear resistance, reduced the wear volume, decreased the coefficient of friction (COF) and provided self-lubricating effect on MMCs, PMCs and CMCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Applications of Nano & Submicro Structured Materials)
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