Non-invasive Skin Imaging Development and Applications

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Radiobiology and Nuclear Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (23 September 2023) | Viewed by 10085

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Centre for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology, University of Coimbra, Polo 3 Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: disease biomarkers; innovative therapies; nanotechnology; non-invasive imaging; metabolic imaging; multiphoton tomography; two-photon microscopy; second-harmonic generation; FLIM; optical coherence tomography; optical coherence elastography

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Biophotonics and Laser Technology, Saarland University, Campus Dudweiler, Am Markt Zeile 5, 66125 Saarbrücken, Germany
2. JenLab GmbH, Johann-Hittorf-Strasse 8, 12489 Berlin, Germany
Interests: multiphoton tomography; two photon microscopy; laser transfection; laser nanoprocessing; laser tweezers; femtosecond laser; FLIM, biophotonics; metabolic imaging; skin; skin diagnosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Not only is the skin the largest organ of the body, but it also plays a critical role in protecting our bodies from environmental factors. However, various skin conditions can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Non-invasive skin examination is essential for the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of various dermatological conditions. Thanks to recent advances in skin imaging technologies, we now have access to novel imaging modalities capable of providing high-resolution images of skin structure and function.

Multiphoton tomography, reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and photoacoustic imaging are some of the most promising non-invasive skin examination techniques that have emerged in recent years. These imaging modalities have been proven to be useful in the diagnosis of various skin diseases, such as skin cancer, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, as well as in the evaluation of the effects of topical cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In addition, optical coherence elastography has shown remarkable potential in the study of skin elastic properties.

This Special Issue, edited by Dr. Ana Batista and Prof. Dr. Karsten König, aims to deepen our understanding of the development and application of imaging techniques for skin examination. It will focus on the latest advances in skin imaging technologies and their potential applications, mainly in medical and cosmetic fields.

This Special Issue is now open for submissions. Join us as we explore the exciting world of non-invasive skin examination techniques and their vast potential to improve our understanding and treatment of various skin conditions.

Dr. Ana Batista
Dr. Karsten Konig
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • skin
  • skin diseases
  • skin cancer
  • inflammatory diseases
  • cosmetics
  • skin care
  • aging
  • non-invasive imaging
  • multiphoton tomography
  • two-photon microscopy
  • reflectance confocal microscopy
  • optical coherence tomography
  • optical coherence elastography
  • photoacoustic microscopy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 6829 KiB  
Communication
A 20 MHz Repetition Rate, Sub-Picosecond Ti–Sapphire Laser for Fiber Delivery in Nonlinear Microscopy of the Skin
by Ádám Krolopp, Luca Fésűs, Gergely Szipőcs, Norbert Wikonkál and Róbert Szipőcs
Life 2024, 14(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14020231 - 7 Feb 2024
Viewed by 876
Abstract
Nonlinear microscopy (NM) enables us to investigate the morphology or monitor the physiological processes of the skin through the use of ultrafast lasers. Fiber (or fiber-coupled) lasers are of great interest because they can easily be combined with a handheld, scanning nonlinear microscope. [...] Read more.
Nonlinear microscopy (NM) enables us to investigate the morphology or monitor the physiological processes of the skin through the use of ultrafast lasers. Fiber (or fiber-coupled) lasers are of great interest because they can easily be combined with a handheld, scanning nonlinear microscope. This latter feature greatly increases the utility of NM for pre-clinical applications and in vivo tissue imaging. Here, we present a fiber-coupled, sub-ps Ti–sapphire laser system being optimized for in vivo, stain-free, 3D imaging of skin alterations with a low thermal load of the skin. The laser is pumped by a low-cost, 2.1 W, 532 nm pump laser and delivers 0.5–1 ps, high-peak-power pulses at a ~20 MHz repetition rate. The spectral bandwidth of the laser is below 2 nm, which results in a low sensitivity for dispersion during fiber delivery. The reduction in the peak intensity due to the increased pulse duration is compensated by the lower repetition rate of our laser. In our proof-of-concept imaging experiments, a ~1.8 m long, commercial hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber was used for fiber delivery. Fresh and frozen skin biopsies of different skin alterations (e.g., adult hemangioma, basal cell cancer) and an unaffected control were used for high-quality, two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (2PEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) z-stack (3D) imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Skin Imaging Development and Applications)
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16 pages, 9988 KiB  
Article
Line-Field Confocal Optical Coherence Tomography (LC-OCT) for Skin Imaging in Dermatology
by Flora Latriglia, Jonas Ogien, Clara Tavernier, Sébastien Fischman, Mariano Suppa, Jean-Luc Perrot and Arnaud Dubois
Life 2023, 13(12), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13122268 - 28 Nov 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique based on a combination of the principles of optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy with line-field illumination, which can generate cell-resolved images of the skin in vivo. This article reports [...] Read more.
Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique based on a combination of the principles of optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy with line-field illumination, which can generate cell-resolved images of the skin in vivo. This article reports on the LC-OCT technique and its application in dermatology. The principle of the technique is described, and the latest technological innovations are presented. The technology has been miniaturized to fit within an ergonomic handheld probe, allowing for the easy access of any skin area on the body. The performance of the LC-OCT device in terms of resolution, field of view, and acquisition speed is reported. The use of LC-OCT in dermatology for the non-invasive detection, characterization, and therapeutic follow-up of various skin pathologies is discussed. Benign and malignant melanocytic lesions, non-melanocytic skin tumors, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, and inflammatory and infectious skin conditions are considered. Dedicated deep learning algorithms have been developed for assisting in the analysis of LC-OCT images of skin lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Skin Imaging Development and Applications)
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12 pages, 2695 KiB  
Article
Thermoregulation in Two Models of Trail Run Socks with Different Fabric Separation
by Juan Francisco Moran-Cortes, Beatriz Gómez-Martín, Elena Escamilla-Martínez, Raquel Sánchez-Rodríguez, Álvaro Gómez-Carrión and Alfonso Martínez-Nova
Life 2023, 13(8), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13081768 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Background: Trail running socks with the same fibers and design but with different separations of their three-dimensional waves could have different thermoregulatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the temperatures reflected on the sole of the foot after a [...] Read more.
Background: Trail running socks with the same fibers and design but with different separations of their three-dimensional waves could have different thermoregulatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the temperatures reflected on the sole of the foot after a mountain race with the use of two models of socks with different wave separations. Material and Methods: In a sample of 34 subjects (twenty-seven men and seven women), the plantar temperature was analyzed with the thermal imaging camera Flir E60bx® (Flir systems, Wilsonville, OR, USA) before and after running 14 km in mountainous terrain at a hot temperature of 27 °C. Each group of 17 runners ran with a different model of separation between the waves of the tissue (2 mm versus 1 mm). After conducting the post-exercise thermographic analysis, a Likert-type survey was conducted to evaluate the physiological characteristics of both types of socks. Results: There was a significant increase in temperature in all areas of interest (p < 0.001) after a 14 km running distance with the two models of socks. The hallux zone increased in temperature the most after the race, with temperatures of 8.19 ± 3.1 °C and 7.46 ± 2.1 °C for the AWC 2.2 and AWC 3, respectively. However, no significant differences in temperature increases were found in any of the areas analyzed between the two groups. Runners perceived significant differences in thermal sensation between AWC 2.2 socks with 4.41 ± 0.62 points and AWC 3 with 3.76 ± 1.03 points (p = 0.034). Conclusion: Both models had a similar thermoregulatory effect on the soles of the feet, so they can be used interchangeably in short-distance mountain races. The perceived sensation of increased thermal comfort does not correspond to the temperature data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Skin Imaging Development and Applications)
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9 pages, 781 KiB  
Communication
Thermal Differences in the Plantar Surface Skin of the Foot after Using Three Different Lining Materials for Plantar Orthotics
by Esther Querol-Martínez, Artur Crespo-Martínez, Beatriz Gómez-Martín, Elena Escamilla-Martínez, Alfonso Martínez-Nova and Raquel Sánchez-Rodríguez
Life 2023, 13(7), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071493 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1149
Abstract
The lining materials of plantar orthoses are chosen for their hardness, breathability, and moisture absorption, but without there being any clear scientific criterion. Thermographic analysis would provide information about the thermal response of the sole of the foot, and would thereby allow the [...] Read more.
The lining materials of plantar orthoses are chosen for their hardness, breathability, and moisture absorption, but without there being any clear scientific criterion. Thermographic analysis would provide information about the thermal response of the sole of the foot, and would thereby allow the choice to be adapted in accordance with this criterion. The objective of this study was to evaluate plantar temperatures after the use of three materials with different characteristics. Plantar temperatures were analyzed by using a FLIR E60BX thermographic camera on 36 participants (15 men and 21 women, 24.6 ± 8.2 years old, 67.1 ± 13.6 kg, and 1.7 ± 0.09 m). Measurements were made before and after (3 h) the use of three lining materials for plantar orthoses (Material 1: PE copolymer; Material 2: EVA; Material 3: PE–EVA copolymer) on different days. For Material 1 (PE), the temperature under the heel was significantly higher after exercise, increasing from 30.8 ± 2.9 °C to 31.9 ± 2.8 °C (p = 0.008), and negative correlations were found between room temperature and the pre/post temperature difference for the big toe (r = −0.342, p = 0.041) and the 1st metatarsal head (r = −0.334, p = 0.046). No significant pre/post temperature differences were found with the other materials. The three materials thermoregulated the plantar surface efficiently by maintaining the skin temperature at levels similar to those evaluated before exercise. If PE is used as a lining material, it should be avoided for the heel area in patients with hyperhidrosis or those with a tendency to suffer from skin pathologies due to excess moisture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Skin Imaging Development and Applications)
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Review

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33 pages, 2848 KiB  
Review
Automatic Skin Cancer Detection Using Clinical Images: A Comprehensive Review
by Sana Nazari and Rafael Garcia
Life 2023, 13(11), 2123; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13112123 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 3989
Abstract
Skin cancer has become increasingly common over the past decade, with melanoma being the most aggressive type. Hence, early detection of skin cancer and melanoma is essential in dermatology. Computational methods can be a valuable tool for assisting dermatologists in identifying skin cancer. [...] Read more.
Skin cancer has become increasingly common over the past decade, with melanoma being the most aggressive type. Hence, early detection of skin cancer and melanoma is essential in dermatology. Computational methods can be a valuable tool for assisting dermatologists in identifying skin cancer. Most research in machine learning for skin cancer detection has focused on dermoscopy images due to the existence of larger image datasets. However, general practitioners typically do not have access to a dermoscope and must rely on naked-eye examinations or standard clinical images. By using standard, off-the-shelf cameras to detect high-risk moles, machine learning has also proven to be an effective tool. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of image-processing techniques for skin cancer detection using clinical images. In this study, we evaluate 51 state-of-the-art articles that have used machine learning methods to detect skin cancer over the past decade, focusing on clinical datasets. Even though several studies have been conducted in this field, there are still few publicly available clinical datasets with sufficient data that can be used as a benchmark, especially when compared to the existing dermoscopy databases. In addition, we observed that the available artifact removal approaches are not quite adequate in some cases and may also have a negative impact on the models. Moreover, the majority of the reviewed articles are working with single-lesion images and do not consider typical mole patterns and temporal changes in the lesions of each patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Skin Imaging Development and Applications)
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