Special Issue "Recent Research in Nanolubricants"

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Fabrice Dassenoy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University Lyon, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Laboratory of Tribology and System Dynamics, ENISE, ENTPE, CNRS UMR5513, 69134 Ecully, France
Interests: nanolubricants; nanoparticles; lubrication; additives; friction; wear; tribochemistry; nanotribology; in situ characterization techniques; in situ friction test; transmission electron microscopy; surface analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There has been a growing interest in nanoparticles for tribological applications over the past 20 years. Studies on this topic have shown the remarkable lubricating properties, viz., friction-reducing and anti-wear, of certain nanoparticles. This makes them potential candidates for replacing the lubrication additives currently used in automobile lubricants, especially since the latter are known to be pollutants and less efficient in some specific conditions. This has not gone unnoticed to professionals in the sector, including those commercializing these additives, the oil companies and the car industry, all of whom are following this burgeoning research area with a keen interest. All of them are faced with the problem of providing lubricants that meet the needs of the technological evolution of engines while respecting ever stricter environmental norms. Among the nanoparticles with proven tribological performance are carbon nanotubes, carbon onions, nanodiamonds, graphene, BN/ZrO2/TiO2 nanoparticles, the Inorganic Fullerene-like (IF) metal disulfides (IF-MoS2, IF-WS2) nanoparticle. All these nanoparticles have been the subject of detailed investigation these last past years and many key issues have been tackled, such as the conditions leading to these properties, the lubrication mechanisms coming into play, the influence of parameters such as size, structure, and morphology of the nanoparticles on their tribological properties/lubrication mechanisms, and the interactions between the particles and the lubricant co-additives. In order to answer such questions, state-of-the-art characterization techniques are required, often in situ, and sometimes extremely complex to set up. Some of these can even visualize the behaviour of a nanoparticle in real time during a tribological test. These years of research on this topic have given a good understanding of the way these nanoparticles behave, and we can now identify the key parameters to be adjusted when optimizing their lubrication properties.

This Special Issue is designed to showcase some of the most exciting recent findings and future trends in the field of the research in nanoparticles/nanolubricants. Contributions are welcome from researchers working in the field of tribology and lubrication science.

Prof. Dr. Fabrice  Dassenoy
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Lubricant additives
  • Boundary lubrication
  • Friction modifiers
  • Anti-wear additives
  • Nanolubricants
  • In situ characterization

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Nanotribological Performance Factors for Aqueous Suspensions of Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Relation to Macroscale Lubricity
Lubricants 2019, 7(6), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7060049 - 07 Jun 2019
Abstract
Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements of nanotribological properties of statistically diverse materials combinations of nanoparticles and substrate electrodes in aqueous suspensions are reported and compared to macroscale measurements of the same materials combinations for a subset of the nanoparticle combinations. Four ceramic nanoparticles, [...] Read more.
Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements of nanotribological properties of statistically diverse materials combinations of nanoparticles and substrate electrodes in aqueous suspensions are reported and compared to macroscale measurements of the same materials combinations for a subset of the nanoparticle combinations. Four ceramic nanoparticles, TiO2, SiO2, Al2O3, and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and ten substrate materials (Au, Al, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pt, SiO2, Al2O3, and SS304) were studied. The QCM technique was employed to measure frequency and motional resistance changes upon introduction of nanoparticles into the water surrounding its liquid-facing electrode. This series of experiments expanded prior studies that were often limited to a single nanoparticle - solid liquid combination. The variations in QCM response from one nanoparticle to another are observed to be far greater than the variation from one substrate to another, indicating that the nanoparticles play a larger role than the substrates in determining the frictional drag force levels. The results were categorized according to the direction of the frequency and motional resistance changes and candidate statistical performance factors for the datasets were generated. The performance factors were employed to identify associations between the QCM atomic scale results and the macroscale friction coefficient measurements. Macroscale measurements of friction coefficients for selected systems document that reductions (increases) in motional resistance to shear, as measured by the QCM, are linked to decreases (increases) in macroscale friction coefficients. The performance factors identified in the initial study therefore appear applicable to a broader set of statistically diverse samples. The results facilitate full statistical analyses of the data for identification of candidate materials properties or materials genomes that underlie the performance of nanoparticle systems as lubricants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research in Nanolubricants)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Evaluation of MQL Parameters Using Al2O3 and MoS2 Nanofluids in Hard Turning 90CrSi Steel
Lubricants 2019, 7(5), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7050040 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hard machining has gained much attention to be an alternative solution for many traditional finish grinding operations due to high productivity, ease to adapt to complex part contours, the elimination of cutting fluids, good surface quality, and the reduction of machine tool investment. [...] Read more.
Hard machining has gained much attention to be an alternative solution for many traditional finish grinding operations due to high productivity, ease to adapt to complex part contours, the elimination of cutting fluids, good surface quality, and the reduction of machine tool investment. However, the enormous amount of heat generated from the cutting zone always requires the high-grade inserts and limits the cutting conditions. The MQL technique with nanofluids assisted for hard machining helps to improve the cutting performance while ensuring environmentally friendly characteristics. This paper focuses on the development of MQL technique by adding Al2O3 and MoS2 nanoparticles to the base fluids (soybean oil and water-based emulsion) for the hard turning of 90CrSi steel (60÷62 HRC). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to evaluate the performance of MQL parameters in terms of cutting forces and surface roughness. The study reveals that a better performance of coated carbide inserts is observed by using MQL with Al2O3 and MoS2 nanofluids. In addition, the fluid type, nanoparticles and nanoparticle concentration have a strong effect on cutting performance. The interaction influence among the investigated variables is also studied in order to provide the technical guides for further studies using Al2O3 and MoS2 nanofluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research in Nanolubricants)
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Anti-Wear and Extreme-Pressure Performance of Multifunctional Metal and Nonmetal Doped C-based Nanodots
Lubricants 2019, 7(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7040036 - 23 Apr 2019
Abstract
Carbon nanodots (CDs) are extensively explored due to their low toxicity, excellent water solubility and biocompatibility. Particularly, fluorescent CDs have received ever-increasing attention. Nevertheless, only a few works have been published on measuring the tribological properties of doped CDs, especially Ga doped CDs [...] Read more.
Carbon nanodots (CDs) are extensively explored due to their low toxicity, excellent water solubility and biocompatibility. Particularly, fluorescent CDs have received ever-increasing attention. Nevertheless, only a few works have been published on measuring the tribological properties of doped CDs, especially Ga doped CDs ([email protected]) and nitrogen doped CDs ([email protected]), and comparing their tribological properties with those of pristine CDs. In this work we describe a simple one-pot synthesis of CDs and doped CDs, and examine their tribological properties as potential lubricants. It is suggested that doping of CDs with various elements can give them desired properties for anti-wear and extreme-pressure performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research in Nanolubricants)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanocomposite of Poly(l-Lactic Acid) with Inorganic Nanotubes of WS2
Lubricants 2019, 7(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7030028 - 25 Mar 2019
Abstract
Composites of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) reinforced by adding inorganic nanotubes of tungsten disulfide (INT–WS2) were prepared by solvent casting. In addition to the pristine nanotubes, PLLA nanocomposites containing surface modified nanotubes were studied as well. Several surface-active agents, including [...] Read more.
Composites of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) reinforced by adding inorganic nanotubes of tungsten disulfide (INT–WS2) were prepared by solvent casting. In addition to the pristine nanotubes, PLLA nanocomposites containing surface modified nanotubes were studied as well. Several surface-active agents, including polyethylene imine (PEI), were studied in this context. In addition, other biocompatible polymers, like poly d,l-lactic acid (PDLLA) and others were considered in combination with the INT–WS2. The nanotubes were added to the polymer in different proportions up to 3 wt %. The dispersion of the nanotubes in the nanocomposites were analyzed by several techniques, including X-ray tomography microscopy (Micro-XCT). Moreover, high-temperature rheological measurements of the molten polymer were conducted. In contrast to other nanoparticles, which lead to a considerable increase of the viscosity of the molten polymer, the WS2 nanotubes did not affect the viscosity significantly. They did not affect the complex viscosity of the molten PLLA phase, either. The mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposites were found to improve considerably by adding the nanotubes. A direct correlation was observed between the dispersion of the nanotubes in the polymer matrix and its mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research in Nanolubricants)
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Properties of ZnS(NH2CH2CH2NH2)0.5 and ZnS as Additives in Lithium Grease
Lubricants 2019, 7(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7030026 - 20 Mar 2019
Abstract
The layered compound ZnS(NH2CH2CH2NH2)0.5 was evaluated as an additive in grease with different concentrations by using a four-ball tribometer. Results show that ZnS(NH2CH2CH2NH2)0.5 grease has [...] Read more.
The layered compound ZnS(NH2CH2CH2NH2)0.5 was evaluated as an additive in grease with different concentrations by using a four-ball tribometer. Results show that ZnS(NH2CH2CH2NH2)0.5 grease has good load bearing ability and excellent anti-wear properties. ZnS(NH2CH2CH2NH2)0.5 revealed better wear resistance than that of ZnS under all test conditions. The reason for this may be that the two-dimensional structure of ZnS(NH2CH2CH2NH2)0.5, with larger interspaces, facilitates an easier sliding process, improving the anti-wear performance. The mechanism was estimated through analysis of the worn surface with SEM, EDS, 3D, and XPS. XPS analysis results show that the tribofilm was mainly composed of FeS, ZnS, ZnO, FexOy, Feu(SO4)v, and ZnSO4. Owing to the simple synthetic method and superior tribological properties as a grease-based additive, ZnS(NH2CH2CH2NH2)0.5 holds great potential for use in demanding industrial applications in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research in Nanolubricants)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) at Different Concentrations on Tribological Properties of Liquid Base Lubricants
Lubricants 2019, 7(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7020011 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nano platelets were used as an additive to enhance friction and wear properties of oil-based lubricants by preparing three samples at 0.01% w/w, 0.05% w/w, and 0.1% w/w [...] Read more.
In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nano platelets were used as an additive to enhance friction and wear properties of oil-based lubricants by preparing three samples at 0.01% w/w, 0.05% w/w, and 0.1% w/w concentrations. To analyze the direct effect of rGO nano platelets on tribological properties, 99.9% pure oil was used as a liquid lubricant. A comparative tribological study was done by performing a ball-on-disk wear test in situ under harsh conditions, which was further analyzed using a non-contact 3D optical profilometer. Morphological evaluation of the scar was done using transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) at micro and nano levels. The lubricants’ physical properties, such as viscosity and oxidation number, were evaluated and compared for all samples including pure oil (control sample) as per ASTM standards. Findings of all these tests show that adding rGO nano platelets at 0.05% w/w showed significant reduction in friction at high speed and in wear up to 51.85%, which is very promising for increasing the life span of moving surfaces in machinery. Oxidation and viscosity tests also proved that adding rGO nano platelets to all samples does not sacrifice the physical properties of the lubricant, while it improves friction and wear properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research in Nanolubricants)
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