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Special Issue "Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2021) | Viewed by 23717

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Diane L. Haase
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetics Resources, Rocky Mountain Research Station, US Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA
Interests: nursery production; seedling quality; reforestation/restoration
Dr. Jeremiah R. Pinto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Moscow, ID 83843, USA
Interests: plant physiology; nursery production; environmental monitoring; environmental biophysics; reforestation/restoration; seedling quality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Owen T. Burney
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Mora, NM 87732, USA
Interests: nursery production; seedling quality; reforestation/restoration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, international leaders have pledged to restore millions of hectares of deforested and degraded lands. Restoring functional, sustainable, and resilient ecosystems can provide multiple ecological, social, and economic benefits. These benefits include: human wellbeing and sustainable livelihoods; wildlife and pollinator habitat; climate change mitigation; biodiversity and gene conservation; urban beautification; soil stabilization and rehabilitation; watershed and fisheries protection; air quality; medicinal and cultural plant availability; recreations; and more. Many effective restoration approaches exist and are applied according to local resources, needs, and environmental conditions. For forest restoration to be successful, however, any short- and long-term biological, logistical, cultural, political, and economical limitations must be evaluated and addressed.

This Special Issue focuses on strategies for innovative and effective approaches to forest restoration and their associated local, national, and/or global ecological, social, and economic impacts.

We encourage authors to submit papers that provide practical strategies for addressing restoration challenges along with their expected short- and long-term benefits.

Dr. Diane L. Haase
Dr. Jeremiah R. Pinto
Dr. Owen T. Burney
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Restoration
  • Afforestation
  • Reforestation
  • Nursery Production
  • Seedling Quality
  • Direct Seeding

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Understanding Grass Invasion, Fire Severity, and Acacia koa Regeneration for Forest Restoration in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park
Land 2021, 10(9), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10090962 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1787
Abstract
With invasive grasses increasing wildfire occurrence worldwide, a better understanding of the relationships between native plants, fire, and invasive grass is needed to help restoration plans facilitate ecosystem resilience. Invasive grasses are particularly problematic for altering fire regimes in the tropics, yet in [...] Read more.
With invasive grasses increasing wildfire occurrence worldwide, a better understanding of the relationships between native plants, fire, and invasive grass is needed to help restoration plans facilitate ecosystem resilience. Invasive grasses are particularly problematic for altering fire regimes in the tropics, yet in Hawaiʻi, restoration sites are often planted with monocultures of the native tree Acacia koa, which can promote grass growth via nitrogen fixation. This, combined with the difficulty of estimating pre-fire grass cover under thick canopies, complicates attempts to restore Hawaiian ecosystems. We studied the 2018 Keauhou Ranch Fire in Hawaiʻi to investigate three questions: (1) at what level of precision can pre-fire grass cover be accurately estimated from oblique aerial photos? (2) how are post-fire A. koa regeneration densities affected by fire severity? and (3) how are post-fire A. koa regeneration densities affected by pre-fire grass cover and its interaction with fire severity? We collected burn severity and post-fire regeneration data from 30 transects stratified across mid-elevation woodland, montane woodland, and montane shrubland communities. We evaluated visual estimates of pre-fire grass cover from oblique aerial imagery with quantitative in situ data from 60 unburned transects of the same cover types. Pre-fire estimates of grass cover categories were 67% accurate in montane woodland (n = 9) and 100% accurate in montane shrubland (n = 11), but only 20% accurate in mid-elevation woodland (n = 10). In montane woodlands with low pre-fire tree densities, A. koa regeneration densities were higher with increased fire severity, but this trend reversed when pre-fire tree densities were high. We detected no effect of pre-fire grass cover, nor its interaction with fire severity, on A. koa regeneration density. This indicates that restoration through the planting of A. koa may be successful in promoting fire-resilient A. koa forest, although there are potential issues to consider regarding the effects that A. koa’s grass promotion may have on other species within the ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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Article
Reforestation of Degraded Landscapes in Micronesia
Land 2021, 10(9), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10090926 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Wildfires on degraded grasslands cause extensive soil erosion and cause environmental and economic damage worldwide. We conducted fertilizer, lime, and mulch trials to improve growth of trees planted in acid soils in degraded grasslands on the Micronesian islands of Guam, Rota, and Yap. [...] Read more.
Wildfires on degraded grasslands cause extensive soil erosion and cause environmental and economic damage worldwide. We conducted fertilizer, lime, and mulch trials to improve growth of trees planted in acid soils in degraded grasslands on the Micronesian islands of Guam, Rota, and Yap. Fertilizer application had no effect on height growth of Acacia auriculiformis seedlings on a Mollisol on Guam while lime application had a small but significant positive effect on height growth. Fertilizer application had a significant positive effect on height growth of Acacia confusa seedlings planted on an Oxisol on Rota but lime had no effect. Mulch application increased height growth of Swietenia macrophylla seedlings planted on an Oxisol on Yap but lime application had no effect. Collaboration between university researchers and local forestry agencies can improve reforestation success, but researchers need to consider local capabilities and local knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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Article
How Do Observable Characteristics of Post-Mining Forests Affect Their Attractiveness for Recreation?
Land 2021, 10(9), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10090910 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Afforestation is a popular practice of the recovery of landscape affected by open-cast coal mining. We investigated what impact the observable characteristics of restored forests have on their attractiveness for recreation framed as a one hour walk in a respective type of forest. [...] Read more.
Afforestation is a popular practice of the recovery of landscape affected by open-cast coal mining. We investigated what impact the observable characteristics of restored forests have on their attractiveness for recreation framed as a one hour walk in a respective type of forest. In this study, we elaborate on some of the observable characteristics which have been previously found in the literature to affect the perceived attractiveness of outdoor environments. Environmental preference data were collected online using a quasi-representative sample of affected and control populations of the Czech Republic (N = 869). The questionnaire employed visual representations of typical reclaimed forest sites on spoil heaps in the Sokolov mining district. A mediation analysis revealed that forests growing in post-mining areas are perceived more negatively than the typical commercial spruce forest due to their lower permeability, lower level of stewardship, and perceived low safety. However, there are differences in observed characteristics also between different types of restored forests, even when controlling the effect of forest age. The results show for forestry practice that while some of the observed characteristics change by themselves with the increasing age of the forest (permeability, perceived safety, and naturalness of successional forests), improvement in others requires targeted after-care (perceived stewardship). In any case, our results are promising in that they imply that the recreational value of restored forests in post-mining areas may further increase in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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Article
Analysis of Forest Landscape Restoration Based on Landscape Connectivity: A Case Study in the Yi River Basin, China, during 2015–2020
Land 2021, 10(9), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10090904 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Landscape connectivity has widely been recognized as one of the key objectives in studies of forest landscape management, ecological conservation and construction. Protecting virgin forests and afforesting marginal cropland are two long-term ecological projects in China. However, along with rapid urbanization and industrialization [...] Read more.
Landscape connectivity has widely been recognized as one of the key objectives in studies of forest landscape management, ecological conservation and construction. Protecting virgin forests and afforesting marginal cropland are two long-term ecological projects in China. However, along with rapid urbanization and industrialization in China, the relationship between landscape connectivity and forest landscape restoration (FLR) has not been fully explored. The emergent question concerns whether the connectivity of a restored forest landscape could benefit the local flora and fauna. We evaluated the status of FLR in the Yi River watershed based on remote sensing images during 2015–2020. The forest landscape connectivity (FLC) was investigated using landscape connectivity indicators, applying the theory of landscape connectivity. We also examined the variations of FLC under different landform types (hills and low mountains) according to distance threshold values ranging from 100 m to 20,000 m. The most appropriate distance thresholds for analyzing FLC in hills and low mountains are 500 m and 100 m, respectively. The results showed that in this period, the FLC in low mountains was increased, whereas that of hills was decreased. The contributions for reforested patches on the improvement of the FLC were evaluated. In hills, patches that made “very high” and “high” contributions to improve the FLC occupied 15.6% of the total reforested area, whereas the proportion in low mountains was 25.5%. The results indicated that although rainfed cropland patches have been converted to forest patches, some of them have made small contributions to the FLC. Through this case study, we hope to have confirmed that landscape connectivity analysis could be used as a criterion for selecting important patches in the planning of FLR. Moreover, we have introduced this implementable method for future ecological restoration management programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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Article
Forest Transition and Its Dynamics in Subtropical Chongqing, China since 1990s
Land 2021, 10(8), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10080777 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
This research aims to advance our understanding towards forest transition, which is about the shift from net deforestation to net reforestation over a given area during certain period, through a case study of a western city in China from 1990 to 2015. Three [...] Read more.
This research aims to advance our understanding towards forest transition, which is about the shift from net deforestation to net reforestation over a given area during certain period, through a case study of a western city in China from 1990 to 2015. Three main contributions are made to the theory and practice of forest land management. First, this research enriches forest transition theory with a meso-level exploration on forest land change in subtropic Chongqing, which echoes the “U” shape transition rules widely observed in the Euro-American context but was found a time lag of the turning point until 2000s. Second, it intentionally identifies the subtype of forests—the artificial plantation, which is considered influential on performance of forest’s carbon sequestration but not paid sufficient attention to. Third, it adds knowledge on forest transition pathway at an intra-urban scale through the identified significance degree of forest transition dynamics, which implies that economic development matters but is less important than topography in a mountainous city like Chongqing, and different dimensions of economy impact differently on forest transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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Article
Light Transmissivity of Tree Shelters Interacts with Site Environment and Species Ecophysiology to Determine Outplanting Performance in Mediterranean Climates
Land 2021, 10(7), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070753 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Plastic tree shelters are commonly used in plantations under Mediterranean climates to protect against herbivory and enhance outplanting performance. However, effects on outplanting performance cannot be generalized due to the complexity of plant responses to microenvironmental conditions within the tube wall. The interactions [...] Read more.
Plastic tree shelters are commonly used in plantations under Mediterranean climates to protect against herbivory and enhance outplanting performance. However, effects on outplanting performance cannot be generalized due to the complexity of plant responses to microenvironmental conditions within the tube wall. The interactions between the light transmissivity of the tubes and species-specific responses to light and site environment on two-year outplanting performance were studied in two species with contrasting shade tolerance planted inside tree shelters with four different light transmissivities and a non-tree shelter control at two Mediterranean sites with contrasting rainfall and temperature. In general, increasing light transmissivity enhanced biomass accumulation, suggesting that the use of clear tubes might be advisable. However, the shade-tolerant Q. ilex did not benefit from the greater light transmissivity in the most arid site, indicating that the positive effect of clear tubes depends on water stress experienced by seedlings, which ultimately is determined by drought resistance strategies and site conditions. The growth of both species and survival of P. halepensis were higher within clear tubes in the continental site than in unsheltered plants, which suggests that factors other than light, such as warmer daytime temperatures or the prevention of dust deposition, can explain this beneficial site-dependent effect of tree shelters. In conclusion, our results confirm the hypothesis that the effect of tree shelter and its light transmission on outplanting performance is site and species-specific, but further research is needed to identify the effect of other effects not related to light transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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Article
Granular Calcite: A New Cultural Practice to Improve the Physicochemistry of the Peat Substrate, Growth and Morphophysiological Quality of White Spruce Seedlings in Forest Nurseries
Land 2021, 10(7), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070661 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Growing Picea glauca seedlings poses many challenges for forest nursery managers, including reaching the target height at the end of the first growing season (1 + 0) and the homogeneity and uniformity of seedling growth. To increase growth and morphophysiological quality of white [...] Read more.
Growing Picea glauca seedlings poses many challenges for forest nursery managers, including reaching the target height at the end of the first growing season (1 + 0) and the homogeneity and uniformity of seedling growth. To increase growth and morphophysiological quality of white spruce seedlings (1 + 0), emphasis was placed on improving the physicochemistry of the acidic peat substrate by replacing silica with granular calcite as a covering material. The objective of our study is to compare the effects of silica and calcite on the physicochemistry of the peat substrate, as well as on growth and mineral nutrition of white spruce seedlings (1 + 0) under forest nursery conditions. Three treatments were used to cover the cavities of large white spruce seedlings produced in containers: silica (29 g/cavity; control treatment), calcite (24 g/cavity) and calcite + (31 g/cavity). At the end of the first growing season, the two calcite treatments significantly increased the total dry mass (28%), roots (27%) and shoot (29%) dry masses and height (24%) compared to silica treatments. Average calcium concentration and content of calcite treatments were significantly higher than that of silica treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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Article
Restoration and Conservation of Priority Areas of Caatinga’s Semi-Arid Forest Remnants Can Support Connectivity within an Agricultural Landscape
Land 2021, 10(6), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060550 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2543
Abstract
Land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes are major drivers of biodiversity loss in semi-arid regions, such as the Caatinga biome located in the Northeast of Brazil. We investigated landscape dynamics and fragmentation in an area of the São Francisco Valley in the Brazilian Caatinga [...] Read more.
Land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes are major drivers of biodiversity loss in semi-arid regions, such as the Caatinga biome located in the Northeast of Brazil. We investigated landscape dynamics and fragmentation in an area of the São Francisco Valley in the Brazilian Caatinga biome and measured the effect of these dynamics on ecological, functional and structural connectivity over a 33-year period (1985–2018). We calculated landscape connectivity indices based on graph theory to quantify the effect of further agricultural expansion on ecological connectivity at the landscape scale. We used a multicriteria decision analysis that integrates graph-based connectivity indices at the habitat patch scale, combined with an index of human disturbance to identify patches that, if conserved and restored, preserve the connectivity of the landscape most effectively. In the period studied, agriculture increased at a rate of 2104 ha/year, while native Caatinga vegetation decreased at a rate of 5203 ha/year. Both dense and open Caatinga became more fragmented, with the number of fragments increasing by 85.2% and 28.6%, respectively, whilst the average fragment size decreased by 84.8% and 6.1% for dense and open Caatinga, respectively. If agriculture patches were to expand by a 300 m buffer around each patch, the overall ecological connectivity could be reduced by 6–15%, depending on the species’ (small- to mid-size terrestrial vertebrates) mobility characteristics for which the connectivity indices were calculated. We provided explicit spatial connectivity and fragmentation information for the conservation and restoration of the Caatinga vegetation in the studied area. This information helps with conservation planning in this rapidly changing ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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Article
Optimal Irrigation Regime for Woody Species Potentially Suitable for Effective and Sustainable Afforestation in the Desert Region of Mongolia
Land 2021, 10(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10020212 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Long-term studies on plant response mechanisms to different irrigation regimes will provide a better understanding of the survivability and establishment of plant communities in a desert environment. Thus, across 10 years, we regularly investigated the effects of the rainfall (control), rainfall + 4 [...] Read more.
Long-term studies on plant response mechanisms to different irrigation regimes will provide a better understanding of the survivability and establishment of plant communities in a desert environment. Thus, across 10 years, we regularly investigated the effects of the rainfall (control), rainfall + 4 L h−1, rainfall + 8 L h−1, and rainfall + 12 L h−1 irrigation regimes on the growth and leaf morpho-physiology of Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb., Ulmus pumila L., Elaeagnus moorcroftii Wall. ex Schltdl., and Hippophae rhamnoides L. to suggest an optimal irrigation regime for each woody species for effective and sustainable afforestation in Mongolia. We measured the root collar diameter (RCD), annual height growth, survivability, leaf area (LA), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf biomass (LB), total chlorophyll concentration, and predawn (ψp) and midday (ψm) leaf water potentials across the treatments and species. Results showed that trees grown at 12 L h−1 grew taller per year and generally resulted in a higher SLA, but generally resulted in a lower survival rate compared with those in the other treatments in all species. Total chlorophyll content was higher in trees grown under 4 and/or 8 L h−1, particularly for T. ramosissima and E. moorcroftii. Lastly, leaf water potentials were found more negative for trees subjected to 4 L h−1, especially in T. ramosissima and U. pumila, but still resulted in a higher survival rate and LB compared with 12 L h−1. H. rhamnoides showed higher survivability at 8 and/or 12 L h−1 than at 4 L h−1. Therefore, we suggest 4 L h−1 to be the optimal irrigation regime for irrigating T. ramosissima, U. pumila and E. moorcroftii, and 8 and/or 12 L h−1 for H. rhamnoides. Our findings are relevant to ensuring the sustainability of afforestation programs in arid and semiarid landscapes in Mongolia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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Communication
Native Plant Production in Chile. Is It Possible to Achieve Restoration Goals by 2035?
Land 2021, 10(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010071 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2849
Abstract
Facing rapid loss of biodiversity as a consequence of climate change, Chile has formally pledged to restore 600,000 ha of native forest by 2035. This effort, however, has not considered the amount and quality of native plants required to meet this pledge. Thus, [...] Read more.
Facing rapid loss of biodiversity as a consequence of climate change, Chile has formally pledged to restore 600,000 ha of native forest by 2035. This effort, however, has not considered the amount and quality of native plants required to meet this pledge. Thus, we examined data collected during the annual, government-conducted census of small- and medium-sized nurseries from central Chile, which account for 78% of the nation’s total plant production, to assess if current production is sufficient to meet Chile´s restoration needs. We coupled this with data collected during our series of ongoing research projects to determine if nurseries are currently meeting minimum seedling quality standards based on morpho-physiological attributes. Our four-year analysis (2016–2019) shows that the number of native seedlings has increased by only 4%, but because only 19% of nursery managers have training, just 29% of all seedlings meet quality criteria for restoration. Thus, under the current rate and quality of plant production, meeting restoration pledges desired by the year 2035 would not be achieved until 2181. This timeline can be accelerated through an urgent expansion of nursery space, implementation of a continuous program for technology and knowledge transference, and strong support through governmental policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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Review

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Review
The High Cost of the Low-Cost Polybag System: A Review of Nursery Seedling Production Systems
Land 2021, 10(8), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10080826 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2944
Abstract
An important strategy for meeting global landscape restoration goals is nursery production of high-quality seedlings. Growing seedlings with attributes that promote post-planting survival and growth can be dramatically influenced by the nursery container system. In many countries, nurseries produce seedlings in polybags filled [...] Read more.
An important strategy for meeting global landscape restoration goals is nursery production of high-quality seedlings. Growing seedlings with attributes that promote post-planting survival and growth can be dramatically influenced by the nursery container system. In many countries, nurseries produce seedlings in polybags filled with excavated soil. These seedlings often develop deformed roots with limited fibrosity which can lead to poor survival and growth after outplanting. Polybags are initially inexpensive but using these single-use plastic containers accrues expenses that are often untracked. Comparisons among nursery production systems must account for factors such as container longevity, labor efficiency, and seedling field performance. A more holistic approach to account for environmental, economic, social, logistic, and cultural elements in the cost–benefit equation that influences nursery production systems is needed. Converting to a modern container system requires concomitant adjustments in nursery scheduling and culturing matched to the new stock type. Doing so provides an opportunity to align nursery production techniques and resulting seedling attributes with anticipated field conditions. This article describes and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nursery production systems and provides recommendations and case studies to aid nurseries in improving seedling quality toward meeting restoration goals in a cost-effective and timely manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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Review
Forest and Landscape Restoration: A Review Emphasizing Principles, Concepts, and Practices
Land 2021, 10(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010028 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3537
Abstract
Forest and Landscape Restoration (FLR) is considered worldwide as a powerful approach to recover ecological functionality and to improve human well-being in degraded and deforested landscapes. The literature produced by FLR programs could be a valuable tool to understand how they align with [...] Read more.
Forest and Landscape Restoration (FLR) is considered worldwide as a powerful approach to recover ecological functionality and to improve human well-being in degraded and deforested landscapes. The literature produced by FLR programs could be a valuable tool to understand how they align with the existing principles of FLR. We conducted a systematic qualitative review to identify the main FLR concepts and definitions adopted in the literature from 1980 to 2017 and the underlying actions commonly suggested to enable FLR implementation. We identified three domains and 12 main associated principles—(i) Project management and governance domain contains five principles: (a) Landscape scale, (b) Prioritization, (c) Legal and normative compliance, (d) Participation, (e) Adaptive management; (ii) Human aspect domain with four principles: (a) Enhance livelihoods, (b) Inclusiveness and equity, (c) Economic diversification, (d) Capacity building; (iii) Ecological Aspects domain with three principles: (a) Biodiversity conservation, (b) Landscape heterogeneity and connectivity, (c) Provision of ecosystem goods and services. Our results showcase variations in FLR principles and how they are linked with practice, especially regarding the lack of social aspects in FLR projects. Finally, we provide a starting point for future tools aiming to improve guidance frameworks for FLR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Landscape Restoration: Strategies, Challenges, and Impacts)
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