Immunity in Viral or Bacterial Infections

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Physiology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (6 June 2023) | Viewed by 10642

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an 271018, China
Interests: mitophagy; immunity; viral infection; bacteria infection
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3G 1Y6, Canada
Interests: innate immunity; viral infection; bacterial infection; mitophagy
College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nan Chang, Jiangxi, China
Interests: immunity; viral infection; bacteria infection

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biological immunity can refer to constitutive physical innate mechanisms, such as the physical protection afforded against infections by skin, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells against virus-infected cells, or the natural resistance of mice to the diphtheria toxin because of their absence of a receptor for that toxin. Immunity can also be innate but inducible, as in the antiviral state induced by exposure to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Finally, immunity to specific microbes can be acquired during the lifetime of an individual by infection or vaccination.

There are too many papers to study that concern immunity and viral or bacterial infections; however, we still do not know about some other processes of immunity in bacterial and viral infections in animals or humans as well as potential signaling mechanisms. Additionally, some “secrets” remain unknown in regard to the specific interactions between immune responses and bacterial or viral infections in animals and humans.

In this research topic, we welcome manuscripts from the following subtopics:

  • Processes of immunity during infections in animals and humans;
  • Physiological role of immunity during animal and human infections;
  • The mechanism of activated or inhibited immune cell functions in animals and humans;
  • The relationship between immune responses and animals during infections in animals and humans;
  • Effects of supplemental trace elements, prebiotics, or probiotics on immunity in animal and human infectious diseases.

Dr. Jianzhu Liu
Dr. Rui Li
Dr. Ping Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Life is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • acquired immunity
  • innate immunity
  • viral infection
  • bacterial infection

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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24 pages, 33326 KiB  
Article
Bridging Pyroptosis and Immunity: A Comprehensive Study of the Pyroptosis-Related Long Non-Coding RNA Signature in Breast Cancer
by Ye Tian, Jing Dong and Lin Li
Life 2023, 13(7), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071599 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Breast cancer continuously poses serious clinical challenges to human health due to its intrinsic heterogenicity and evolving drug resistance. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that pyroptosis, known as a programmed and inflammatory form of cell death, participates in tumorigenesis, progression, and remodeling of [...] Read more.
Breast cancer continuously poses serious clinical challenges to human health due to its intrinsic heterogenicity and evolving drug resistance. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that pyroptosis, known as a programmed and inflammatory form of cell death, participates in tumorigenesis, progression, and remodeling of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). However, a comprehensive insight into pyroptosis-related signatures for breast cancer remains elusive. The current study established a pyroptosis-related lncRNA signature using transcriptome data and corresponding clinical information from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Pyroptosis-related gene clusters, the associated differential expression in breast cancer patients’ subtypes, and the potential mechanisms were all discussed. This integrative analysis revealed a unique signature underpinning the dichotomy of breast cancer progression and survival outcomes. Interestingly, the pyroptosis-related lncRNA signature was revealed as closely intertwined with the TIME. A correlation was established between the pyroptosis-related LncRNA signature and the TIME, underlying the mutual effect between pyroptosis and the immune responses implicated in breast cancer. The findings in this work underline the critical role exerted by pyroptosis in breast cancer, providing new insights into disease progression, prognosis, and therapeutic potential. This work has been poised to provide new avenues for personalized, immune-based cancer therapeutics by enhancing our understanding of pyroptosis in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity in Viral or Bacterial Infections)
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12 pages, 2814 KiB  
Article
A Ferroptosis-Related lncRNAs Signature Predicts Prognosis of Colon Adenocarcinoma
by Ying Guo, Zehao Wang, Ye Tian, Lin Li and Jing Dong
Life 2023, 13(7), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071557 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1287
Abstract
(1) Ferroptosis is a type of cellular death caused by lipid-dependent iron peroxide, which plays a major role in cancer. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key regulating substances in ferroptosis; (2) RNA sequencing expressions and clinical data of 519 patients [...] Read more.
(1) Ferroptosis is a type of cellular death caused by lipid-dependent iron peroxide, which plays a major role in cancer. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key regulating substances in ferroptosis; (2) RNA sequencing expressions and clinical data of 519 patients with colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The expression levels of lncRNAs related to ferroptosis were screened with Pearson correlation analysis. Differential genes were enriched with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. LncRNAs related to ferroptosis were determined with univariate Cox regression and multivariate Cox regression analyses, and patients with COAD were classified into high- and low-risk subgroups according to their median risk score. The prognostic value was further examined, and the association between ferroptosis-related lncRNAs (frlncRNAs) and survival in patients with high and low risks of COAD was validated. A TCGA–COAD data set was used for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) to assess prediction accuracy. Finally, a nomogram was constructed to predict survival probability; (3) We obtained a model consisting of a five-frlncRNAs signature comprising AP003555.1, AP001469.3, ITGB1-DT, AC129492.1, and AC010973.2 for determining the overall survival (OS) of patients with COAD. The survival analysis and ROC curves showed that the model had good robustness and predictive performance on the TCGA training set; (4) We found that a five-frlncRNAs signature may play a potential role in anti-COAD immunity. Risk characteristics based on frlncRNAs can accurately predict the prognosis and immunotherapy response of patients with COAD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity in Viral or Bacterial Infections)
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11 pages, 2360 KiB  
Article
The Protective Effect of Lycium Ruthenicum Murr Anthocyanins in Cr (VI)-Induced Mitophagy in DF-1 Cells
by Shuhua Guo, Mengzhu Qi, Hongyan Li, Yukun Cui, Changxi Qi, Guodong Cheng, Meiyun Lv, Pimiao Zheng and Jianzhu Liu
Life 2022, 12(8), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12081115 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Cr (VI) is an extremely toxic environment and professional pollutant that seriously damages mitochondrial dysfunction when it enters a cell. Anthocyanins possess anti-oxidant, antiaging, and antifatigue properties. The regulatory effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr anthocyanin (LRMA) on Cr (VI)-induced mitophagy in DF-1 cells [...] Read more.
Cr (VI) is an extremely toxic environment and professional pollutant that seriously damages mitochondrial dysfunction when it enters a cell. Anthocyanins possess anti-oxidant, antiaging, and antifatigue properties. The regulatory effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr anthocyanin (LRMA) on Cr (VI)-induced mitophagy in DF-1 cells was determined. The experimental design was divided into blank group, groups subjected to Cr (VI) and Cr (VI), and LRMA co-treatment groups. Cell viability was determined by the CCK-8 assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Mitophagy was monitored by ELISA and Western blot. Data showed that Cr (VI) caused the overexpression of autophagy-related proteins (LC3, Beclin-1) and reduced the expressions of autophagy protein p62 and TOMM20. Compared with the Cr (VI) group, the LRMA group showed considerably decreased mitochondrial damage and mitophagy. LRMA decreased the mitochondrial protein expression of PINK1 and Parkin’s transfer from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. LRMA may confer protective effects by reducing PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in Cr (VI)-induced DF-1 cell models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity in Viral or Bacterial Infections)
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Review

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13 pages, 269 KiB  
Review
Tocilizumab for Severe COVID-19 Infection and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults and Children
by Amber N. Edinoff, Edward Sanders Alpaugh, Olivia Newgaard, Irza Wajid, Rachel J. Klapper, Elyse M. Cornett, Adam M. Kaye, Praneet Iyer and Alan D. Kaye
Life 2023, 13(4), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040889 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly emerged as a global pandemic, placing imminent stress and burden on healthcare resources and workers worldwide. Many patients who present with a severe COVID-19 infection are at high risk of developing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly emerged as a global pandemic, placing imminent stress and burden on healthcare resources and workers worldwide. Many patients who present with a severe COVID-19 infection are at high risk of developing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to a vast number of patients requiring mechanical ventilation and a high mortality rate. Similar to Middle East respiratory syndrome, COVID-19 demonstrates an initial viral replication phase that manifests as a variety of symptoms typically flu-like in nature, followed by a profound inflammatory response leading to rapid production of cytokines and uncontrolled inflammation. There have also been many cases of COVID-19 in pediatric patients presenting with elevated inflammatory markers and multisystem involvement labeled as a multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) by the world health organization (WHO). The recent treatment of systemic inflammatory response to COVID-19 targets the secondary phase involving cytokine release syndrome. The detrimental effects of IL-6 can be profound and elevated levels are associated with a higher mortality rate and mechanical ventilation. Tocilizumab is an IL-6 inhibitor most widely investigated to target cytokine storm syndrome. Since June 2021, the FDA enacted an emergency use authorization for tocilizumab in the treatment of COVID-19. Several clinical trials have investigated tocilizumab combined with corticosteroids for treating severe ARDS associated with COVID-19. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that targeting the cytokine storm syndrome related to COVID-19 can lead to improved outcomes, especially in those patients requiring mechanical ventilation and with a critical illness. Additional studies are warranted to further look at the positive effects of tocilizumab in the COVID-19 population while additionally defining possible adverse effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity in Viral or Bacterial Infections)
25 pages, 704 KiB  
Review
Contribution of Lactobacilli on Intestinal Mucosal Barrier and Diseases: Perspectives and Challenges of Lactobacillus casei
by Da Qin, Yixuan Ma, Yanhong Wang, Xilin Hou and Liyun Yu
Life 2022, 12(11), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111910 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3365
Abstract
The intestine barrier, the front line of normal body defense, relies on its structural integrity, microbial composition and barrier immunity. The intestinal mucosal surface is continuously exposed to a complex and dynamic community of microorganisms. Although it occupies a relatively small proportion of [...] Read more.
The intestine barrier, the front line of normal body defense, relies on its structural integrity, microbial composition and barrier immunity. The intestinal mucosal surface is continuously exposed to a complex and dynamic community of microorganisms. Although it occupies a relatively small proportion of the intestinal microbiota, Lactobacilli has been discovered to have a significant impact on the intestine tract in previous studies. It is undeniable that some Lactobacillus strains present probiotic properties through maintaining the micro-ecological balance via different mechanisms, such as mucosal barrier function and barrier immunity, to prevent infection and even to solve some neurology issues by microbiota–gut–brain/liver/lung axis communication. Notably, not only living cells but also Lactobacillus derivatives (postbiotics: soluble secreted products and para-probiotics: cell structural components) may exert antipathogenic effects and beneficial functions for the gut mucosal barrier. However, substantial research on specific effects, safety and action mechanisms in vivo should be done. In clinical application of humans and animals, there are still doubts about the precise evaluation of Lactobacilli’s safety, therapeutic effect, dosage and other aspects. Therefore, we provide an overview of central issues on the impacts of Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and their products on the intestinal mucosal barrier and some diseases and highlight the urgent need for further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity in Viral or Bacterial Infections)
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