Special Issue "Preservation, Reuse and Reveal of Cultural Heritage through Sustainable Land Management, Rural and Urban Development"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Land Socio-Economic and Political Issues".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 16757

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonia Moropoulou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou str, 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: Preservation and conservation of Cultural Heritage; Building materials; Non-destructive testing; Environmental assessment and management; Sustainability of built environment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Charalabos Ioannidis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Photogrammetry, School of Rural, Surveying and Geoinformatics Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: cultural heritage geometric documentation; HBIM; multi-dimensional modelling; city modelling; change detection; data fusion; photogrammetry; land management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Ekaterini Delegou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str, 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: cultural heritage; building materials; nondestructive testing; sustainable development; environmental management; GIS
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cultural heritage contributes considerably to promoting economic, social and territory cohesion, as it enhances locals’ identity and appreciation for their land and its history.

However, cultural heritage is exposed to multiple risks due to ageing, adverse environmental conditions, and human pressure. As the environmental crisis is emphasized by intense climatic changes and extreme natural hazards, new demands on preservation strategies arise to remediate and prevent damage on cultural heritage. At the same time, and despite cultural tourism is acknowledged and is being promoted over the last decades as a regional and national development tool by many countries, it has recently been transformed to overtourism at several cases. In contrast, there are urban or rural areas, unable to assure a satisfactory standard of living for their population, facing underdevelopment and population decrease, even if these areas are rich in cultural reserve.

To diminish these kinds of inequalities within urban matrices and/or regions, innovative methodologies and successfully applied expertise strategies are required, especially nowadays where technological advances in Remote sensing/GIS tools can be a significant support.

Cultural heritage can be used as a growth pole for underdeveloped areas, whereas in overdeveloped areas alteration of socio-spatial patterns can lead to the improvement of cultural sites safeguarding and locals’ life quality. Whatever the case is, the principles of sustainability and circular economy can play a key role on land management and urban/rural development for achieving the goals of revitalization and balanced economic growth.

Accordingly, this special issue aims to contribute to the literature of “the nexus: cultural heritage preservation – sustainable urban/rural land management - local society enhancement - economic growth”, to shed light on this multi-variant and complex scientific area, suggesting viable and novel resolving strategies.

Prof. Dr. Antonia Moropoulou
Prof. Dr. Charalabos Ioannidis
Dr. Ekaterini Delegou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable development
  • remote sensing
  • 3D modeling
  • spatial planning
  • GIS/HBIM
  • cultural routes
  • tangible/intangible cultural heritage
  • historical settlements
  • historical cities
  • circular economy
  • cultural tourism
  • environmental management

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Greek Urban Policy Reform through the Local Urban Plans (LUPs) and the Special Urban Plans (SUPs), Funded by Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF)
Land 2022, 11(8), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081231 - 03 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
The lack of defined land uses in most parts of Greece (80%) has led to multiple environmental problems and phenomena of informal (arbitrary) construction with secondary side effects, such as a lack of basic technical and environmental infrastructure, unfair competition among private investors, [...] Read more.
The lack of defined land uses in most parts of Greece (80%) has led to multiple environmental problems and phenomena of informal (arbitrary) construction with secondary side effects, such as a lack of basic technical and environmental infrastructure, unfair competition among private investors, the strengthening of climate change (increase in the number of urban diffusion) and the decline of natural and cultural resources. The Greek urban policy, over the last 100 years, has not succeeded in limiting these problems and for that reason the new Law 4759/2020 is expected to promote the development of a more efficient spatial planning system reform implemented through the Local Urban Plans (LUPs) and the Special Urban Plans (SUPs) that are funded by the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF). These programs will contribute to the preservation of cultural heritage and to the development of productive activities at both local and national levels, especially on the sectors of renewable energy sources, the circular economy, and the construction of “green” materials, digital applications and products etc. LUPs and SUPs are related to the holistic reform of the national urban policy and the relevant planning system that horizontally affects a wide range of policy areas such as: environmental protection and adaptation to climate change (for natural ecosystems and biodiversity; agriculture; forestry; fisheries; water resources; coastal zones), built environment and development, protection of historic sites and buildings, allocation of the public infrastructure, allocation of investments etc. The General Secretariat of Spatial Planning and Urban Environment Ministry of Environment and Energy has the main responsibility for the implementation procedures of all the proposed actions that will start in 2022 and will end in 2026. This paper focuses on the analysis of the current urban policy reform in Greece and the reasons that this reform is considered an immediate necessity in the current Greek urban legislative framework and the expected outcomes of LUPs and SUPs, which are examined in the literature for the first time, contributing to research on the present EU planning systems. Full article
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Article
Reuse of Historic Buildings in the Medieval City of Rhodes to Comply with the Needs of Sustainable Urban Development
Land 2022, 11(8), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081214 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
This paper illustrates a study for the reuse of selected historic buildings in the Medieval City of Rhodes in Greece. This study contributes to the understanding and interpretation of the chronological sequence of major intervention programs for the preservation of the Medieval City. [...] Read more.
This paper illustrates a study for the reuse of selected historic buildings in the Medieval City of Rhodes in Greece. This study contributes to the understanding and interpretation of the chronological sequence of major intervention programs for the preservation of the Medieval City. The main idea of the project is the spatial distribution of compatible and various uses to reveal the unique character of the Medieval City. Spatial planning is proposed within the preserved urban zones in order to optimize and harmonize the selected uses according to the needs of sustainable urban development. Criteria to assess the compatible uses that ensure the features and architectural characteristics of the preselected historic buildings, located within the city fabric, were established and validated. The developed methodology that is presented herein and is an indispensable part of a pilot project may be applicable to other cases concerning historic cities. Finally, this paper aims to present a pilot program which promotes the reuse of historic buildings as a part of an integrated preservation plan. Inter-disciplinarity has set the basis for effective policies to guide and control the proposed pilot program, with ultimate objective to ensure sustainable preservation of the Medieval City of Rhodes. Full article
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Article
A Technical Tool for Urban Upgrading: An Application for Cultural Heritage Preservation and Planning for Affordable Housing
Land 2022, 11(8), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081197 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 739
Abstract
A technical tool to support projects for urban reforms and the implementation of current land policies is presented together with an example for its application in a project concerning the preservation of privately-owned residential buildings listed as “protected” cultural heritage (CH) constructions, urban [...] Read more.
A technical tool to support projects for urban reforms and the implementation of current land policies is presented together with an example for its application in a project concerning the preservation of privately-owned residential buildings listed as “protected” cultural heritage (CH) constructions, urban planning and planning for affordable housing provision. The projects should be based on the voluntary participation of current property owners and an agreement signed between them and the private developer (team of professionals), so that the project will be self-financed through value capture measures to be decided by the state. The application presented here is based on the assumption that the state, by example, has set the rules for an increase in FAR in order to apply affordable housing policy and the preservation of listed CH residential private constructions. The state also provides the rules for identifying the target group of beneficiaries for affordable housing. Current property owners contribute the land, while the developer’s team undertakes all project costs. New property units are shared accordingly with the developer, the current owners and the beneficiaries for affordable housing. No additional public funds for the “affordable housing” units or for expropriation of the protected CH buildings is required. Full article
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Article
A Blended Finance Framework for Heritage-Led Urban Regeneration
Land 2022, 11(8), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081154 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 861
Abstract
The inclusion of heritage conservation in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals for 2030, target 11.4, stimulated a broad dialogue among heritage conservation practitioners intent on framing a meaningful role for heritage assets in historic built environments as contributors to sustainable development. Heritage-led [...] Read more.
The inclusion of heritage conservation in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals for 2030, target 11.4, stimulated a broad dialogue among heritage conservation practitioners intent on framing a meaningful role for heritage assets in historic built environments as contributors to sustainable development. Heritage-led regeneration positively impacts many aspects of society, community life, and the public realm, and can also play an important role in reaching zero-carbon environmental conservation goals by slowing the extraction of natural resources for construction, reducing the quantity of building materials sent to landfills, and using traditional technologies and knowledge to reduce operational energy use. Heritage regeneration can also be a strong contributor to economic growth, as restored and reused properties create wealth, serve as community social magnets, and attract prestige and visitors. However, there is little progress towards positioning heritage conservation as a focal point for multilateral public-private co-financing projects and partnerships. In 2021, the Cultural Heritage Finance Alliance (CHiFA) published research about successful models of urban heritage regeneration that engage public-private cooperation. CHiFA now presents a process, developed as part of a study commissioned by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), for advancing projects that maximize investment in heritage-led urban regeneration, matching financing strategies with local opportunities, legal frameworks, enabling tools, and the requirements of prospective investors. The result is a marketplace and ecosystem that support civic and community interests through long-term, multi-party collaboration using blended capital investment in heritage as a sustainable development strategy. Full article
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Article
The Guidance and Control of Urban Planning for Reuse of Industrial Heritage: A Study of Nanjing
Land 2022, 11(6), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060852 - 05 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
Industrial heritage is among the products of modern urban development, and the influencing factors of its regeneration and development are often complex. Due to different national conditions, the research progress and approaches in industrial heritage reuse in China are different from other countries. [...] Read more.
Industrial heritage is among the products of modern urban development, and the influencing factors of its regeneration and development are often complex. Due to different national conditions, the research progress and approaches in industrial heritage reuse in China are different from other countries. While industrial heritage sites in Europe have become part of urban redevelopment in several regions, China still focuses mostly on single objects, lacking systematic analysis, especially at the urban scale. Regarding the city of Nanjing, an operational approach to complex urban dynamics is proposed based on a simplified analysis of official statistics, maps and GIS technology. The influence mechanisms of Nanjing’s urban planning on industrial heritage regeneration and development after 1990 are analyzed. The results show that urban growth boundaries, traffic accessibility, eco-environmental policies, population distribution, industrial renovation investment and natural resource change all have a significant impact on the abandonment and regeneration of Nanjing industrial heritage. This study expands the research perspective of industrial heritage reuse in China and proposes a clearer systematic planning strategy for the future of industrial heritage in cities. Full article
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Article
Frontier of Rural Revitalization in China: A Spatial Analysis of National Rural Tourist Towns
by , and
Land 2022, 11(6), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060812 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1190
Abstract
As the national economic situation improves, concerns about rural issues in China, a large agricultural country, are gradually increasing. Hence, rural tourism has been thrust into the limelight. This research is based on the National Rural Tourist Towns of China (NRTTC). It aims [...] Read more.
As the national economic situation improves, concerns about rural issues in China, a large agricultural country, are gradually increasing. Hence, rural tourism has been thrust into the limelight. This research is based on the National Rural Tourist Towns of China (NRTTC). It aims to analyze the spatial structure, influencing factors and their relevance to rural tourism development. Initially, this research examines the spatial distribution pattern in terms of kernel density. Subsequently, the imbalance index and Lorenz curve are used to distinguish the differences in spatial distribution. The Gini coefficient is used to explore the clustered regional distribution. The results indicate the following: (1) the number of NRTTC in each province is relatively even; and (2) the spatial distribution is highly uneven. The degree of aggregation is bounded by the Hu Huanyong boundary, with more in the southeast and less in the northwest. The capital circle is the core density area. Additionally, those NRTTC in the eastern and southeastern regions have a large distribution density and a more comprehensive radiation range. This study additionally analyzed the factors influencing the spatial distribution characteristics of NRTTC, and found four crucial aspects, namely, the national development strategy, the social environment, the geographical environment, and historical development. This research can provide a reference for the construction of rural tourist towns in different countries and regions. Full article
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Article
Balancing Cultural Heritage Conservation: Visual Integrity Assessment to Support Change Management in the Buffer Zone of Chiang Mai Historic City Using GIS and Computer-Generated 3D Modeling
Land 2022, 11(5), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11050666 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
The cultural landscape of Chiang Mai city, which is characterized by the interlinkage between mountain and historical settlement, has faced the adverse impacts of visual intrusion in its buffer zone from urbanization. However, there are challenges to creating a quantitative visual evaluation for [...] Read more.
The cultural landscape of Chiang Mai city, which is characterized by the interlinkage between mountain and historical settlement, has faced the adverse impacts of visual intrusion in its buffer zone from urbanization. However, there are challenges to creating a quantitative visual evaluation for decision making in response to rapid urban change. This study evaluated the impact of building height on the city skyline and utilized existing cultural heritage locations on the mountain to define a protected visual zone while conducting a 3D-GIS-based visibility analysis to identify obstruction in three scenarios: the actual condition scenario (ACS) considering current conditions, the land use scenario (LUS) considering the land use ordinance, and the proposed scenario (PPS) considering mountain skyline protection, using computer-generated 3D city modeling. The comparative results from the analysis of viewshed, line of sight, and development area calculations revealed that the number of obstructed locations in the LUS decreased by 48.46%, and in the PPS, they decreased by 77.99%, while the development area increased by similar amounts, demonstrating that the city can grow and develop despite stricter height controls. In addition, based on a visual assessment, this study established a buffer distance and intensity to protect the integrity of the heritage while allowing the city to develop. Full article
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Article
Complex Social Value-Based Approach for Decision-Making and Valorization Process in Chinese World Cultural Heritage Site: The Case of Kulangsu (China)
Land 2022, 11(5), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11050614 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
China is undertaking effective actions to adhere to wider international standards with better consideration of the notion of authenticity, collective memory, identity, and the sense of belonging. Besides the traditional participatory management discussions, scholars are also interested in finding out how the ICTs [...] Read more.
China is undertaking effective actions to adhere to wider international standards with better consideration of the notion of authenticity, collective memory, identity, and the sense of belonging. Besides the traditional participatory management discussions, scholars are also interested in finding out how the ICTs can encourage and enable new forms of engagement with heritage in different cultural contexts. The article offers an innovative approach to understanding the value of community participation in order to obtain a more sustainable way for integrative approaches in cultural heritage management. It focuses on the identification of criteria for the evaluation of Digital Community Engagement (DCE) and proposes the multivariate evaluation model based on the online questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. The result shows that the transparency of the restoration process, the possibility of adopting bottom-up suggestions, and the coherency with the residents’ interests are the most important factors to influence the Willingness to Participate and the Willingness to Pay. The analysis based on theme-coding is essential to understand the opinions of various stakeholders with different educational and professional backgrounds. It concludes that multi-disciplinary and value-based methods should be encouraged as an exploratory way of enhancing community engagement in the specified urban heritage context. Full article
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Article
Derivation Method of Architectural Asset Value Enhancement Zones in South Korea
Land 2022, 11(4), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040584 - 16 Apr 2022
Viewed by 709
Abstract
In June 2014, South Korea enacted a law to systematically preserve and utilize architectural assets to strengthen national competitiveness through the enhancement of architectural culture. An architectural asset value enhancement zone (AAVE) can be designated for an area in which a unique spatial [...] Read more.
In June 2014, South Korea enacted a law to systematically preserve and utilize architectural assets to strengthen national competitiveness through the enhancement of architectural culture. An architectural asset value enhancement zone (AAVE) can be designated for an area in which a unique spatial environment has been created, centered on excellent architectural assets or in which architectural assets are densely concentrated. However, five years after the law was promulgated, while 14 local governments had completed basic investigations of architectural assets, only three had been designated as AAVE zones (as of March 2020). This is because the criteria for non-Hanok architectural assets are unclear, making it difficult to specify the scope of designation. This study aims to present and verify a methodology for deriving more effective AAVE zones. After establishing the criteria for architectural asset candidates, densely populated areas across the country were identified using GIS. Subsequently, a methodology was derived to classify candidate areas for the enhancement zone, based on the locations of these densely populated areas and designated/registered cultural heritage sites. The effectiveness of the methodology was reviewed through an actual area analysis, which indicated that the methodology is highly applicable to AAVE zones. Full article
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Article
Abandoned or Degraded Areas in Historic Cities: The Importance of Multifunctional Reuse for Development through the Example of the Historic Commercial Triangle (Emporiko Trigono) of Athens
Land 2022, 11(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11010114 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1703
Abstract
This article investigates the problem of changing land uses in historical city centers, a problem which often leads to the alteration of their historical, architectural and functional physiognomy, as well as the loss of their inhabitants. It also discusses the importance of land [...] Read more.
This article investigates the problem of changing land uses in historical city centers, a problem which often leads to the alteration of their historical, architectural and functional physiognomy, as well as the loss of their inhabitants. It also discusses the importance of land management and proposes a multifunctional reuse model for sustainable development in abandoned or degraded areas in historic cities. This problem is found in historical centers nowadays, especially in the European South, and many theoretical texts and urban studies deal with the issue. Taking under consideration the case of the Historical “Commercial Triangle” of Athens, this article presents the results of an extensive field work, which led to the mapping and analysis of the neighborhood’s special identity. Subsequently, these results lead to the presentation of the problems caused by the dominating uses of recreation and tourism, which suppress the traditional existing commercial uses and the residency. It concludes by proposing preservation strategies for the reuse and development of the area and emphasizes the importance of a management plan aiming towards the preservation of the historical character of the commercial center and its sustainable development. The work presented in this paper is based on an assignment produced in 2020 for the purposes of the post-graduate course “Protection and Preservation of a historical urban center or settlement”, which is part of the post-graduate program “Protection of Monuments” in the School of Architecture, NTUA. Full article
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Article
Protection and Revealing of Traditional Settlements and Cultural Assets, as a Tool for Sustainable Development: The Case of Kythera Island in Greece
Land 2021, 10(12), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10121324 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
Preserving and highlighting cultural heritage is directly related to sustainable development. The adaptive reuse of cultural heritage buildings and traditional settlements can be a core issue in the implementation of a circular economy strategy, especially in remote areas. In this framework, the current [...] Read more.
Preserving and highlighting cultural heritage is directly related to sustainable development. The adaptive reuse of cultural heritage buildings and traditional settlements can be a core issue in the implementation of a circular economy strategy, especially in remote areas. In this framework, the current study focuses on Kythera, an isolated Greek island. For the analysis of the study area, research in local archives and communication with the municipality and local stakeholders was conducted, while questionnaires addressed to Kythera’s residents and visitors were developed and processed. Thus, both the special features of the island and the needs of the local community were identified, leading to the proposal of three adaptive reuse schemes at a different scale and within a different management model. The first scheme is focused on the institution of “Eghorios Periousia” and proposes the adaptive reuse of the island’s English Schools as focal points for the promotion of Kythera’s identity. The second scheme focuses on the smaller declared traditional settlements and proposes the adaptive reuse of their housing stock as an affordable permanent residence solution. The third scheme focuses on the abandoned neighborhood of Mavrogiorgiannika in the traditional settlement of Karavas and proposes its adaptive reuse as agritourism accommodation facilities. Full article
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Essay
The Restoration of St. James’s Church in Como and the Cathedral Museum as Agents for Sustainable Urban Planning Strategies
Land 2022, 11(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11030375 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
This paper aims at exploring the implementation of sustainability concepts in the Historic Preservation field. It delves into the multiple roles of cultural heritage in fostering and empowering sustainable development processes, understanding cultural heritage as a laboratory for (urban) innovation/creativity. In this sense, [...] Read more.
This paper aims at exploring the implementation of sustainability concepts in the Historic Preservation field. It delves into the multiple roles of cultural heritage in fostering and empowering sustainable development processes, understanding cultural heritage as a laboratory for (urban) innovation/creativity. In this sense, conservation is no longer explored within the traditional disciplinary borders, but it investigates the ways of contributing to the economy and society. This article pursues the Walled City of Como as a case study due to the opportunity of introducing the program of a new museum into the complexity of Como’s historic center. Recently, the center itself has undergone such studies/policies and applied conservation theories/practices. Furthermore, the historic center of Como was analyzed based on a multifaceted literature screening, gathering data on the tourism and real estate trends. In those studies, the crucial role that cultural heritage could take for urban development has been outlined, specifically as an enabler of controlling agencies for gentrification and commodification tendencies and fostering integration and collaboration among the key stakeholders. In terms of implementation of Sustainable Development Goals in the heritage field, the main lesson emerging from the case study is “integration” as a critical tool for such strategies’ feasibility. Full article
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Viewpoint
Narrative-Based Nature of Heritage: Between Myth and Discourses: Case of Šiluva Place-Making in Progress
Land 2022, 11(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11010047 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
The article focuses on the phenomenon of myth, which cannot be seen and may not even exist based on empirical evidence, although it can function as a long-lasting wave inceptor, as demonstrated in numerous cases in history. The singular presence of myth has [...] Read more.
The article focuses on the phenomenon of myth, which cannot be seen and may not even exist based on empirical evidence, although it can function as a long-lasting wave inceptor, as demonstrated in numerous cases in history. The singular presence of myth has no linear time, and the way to approach the concealed mythic meaning that is beyond tales, oral traditions or ritual practices is based on language and narrative. Narrative is how myth manifests itself in the temporal layers of discourse through collective decision-making processes within cultures and in places. The urban cultural heritage seems to be a promising source of understanding of what sort of narrative history has been telling. We emphasize that the closest possible approach to the permanence of myth lies in this subtle between-epoch or between-generational moment wherein the discourse alters. The hermeneutics of repetition within alteration processes is what could be called the narrative of cultural heritage in towns and cities. Development of the physical heritage properties has been touched by a variety of agents, and therefore it must have gathered a nearly unlimited amount of explicit and implicit knowledge. The research further demonstrates how the myth–narrative–discourse interaction affects our understanding of the authenticity of heritage objects, shifting towards a permanent pervading authenticity which could be intensive or extensive in the tangible realm. The case of Šiluva is discussed in order to explain how myth can be used practically in placemaking. Full article
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